1. bookVolume 65 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
28 Mar 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

One-dimensional morphodynamic model coupling open-channel flow and turbidity current in reservoir

Published Online: 08 Dec 2016
Page range: 68 - 79
Received: 19 May 2016
Accepted: 26 Jul 2016
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
28 Mar 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Traditional depth-averaged morphodynamic models for turbidity currents usually focus on the propagation of currents after plunging. However, owing to the unsteady characteristic of the plunge point locations and the tough conditions of field measurement within the plunge zone in a reservoir, it is difficult in practice to directly provide upstream boundary conditions for these models. A one-dimensional (1D) morphodynamic model coupling open-channel flow and turbidity current in a reservoir was proposed to simulate the whole processes of turbidity current evolution, from formation and propagation to recession. The 1D governing equations adopted are applicable to open-channel flows and turbidity currents over a mobile bed with irregular cross-section geometry. The coupled solution is obtained by a two-step calculation mode which alternates the calculations of open-channel flow and turbidity current, and a plunge criterion is used to determine the location of the upstream boundary for the turbidity current, and to specify the corresponding boundary conditions. This calculation mode leads to consecutive predictions of the hydrodynamic and morphological factors, from the open-channel reach to the turbidity current reach. Turbidity current events in two laboratory experiments with different set-ups were used to test the capabilities of the proposed model, with the effect of free-surface gradient also being investigated. A field-scale application of the coupled model was conducted to simulate two turbidity current events occurring in the Sanmenxia Reservoir, and the method for calculating the limiting height of aspiration was adopted to estimate the outflow discharge after the turbidity currents arrived in front of the dam. The predicted plunge locations and arrival times at different cross-sections were in agreement with the measurements. Moreover, the calculated interface evolution processes and the sediment delivery ratios also agreed generally with the observed results. Therefore, the 1D morphodynamic model proposed herein can help to select the design capacity of the outlets, and optimize the procedure for sediment release in reservoirs.

Keywords

Akiyama, J., Stefan, H.G., 1984. Plunging flow into a reservoir: theory. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 110, 4, 484-499.Search in Google Scholar

Bonnecaze, R.T., Huppert, H.E., Lister, J.R., 1993. Particle-driven gravity currents. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 250, 339-369.Search in Google Scholar

Bonnecaze, R.T., Hallworth, M.A., Huppert, H.E., Lister, J.R., 1995. Axisymmetric particle-driven gravity currents. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 294, 93-121.Search in Google Scholar

Bournet, P.E., Dartus, D., Tassin, B., Vincon-Leite, B., 1999. Numerical investigation of plunging density current. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 125, 6, 584-594.Search in Google Scholar

Bradford, S.F., Katopodes, N.D., 1999a. Hydrodynamics of turbid underflows. I: Formulation and numerical analysis. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 125, 10, 1006-1015.Search in Google Scholar

Bradford, S.F., Katopodes, N.D., 1999b. Hydrodynamics of turbid underflows. II: Aggradation, avulsion, and channelization. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 125, 10, 1016-1028.Search in Google Scholar

Cantero, M.I., Balachandar, S., Cantelli, A., Pirmez, C., Parker, G., 2009. Turbidity current with a roof: direct numerical simulation of self-stratified turbulent channel flow driven by suspended sediment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 114, C3, 126-138.Search in Google Scholar

Cao, Z., Li, J., Pender, G., Liu, Q., 2015. Whole-process modeling of reservoir turbidity currents by a double layeraveraged model. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 141, 2, 04014069.Search in Google Scholar

Chen, J.C., 1980. Studies on Gravitational Spreading Currents. PhD thesis. California Institute of Technology, The city is Pasadena, California.Search in Google Scholar

Dallimore, C.J., Imberger, J., Hodges, B.R., 2004. Modeling a plunging underflow. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 130, 11, 1068-1076.Search in Google Scholar

De Cesare, G., Boillat, J., Schleiss, A.J., 2006. Circulation in stratified lakes due to flood-induced turbidity currents. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 132, 11, 1508-1517.Search in Google Scholar

Fan, J., 2008. Stratified flow through outlets. Journal of Hydro- Environment Research, 2, 1, 3-18.Search in Google Scholar

Fan, J., 2007. Analysis on turbid density current outflow through outlets. Journal of Chinese Hydraulic Engineering, 38, 9, 1073-1079. (In Chinese.) Fan, J., Morris, G.L., 1992. Reservoir sedimentation I: Delta and density current deposits. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 118, 3, 354-369.Search in Google Scholar

Hoult, D.P., 1972. Oil spreading on the sea. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 4, 1, 341-368.Search in Google Scholar

Hu, P., Cao, Z., 2009. Fully coupled mathematical modeling of turbidity currents over erodible bed. Advances in Water Resources, 32, 1, 1-15.Search in Google Scholar

Hu, P., Cao, Z., Pender, G., Tan, G., 2012. Numerical modeling of turbidity currents in the Xiaolangdi reservoir, Yellow River, China. Journal of Hydrology, 464, 41-53.Search in Google Scholar

Huang, H., Imran, J., Pirmez, C., 2008. Numerical study of turbidity currents with sudden-release and sustained-inflow mechanisms. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 134, 9, 1199-1209.Search in Google Scholar

Huppert, H.E., 2006. Gravity currents: a personal perspective. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 554, 299-322.Search in Google Scholar

Huppert, H.E., Simpson, J.E., 1980. The slumping of gravity currents. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 99, 4, 785-799. Search in Google Scholar

La Rocca, M., Adduce, C., Sciortino, G., Pinzon, A.B., 2008. Experimental and numerical simulation of three-dimensional gravity currents on smooth and rough bottom. Physics of Fluids, 20, 10, 106603.Search in Google Scholar

Lee, H.Y., Yu, W.S., 1997. Experimental study of reservoir turbidity current. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 123, 6, 520-528.Search in Google Scholar

Li, Y., Zhang, J., Ma, H., 2011. Analytical Froude number solution for reservoir density inflows. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 49, 5, 693-696.Search in Google Scholar

Li, W., van Maren, D.S., Wang, Z., de Vriend, H.J., Wu, B., 2014. Peak discharge increase in hyperconcentrated floods. Advances in Water Resources, 67, 65-77.Search in Google Scholar

Morris, G.L., Fan, J., 1998. Reservoir Sedimentation Handbook: Design and Management of Dams, Reservoirs, and Watersheds for Sustainable Use. McGraw Hill Professional, New York.Search in Google Scholar

Pantin, H.M., 1979. Interaction between velocity and effective density in turbidity flow: phase-plane analysis, with criteria for autosuspension. Marine Geology, 31, 59-99.Search in Google Scholar

Parker, G., Garcia, M., Fukushima, Y., Yu, W., 1987. Experiments on turbidity currents over an erodible bed. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 25, 1, 123-147.Search in Google Scholar

Parker, G., Fukushima, Y., Pantin, H.M., 1986. Selfaccelerating turbidity currents. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 171, 145-181.Search in Google Scholar

Ruo, A.C., Chen, F., 2007. Modified shallow water equations for inviscid gravity currents. Physical Review E, 75, 2, 026302.Search in Google Scholar

Sequeiros, O.E., Cantero, M.I., Garcia, M.H., 2009. Sediment management by jets and turbidity currents with application to a reservoir for flood and pollution control in Chicago, Illinois. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 47, 3, 340-348.Search in Google Scholar

Tan, W.Y., 1992. Shallow Water Hydrodynamics. Elsevier, New York.Search in Google Scholar

Toniolo, H., Parker, G., Voller, V., 2007. Role of ponded turbidity currents in reservoir trap efficiency. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 133, 6, 579-595.Search in Google Scholar

Toro, E.F., 2001. Shock-Capturing Methods for Free-Surface Shallow Flows. Wiley, Chichester, England.Search in Google Scholar

Toro, E.F., 2009. Riemann Solvers and Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics. Springer, Berlin.Search in Google Scholar

Wu, W.M., Wang, S.S.Y., 2007. One-dimensional modeling of dam-break flow over movable beds. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 133, 1, 48-58.Search in Google Scholar

Xia, J., Lin, B., Falconer, R.A., Wang, G., 2010. Modelling dam-break flows over mobile beds using a 2D coupled approach. Advances in Water Resources, 33, 2, 171-183.Search in Google Scholar

Xia, J., Li, T., Wang, Z., Zhang, J., 2016. Improved criterion for the plunge of reservoir turbidity currents. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Water Management. DOI: 10.1680/jwama.15.00046Search in Google Scholar

Xie, J., 1990. River Simulation. Water Conservancy and Electric Power Press, Beijing. (In Chinese.)Search in Google Scholar

Ying, X., Khan, A.A., Wang, S.S., 2004. Upwind conservative scheme for the Saint Venant equations. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 130, 10, 977-987.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, S., Duan, J.G., 2011. 1D finite volume model of unsteady flow over mobile bed. J. Hydrol., 405, 1, 57-68.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, R.J., Xie, J.H., 1993. Sedimentation Research in China. Water and Power Press, Beijing, China.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, H., Huang, Y., Zhao, L., Jiang, E., 2002. A mathematical model for unsteady sediment transport in the lower Yellow River. I: model equations and numerical method. Advances in Water Science, 13, 3, 265-270. (In Chinese.)Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo