1. bookVolume 52 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
10 Dec 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Measures in Medieval English Recipes – Culinary Vs. Medical

Published Online: 27 Jun 2017
Page range: 21 - 52
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
10 Dec 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

The present paper deals with an analysis of medieval culinary and medical recipes. A major feature which will be of interest is the use of measure terms. The research has been based on material from 14th and 15th century recipe collections. First, the major weight and measure systems which were used in the Middle English period will be presented. Then, the measure terms used in the analysed texts are collected and categorised into three groups: specific, non-specific, and container-related terms. The study, apart from showing the variety of measure terms used at the time, also compares two types of recipes, i.e., medical and culinary.

Keywords

Alonso Almeida, Francisco (ed.). 2014. A Middle English medical remedy book from Glasgow University Library MS Hunter 185. (Middle English Texts 50.) Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter.Search in Google Scholar

[AND] Anglo-Norman Dictionary. http://www.anglo-norman.net/ (June 2014)Search in Google Scholar

Austin, Thomas (ed.). 2000 [1888]. Two fifteenth-century cookery-books: Harleian MS. 279 (ab. 1430), & Harl. MS. 4016 (ab. 1450), with extracts from Ashmole MS. 1429, Laud MS. 553, & Douce MS. 55. (Early English Text Society 91.) Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer.Search in Google Scholar

Hieatt, Constance B. (ed.). 1988. An ordinance of pottage: An edition of the fifteenth century culinary recipes in Yale University’s MS Beinecke 163. London: Prospect Books.Search in Google Scholar

Hieatt, Constance B. (ed.). 2008. A gathering of medieval English recipes. (Textes vernaculaires du Moyen Age 5.) Turnhout: Brepols.Search in Google Scholar

Hieatt, Constance B. & Sharon Butler (eds.). 1985. Curye on Inglysch: English culinary manuscripts of the fourteenth century (including the Forme of Cury). (Early English Text Society SS 8.) London: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

[MEMT] Taavitsainen, Irma, Päivi Pahta & Martti Mäkinen (eds.). 2005. Middle English medical texts. CD-ROM with MEMT Presenter software by Raymond Hickey. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Search in Google Scholar

[ODEE] Hoad, Terry F. (ed.). 1993. The concise Oxford dictionary of English etymology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

[OED] Oxford English dictionary. https://www.oed.com/ (June 2014).Search in Google Scholar

Scully, Terence (ed.). 1997. The Vivendier: A fifteenth century French cookery manuscript. A critical edition with English translation. Totnes: Prospect Books.Search in Google Scholar

Alonso Almeida, Francisco. 1998-1999. Gyf hyr þis medycyn. Analysing the Middle-English medical recipe discourse. Revista de Lenguas para Fines Específicos 5-6. 49-81.Search in Google Scholar

Alonso Almeida, Francisco. 2008. The Middle English medical charm: Register, genre and text type variables. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 109(1). 9-38.Search in Google Scholar

Alonso Almeida, Francisco. 2009. Null object in Middle English medical texts. In Javier E. Díaz Vera & Rosario Caballero (eds.), Textual healing: Studies in Middle English medical, scientific and technical texts, 1-27. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

Alonso Almeida, Francisco. 2013. Genre conventions in English recipes, 1600-1800. In Michelle DiMeo & Sara Pennel (eds.), Reading and writing recipe books, 1550-1800, 68-90. Manchester/New York: Manchester University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Alonso Almeida, Francisco & Ruth Carroll. 2004. A new proposal for the classification of Middle English medical texts. In Alicia Rodríguez-Álvarez & Francisco Alonso Almeida (eds.), Voices on the past: Studies in Old and Middle English language and literature, 21-33. A Coruña: Netbiblo.Search in Google Scholar

Andrew, Jim. 2008 [1970]. Old weights and measures. https://www.museumsassociation.org/download?id=77607 (April 2014).Search in Google Scholar

Bator, Magdalena. 2013a. Verbs of cooking in Middle English: Fry, roast and bake. In Jacek Fisiak & Magdalena Bator (eds.), Historical English word-formation and semantics (Warsaw Studies in English Language and Literature 15.), 125-138. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

Bator, Magdalena. 2013b. Boil vs. seethe in Middle English. In Liliana Sikorska & Marcin Krygier (eds.), Evur happie & glorious, ffor I hafe at will grete riches (Medieval English Mirror 9.), 27-40. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

Bator, Magdalena. 2014. Culinary verbs in Middle English. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

Bator, Magdalena. 2016. On the development of the English culinary recipe. Academic Journal of Modern Philology 5. 7-15.Search in Google Scholar

Bator, Magdalena & Marta Sylwanowicz. 2017. The typology of medieval recipes - culinary vs. medical. In Jacek Fisiak, Magdalena Bator & Marta Sylwanowicz (eds.), Essays and studies in Middle English. 9th International Conference on Middle English, Philological School of Higher Education in Wrocław, 2015, 11-33. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

Brears, Peter C. D. 2008. Cooking and dining in Medieval England. Totnes: Prospect Books.Search in Google Scholar

Bubel, Claudia & Alice Spitz. 2013. The way to intercultural learning is through the stomach - Genre-based writing in the EFL classroom. In Cornelia Gerhardt, Maximiliane Frobenius & Susanne Ley (eds.), Culinary linguistics: The chef’s special. (Culture and Language Use 10.), 157-188. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. DOI: 10.1075/clu.10.07bubSearch in Google Scholar

Cardarelli, François. 2003. Encyclopaedia of scientific units, weights and measures: Their SI equivalences and origins. London: Springer.Search in Google Scholar

Carroll, Ruth. 1997. Cooking verbs in fourteenth-century English: A semantic class and its syntactic behaviour. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation: University of Oxford.Search in Google Scholar

Carroll, Ruth. 1999. The Middle English recipe as a text-type. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 100. 27-42.Search in Google Scholar

Carroll, Ruth. 2004. Middle English recipes: Vernacularization of a text-type. In Irma Taavitsainen & Päivi Pahta (eds.), Medical and scientific writing in Late Medieval English, 174-197. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Carroll, Ruth. 2005-2006. Assessing palaeographic evidence for discourse structuring in Middle English recipes. Boletín Millares Carlo 24-25. 305-325.Search in Google Scholar

Carroll, Ruth. 2009. Vague language in the medieval recipes of the Forme of Cury. In Matti Peikola, Janne Skaffari & Sanna-Kaisa Tanskanen (eds.), Instructional writing in English: Studies in honour of Risto Hiltunen, 55-82. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. DOI: 10.1075/pbns.189.07carSearch in Google Scholar

Carrillo-Linares, María José. 2005. Middle English Antidotarium Nicholai: Evidence for linguistic distribution and dissemination in the vernacular. International Journal of English Studies 5(2). 71-92.Search in Google Scholar

Channell, Joanna. 1994. Vague language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Diemer, Stefan. 2013. Recipes and food discourse in English - a historical menu. In Cornelia Gerhardt, Maximiliane Frobenius & Susanne Ley (eds.), Culinary linguistics: The chef’s special (Culture and Language Use 10.), 139-156. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. DOI: 10.1075/clu.10.06dieSearch in Google Scholar

Getz, Faye M. 1991. Healing and society in Medieval England: A Middle English translation of the pharmaceutical writings of Gilbertus Anglicus. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Search in Google Scholar

Getz, Faye M. 1998. Medicine in the English Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Görlach, Manfred. 1992. Text-types and language history: The cookery recipe. In Matti Rissanen et al. (eds.), History of Englishes: New methods and interpretations in historical linguistics, 736-761. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. DOI: 10.1515/9783110877007.736Search in Google Scholar

Görlach, Manfred. 2004. Text types and the history of English. (Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs 139.) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Search in Google Scholar

Hammond, Peter W. 2005 [1993]. Food and feast in Medieval England. Stroud: Sutton Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

Henisch, Bridget A. 2009. The medieval cook. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press.Search in Google Scholar

Hunt, Tony. 1990. Popular medicine in thirteenth-century England. Introduction and texts. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer.Search in Google Scholar

Jones, Claire. 1998. Formula and formulation: ‘Efficacy phrases’ in medieval English medical manuscripts. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 99(2). 199-209.Search in Google Scholar

Jones, Claire. 2004. Discourse communities and medical texts. In Irma Taavitsainen & Päivi Pahta (eds.), Medical and scientific writing in Late Medieval English, 23-36. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Jones, Peter. 1999. Medicine and science. In Lotte Hellinga & Joseph B. Trapp (eds.), The Cambridge history of the book in Britain. Vol. 3, 1400-1557, 433-448. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521573467.023Search in Google Scholar

Kopaczyk, Joanna. 2013. Formulaic discourse across Early Modern English medical genres. Investigating shared lexical bundles. In Andreas H. Jucker et al. (eds.), Meaning in the history of English. Words and texts in context, 257-300. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. DOI: 10.1075/slcs.148.12kopSearch in Google Scholar

Laurioux, Bruno. 1999. Medieval cooking. In Jean-Louis Flandrin & Massimo Montanari (eds.), Food: A culinary history [Translated by Albert Sonnenfeld], 295-301. New York: Columbia University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Mäkinen, Martti. 2004. Herbal recipes and recipes in herbals - intertextuality in early English medical writing. In Irma Taavitsainen & Päivi Pahta (eds.), Medical and scientific writing in Late Medieval English, 144-173. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Mäkinen, Martti. 2006. Between herbals et alia: Intertextuality in Medieval English herbals. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation: University of Helsinki.Search in Google Scholar

Marttila, Ville. 2014. Creating digital editions for corpus linguistics: The case of Potage Dyvers, a family of six Middle English recipe collections. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation: University of Helsinki.Search in Google Scholar

Mennell, Stephen. 1996. All manners of food: Eating and taste in England and France from the Middle Ages to the present. (2nd edition.) Urbana, Chicago: University of Illinois Press.Search in Google Scholar

Myers, Daniel. 2006. Making sense of strawberries. An analysis of six related recipes. http://medievalcookery.com/notes/strawberye.pdf (February 2011).Search in Google Scholar

Pahta, Päivi. 2004. Code-switching in medieval medical writing. In Irma Taavitsainen & Päivi Pahta (eds.), Medical and scientific writing in Late Medieval English, 73-99. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Pahta, Päivi & Irma Taavitsainen. 2004. Vernacularisation of scientific and medical writing in its sociohistorical context. In Irma Taavitsainen & Päivi Pahta (eds.), Medical and scientific writing in Late Medieval English, 1-22. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Pocuca, Marta & Dragan Stupar. 2006. Pharmaceutical forms in Antidotarium Nicolai. Macedonian Pharmaceutical Bulletin 52(1-2). 49-56.Search in Google Scholar

Robbins, Rossell H. 1970. Medical manuscripts in Middle English. Speculum 45(3). 393-415. DOI: 10.2307/2853500Search in Google Scholar

Ross, Lester A. 1983. Archaeological metrology: English, French, American and Canadian systems of weights and measures for North American historical archaeology. (History and Archaeology 68.) Ottawa: National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Environment Canada.Search in Google Scholar

Scully, Terence. 1995. The art of cookery in the Middle Ages. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.Search in Google Scholar

Swales, John. 1990. Genre analysis. English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Taavitsainen, Irma. 2001a. Middle English recipes: Genre characteristics, text type features and underlying traditions of writing. Journal of Historical Pragmatics 2(1). 85-113. DOI: 10.1075/jhp.2.1.05taaSearch in Google Scholar

Taavitsainen, Irma. 2001b. Changing conventions of writing: The dynamics of genres, text types, and text traditions. European Journal of English Studies 5(2). 139-150.Search in Google Scholar

Taavitsainen, Irma. 2004. Genres of secular instruction: A linguistic history of useful entertainment. Miscelánea: A Journal of English and American Studies. Language and Linguistics 29. 75-94.Search in Google Scholar

Taavitsainen, Irma. 2012. Discourse forms and vernacularisation processes in genres of medical writing 1375-1550. In Anneli Aejmelaeus & Päivi Pahta (eds.), Translation - interpretation - meaning (Collegium. Studies across disciplines in the humanities and social sciences 7.), 91-112. Helsinki: Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies.Search in Google Scholar

Tanskanen, Sanna-Kaisa, Janne Skaffari & Matti Peikola. 2009. Approaching instructional writing in English. In Matti Peikola, Janne Skaffari & Sanna-Kaisa Tanskanen (eds.), Instructional writing in English: Studies in honour of Risto Hiltunen, 1-11. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. DOI: 10.1075/pbns.189.04tanSearch in Google Scholar

Werlich, Egon. 1976. A text grammar of English. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer.Search in Google Scholar

Voigts, Linda E. 1982. Editing Middle English medical texts: Needs and issues. In Trevor H. Levere (ed.), Editing texts in the history of science and medicine: Papers given at the seventeenth annual Conference on Editorial Problems, University of Toronto, 6-7 November 1981, 39-68. New York: Garland.Search in Google Scholar

Zupko, Ronald E. 1990. Revolution in measurement: Western European weights and measures since the age of science. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo