1. bookVolume 43 (2017): Issue 3 (November 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2297-8348
First Published
16 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Do Opposites Attract? Educational Assortative Mating and Dynamics of Wage Homogamy in Switzerland, 1992–2014

Published Online: 19 Dec 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 43 (2017) - Issue 3 (November 2017)
Page range: 567 - 586
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2297-8348
First Published
16 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

This paper addresses homogamy and assortative mating in Switzerland. The empirical analysis monitors trends for education and hourly wages using the Swiss Labour Force Survey and the Swiss Household Panel. The analysis disentangles the effects of educational expansion from mating patterns and incorporates not only couples, but also singles. Results show an increasing level of assortative mating both for education and for wages. For wage homogamy, selection is more important than adaptation.

Keywords

Balestra, Simone and Uschi Backes-Gellner. 2017. Heterogeneous Returns to Education Over the Wage Distribution: Who Profits the Most? Labour Economics 44: 89–105.10.1016/j.labeco.2017.01.001Search in Google Scholar

Becker, Rolf and Christoph Zangger. 2013. Die Bildungsexpansion in der Schweiz und ihre Folgen. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 65(3): 423–449.10.1007/s11577-013-0209-6Search in Google Scholar

Black, Sandra E. and Paul J. Devereux. 2011. Recent Developments in Intergenerational Mobility. Pp. 1487–1541 in Handbook of Labor Economics Vol. 4B, edited by David Card and Orley Ashenfelter. Amsterdam: Elsevier.10.1016/S0169-7218(11)02414-2Search in Google Scholar

Blossfeld, Hans-Peter. 2009. Educational Assortative Marriage in Comparative Perspective. Annual Review of Sociology 35: 513–530.10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115913Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Blossfeld, Hans-Peter and Andreas Timm. 2003. Who Marries Whom? Educational Systems as Marriage Markets in Modern Societies. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.10.1007/978-94-007-1065-8Search in Google Scholar

Breen, Richard and Leire Salazar. 2011. Educational Assortative Mating and Earnings Inequality in the United States. American Journal of Sociology 117(3): 808–843.10.1086/661778Search in Google Scholar

Breen, Richard and Leire Salazar. 2010. Has Increased Women’s Educational Attainment Led to Greater Earnings Inequality in the United Kingdom? A Multivariate Decomposition Analysis. European Sociological Review 26(2): 143–157.10.1093/esr/jcp011Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Brines, Julie. 1994. Economic Dependency, Gender, and the Division of Labor at Home. American Journal of Sociology 100(3): 652–688.10.1086/230577Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Budría, Santiago and Pedri Telhado-Pereira. 2011. Educational Qualifications and Wage Inequality: Evidence for Europe. Revista de Economía Aplicada 19(56): 5–34.Search in Google Scholar

Bühlmann, Felix and Céline Schmid Botkine (eds.). 2012. Rapport social 2012: Générations en jeu. Zurich: Seismo Press.Search in Google Scholar

Chadwick, Laura and Gary Solon. 2002. Intergenerational Income Mobility Among Daughters. American Economic Review 92(1): 335–344.10.1257/000282802760015766Search in Google Scholar

Collins, Randall. 1971. Functional and Conflict Theories of Educational Stratification. American Sociological Review 36(6): 1002–1019.10.2307/2093761Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Diekmann, Andreas and Kurt Schmidheiny. 2001. Education and Marriage. An Event-History Analysis of Swiss Family Biographies. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Soziologie 27(2): 241–254.Search in Google Scholar

Dribe, Martin and Paul Nystedt. 2013. Educational Homogamy and Gender-Specific Earnings: Sweden, 1990–2009. Demography 50(4): 1197–1216.10.1007/s13524-012-0188-7Search in Google Scholar

Esping-Andersen, Gøsta. 2007. Sociological Explanations of Changing Income Distributions. American Behavioral Scientist 50(5): 639–658.10.1177/0002764206295011Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Esping-Andersen, Gøsta and John Myles. 2011. Economic Inequality and the Welfare State. Pp. 639−664 in The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality, edited by Brian Nolan, Wiemer Salverda, and Timothy M. Smeeding. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199606061.013.0025Search in Google Scholar

Fernandez, Rarquel, Nezih Guner, and John Knowles. 2005. Love and Money: Inequality, Education, and Marital Sorting. Quarterly Journal of Economics 120(1): 273–344.Search in Google Scholar

Förster, Michael. 2000. Trends and Driving Factors in Income Inequality and Poverty in the OECD Area. OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Paper No. 42. Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/488747757407 (27.02.2017)10.1787/488747757407(27.02.2017Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Frémeaux, Nicolas and Arnaud Lefranc. 2015. Assortative Mating and Earnings Inequality in France. 6th Meeting of the Society for the Study of Economic Inequality ECINEQ. Lexembourg, July 13–15, 2017. http://www.ecineq.org/ecineq_lux15/FILESx2015/CR2/p224.pdf (27.02.2017).Search in Google Scholar

Goode, William J. 1963. World Revolution and Family Patterns. New York: Free Press.Search in Google Scholar

Grotti, Raffaele and Stefani Scherer. 2016. Does Gender Equality Increase Economic Inequality? Evidence From Five Countries. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 45: 13–26.10.1016/j.rssm.2016.06.001Search in Google Scholar

Hou, Feng and John Myles. 2008. The Changing Role of Education in the Marriage Market: Assortative Marriage in Canada and the United States Since the 1970s. Canadian Journal of Sociology 33(2): 337–366.10.29173/cjs551Search in Google Scholar

Hu, Anning and Zhenchao Qian. 2016. Does Higher Education Expansion Promote Educational Homogamy? Evidence from Married Couples of the Post-80s Generation in Shanghai, China. Social Science Research 60: 148–162.10.1016/j.ssresearch.2016.05.001Search in Google Scholar

Kalmijn, Matthijs. 1998. Intermarriage and Homogamy: Causes, Patterns, Trends. Annual Review of Sociology 24: 395–421.10.1146/annurev.soc.24.1.395Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kalmijn, Matthijs. 1994. Assortative Mating by Cultural and Economic Occupational Status. American Journal of Sociology 100(2): 422–452.10.1086/230542Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Keeley, Brian. 2015. Income Inequality: The Gap Between Rich and Poor. OECD Insights. Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264246010-en (27.02.2017).10.1787/9789264246010-en(27.02.2017)Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kremer, Michael. 1997. How Much Does Sorting Increase Inequality? Quarterly Journal of Economics 112(1): 115–139.10.1162/003355397555145Search in Google Scholar

Kuhn, Ursina and Laura Ravazzini. 2017. The Impact of Assortative Mating on Income Inequality in Switzerland. FORS Working papers, 2017–1.Search in Google Scholar

Lemieux, Thomas. 2006. Increasing Residual Wage Inequality: Composition Effects, Noisy Data, or Rising Demand for Skill? The American Economic Review 96(3): 461–498.10.1257/aer.96.3.461Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Leuven, Edwin, Hessel Oosterbeek, and Hans Van Ophem. 2004. Explaining International Differences in Male Skill Wage Differentials by Differences in Demand and Supply of Skill. The Economic Journal 114(495): 466–486.10.1111/j.1468-0297.2004.00217.xSearch in Google Scholar

Liu, Haoming and Jingfeng Lu. 2006. Measuring the Degree of Assortative Mating. Economics Letters 92(3): 317–322.10.1016/j.econlet.2006.03.010Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Mare, Robert D. 1991. Five Decades of Educational Assortative Mating. American Sociological Review 56(1): 15–32.10.2307/2095670Search in Google Scholar

McPherson, Miller, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and James M. Cook. 2001. Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks. Annual Review of Sociology 27: 415–444.10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.415Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Nakosteen, Robert A., Olle Westerlund, and Michael A. Zimmer. 2004. Marital Matching and Earnings: Evidence from the Unmarried Population in Sweden. The Journal of Human Resources 39(4): 1033–1044.10.2307/3559037Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pestel, Nico. 2016. Marital Sorting, Inequality and the Role of Female Labour Supply: Evidence From East and West Germany. Economica 84(333): 104–127.10.1111/ecca.12189Search in Google Scholar

Schumacher, Reto and Luigi Lorenzetti. 2005. “We Have No Proletariat”: Social Stratification and Occupational Homogamy in Industrial Switzerland, Winterthur 1909/1910–1928. International Review of Social History 50(S13): 65–91.Search in Google Scholar

Schwartz, Christine R. 2013. Trends and Variation in Assortative Mating: Causes and Consequences. Annual Review of Sociology 39: 451–470.10.1146/annurev-soc-071312-145544Search in Google Scholar

Schwartz, Christine R. 2010. Earnings Inequality and the Changing Association Between Spouses’ Earnings. American Journal of Sociology 115(5): 1524–1557.10.1086/651373Search in Google Scholar

Schwartz, Christine R. and Robert D. Mare. 2005. Trends in Educational Assortative Marriage From 1940 to 2003. Demography 42(4): 621–646.10.1353/dem.2005.0036Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Smits, Jeroen. 2003. Social Closure Among the Higher Educated: Trends in Educational Homogamy in 55 Countries. Social Science Research 32(2): 251–277.10.1016/S0049-089X(02)00049-2Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Smits, Jeroen, Wout Ultee, and Jan Lammers. 2000. More or Less Educational Homogamy? A Test of Different Versions of Modernization Theory Using Cross-Temporal Evidence for 60 Countries. American Sociological Review 65(5): 781–788.10.2307/2657547Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Smits, Jeroen, Wout Ultee, and Jan Lammers. 1998. Educational Homogamy in 65 Countries: An Explanation of Differences in Openness Using Country-Level Explanatory Variables. American Sociological Review 63(2): 264–285.10.2307/2657327Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Sweeney, Megan M. and Maria Cancian. 2004. The Changing Importance of White Women’s Economic Prospects for Assortative Mating. Journal of Marriage and Family 66(4): 1015–1028.10.1111/j.0022-2445.2004.00073.xSearch in Google Scholar

SFSO (Swiss Federal Statistical Office). 2016. Portrait de la Suisse – résultats tirés des recensements de la population 2010–2014. Neuchâtel. https://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/fr/home/statistiques/population.assetdetail.1021365.html (27.02.2017).Search in Google Scholar

Tillmann, Robin, Marieke Voorpostel, Ursina Kuhn, Florence Lebert, Valérie-Anne Ryser, Oliver Lipps, Boris Wernli, and Erika Antal. 2016. The Swiss Household Panel Study: Observing Social Change Since 1999. Longitudinal and Life Course Studies 7(1): 64–78.10.14301/llcs.v7i1.360Search in Google Scholar

Trostel, Philip, Ian Walker, and Paul Woolley. 2002. Estimates of the Economic Return to Schooling for 28 Countries. Labour Economics 9(1): 1–16.10.1016/S0927-5371(01)00052-5Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Ultee, Wout C. and Ruud Luijkx. 1990. Educational Heterogamy and Father–to–Son Occupational Mobility in 23 Industrial Nations: General Societal Openness or Compensatory Strategies of Reproduction? European Sociological Review 6(2): 125–149.10.1093/oxfordjournals.esr.a036554Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Ultee, Wout C., Jos Dessens, and Wim Jansen. 1988. Why Does Unemployment Come in Couples? An Analysis of (Un)Employment and (Non)Employment Homogamy Tables for Canada, the Netherlands and the United States in the 1980s. European Sociological Review 4(2): 111–122.10.1093/oxfordjournals.esr.a036471Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Winkler, Anne E., Timothy McBride, and Courtney Andrews. 2005. Wives Who Outearn Their Husbands: A Transitory or Persistent Phenomenon for Couples? Demography 42(3): 523–535.10.1353/dem.2005.0028Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Zimmer, Michael. 1996. Assortative Mating and Ethnicity in the Low Wage Population: An Examination of Spouses’ Earnings. Applied Economic Letters 3(5): 311–315.10.1080/135048596356429Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo