1. bookVolume 21 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4799
First Published
23 Sep 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Physico-Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Thermoplastic Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Modified Thermosetting Urea Formaldehyde Resin

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 53 - 66
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4799
First Published
23 Sep 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Urea formaldehyde (UF) resins are brittle and to improve their tensile properties poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been used to modify the UF resin. An easy improved procedure was developed to make PVA modified UF resin on the basis of conventional synthesis of UF resin. Prepolymer of UF was mixed with different weight percentages of PVA (1-5%) to synthesize modified UF resin which can be used to make adhesive for forest products. Both UF and modified UF resins were characterized by FTIR, physico-mechanical and thermal properties analyses. Modified UF resin containing 2 wt. % PVA exhibited better results than the UF.

Keywords

1. Liu M., Thirumalai R.V.K.G., Wu Y., Wan H.: Characterization of the crystalline regions of cured urea formaldehyde resin. RSC Advances 7 (2017) 49536-49541. Search in Google Scholar

2. Solt P., Konnerth J., Altmutter W.G., Kantner W., Moser J., Mitter R., Herwijnen H. W.G.v.: Technological performance of formaldehyde-free adhesive alternatives for particleboard industry. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives 94 (2019) 99-131. Search in Google Scholar

3. Li B., Zhang J., Ren X., Chang J., Gou J.: Preparation and Characterization of Bio-Oil Modified Urea-Formaldehyde Wood Adhesives. BioResources 9(3) (2014) 5125-5133. Search in Google Scholar

4. Pink S., Herwijnen H.W.G., Veigel S., Altmutter W.G., Riegler M.: Urea-formaldehyde microspheres as a potential additive to wood adhesive. Journal of Wood Science 64 (2018) 390-397. Search in Google Scholar

5. Ullah H., Azizli K., Man Z.B, Ismail M.B.C.: Synthesis and Characterization of Urea-formaldehyde Microcapsules Containing Functionalized Polydimethylsiloxanes. Procedia Engineering 148 (2016) 168-175. Search in Google Scholar

6. Luo J., Zhang J., Gao Q., Mao A., Li J.: Toughening and Enhancing Melamine-Urea-Formaldehyde Resin Properties via in situ Polymerization of Dialdehyde Starch and Microphase Separation. Polymers 11 (2019) 1-18. Search in Google Scholar

7. Ebewele R.O., Myers G.E., River B.H., Koutsky J.A.: Polyamine-Modified Urea-Formaldehyde Resins. I. Synthesis, Structure, and Properties. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 47 (1991) 2997-3012. Search in Google Scholar

8. Kariuki S.W., Wachira J., Kawira M., Murithi G.: Formaldehyde Use and Alternative Biobased Binders for Particleboard Formulation: A Review. Journal of Chemistry (2019) 1-12. Article ID 5256897. Search in Google Scholar

9. Zorba T., Papadopoulou E., Hatjiissaak A., Paraskevopoulos K.M., Chrissafis K.: Urea formaldehyde resins characterized by thermal analysis and ftir method. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 92 (2008) 29-33. Search in Google Scholar

10. Ratna D., Banthia A.K.: Rubber Toughened Epoxy. Macromolecular Research 12(1) (2004) 11-21. Search in Google Scholar

11. Seongsu P., Byung D.P.: Crystallinity of Low Molar Ratio Urea-Formaldehyde Resins Modified with Cellulose Nanomaterials. Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology 49(2) (2021)169-180. Search in Google Scholar

12. Lubis M.A.R., Park B.D.: Modification of urea-formaldehyde resin adhesives with oxidized starch using blocked pMDI for plywood. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology (2018). DOI: 10.1080/01694243.2018.151107510.1080/01694243.2018.1511075 Search in Google Scholar

13. Chen K., Cheng X., Chen Y., Qi J., Xie J., Huang X., Jiang Y., Xiao H.: Thermal Degradation Kinetics of Urea-Formaldehyde Resins Modified by Almond Shells. ACS Omega 6 (2021) 25702-25709. Search in Google Scholar

14. Lu L., Wang Y., Li T., Wang S., Yang S., Qing Y., Li X., Wu Y., Liu M.: Calcium carbonate modified urea–formaldehyde resin adhesive for strength enhanced medium density fiberboard production. RSC Advances 11 (2021) 25010. Search in Google Scholar

15. Wibowoa E.S., Lubis M.A.R., Park B.D.: In-situ modification of low molar ratio urea–formaldehyde resins with cellulose nanofibrils for plywood. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology (2021).10.1080/01694243.2021.1890370 Search in Google Scholar

16. Yadava S.M., Lubis M.A.R., Park B.D.: Modification of nanoclay with different methods and its application in ureaformaldehyde bonded plywood panels. Wood Material Science & Engineering (2021).10.1080/17480272.2021.1934897 Search in Google Scholar

17. Adegoke O.A., Ogunsanwo O.Y., Olaoye K.O.: Modification of Urea Formaldehyde Resin with Pyrolytic Oil on Particleboard. Journal of Forest and Environmental Science 36 (3) (2020) 219-224. Search in Google Scholar

18. Lubis M.A.R., Park B.D.: Enhancing the performance of low molar ratio urea–formaldehyde resin adhesives via in-situ modification with intercalated nanoclay. The Journal of Adhesion 97(14) (2020) 1271-1290. Search in Google Scholar

19. İstek A., Biçer A., Özlüsoylu I.: Effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) added to urea-formaldehyde resin on particleboard properties. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 44 (2020) 526-532. Search in Google Scholar

20. Réh R., Kriš t’ák L., Sedliacik J., Bekhta P., Božiková M., Kunecová D., Vozárová V., Tudor E.M., Antov P., Savov V.: Utilization of Birch Bark as an Eco-Friendly Filler in Urea-Formaldehyde Adhesives for Plywood Manufacturing. Polymers 13 (2021) 511. Search in Google Scholar

21. Antov P., Savov V., Krišťák L., Réh R., Mantanis G.I.: Eco-Friendly, High-Density Fiberboards Bonded with Urea-Formaldehyde and Ammonium Lignosulfonate. Polymers 13 (2021) 220. Search in Google Scholar

22. Li B.P.M.K., Yuan S.Y.T.Q., Du G.B., Sun R.C.: Eco-Friendly Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde Co-condensed Resin Adhesives Accelerated by Resorcinol for Plywood Manufacturing. ACS Omega 3 (2018) 8521-8528. Search in Google Scholar

23. Ferreira A.M., Pereira J., Almeida M., Ferra J., Paiva N., Martins J., Carvalho L.H., Magalhães F.D.: Effect of spent sulfite liquor on urea–formaldehyde resin performance. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 136(17) (2018) 47389. Search in Google Scholar

24. Jiang S., Hu M., Du G., Duan Z., Zhou X., Li. T.: Highly branched polyurea-enhanced urea formaldehyde resin. ACS Applied Polymer Materials 3 (2021) 1157-1170. Search in Google Scholar

25. Mathis E., Michon M.L., Billaud C., Grau P., Bocahut A., Vergelati C., Long D.R.: Thermoset modified with polyethersulfone: characterization and control of the morphology, Journal of Polymer Science. Part A-1, Polymer Chemistry 58 (8) (2020) 1177-1188. Search in Google Scholar

26. Acebo C., Ramis X., Serra A.: Improved epoxy thermosets by the use of poly(ethyleneimine) derivatives. Physical Sciences Reviews (2017) 1-31, 20160128. Search in Google Scholar

27. Feldman D.: Poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites: Recent contributions to engineering and medicine. AIMS Materials Science 8(1) (2021) 119-129. Search in Google Scholar

28. Li J., Zhang Y.: Morphology and Crystallinity of Urea-Formaldehyde Resin Adhesives with Different Molar Ratios Polymers 13 (2021) 673. Search in Google Scholar

29. Ohalete M.N., Popoola A.V.: Urea-formaldehyde Resins Synthesis, Modification and Characterization. Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC) 12(8) (2019) 19-25. Search in Google Scholar

30. Jovanovic S.S., Jovanovic V., Konstantinovic S., Markovic G., Cincovic M.M.: Thermal behavior of modified urea–formaldehyde resins. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 104 (2011) 1159–1166.10.1007/s10973-010-1143-8 Search in Google Scholar

31. Chen X., Afreen S., Yu X., Dong C., Kong Q.: Modified melamine-formaldehyde resins improve tensile strength along with antifouling and flame retardancy in impregnation of cellulose paper. RSC Advances 9 (2019) 36788-36795. Search in Google Scholar

32. Balasubramanya P.C., Natarajan K.: Mechanical and Morphological Studies of Modified Epoxy Resin Matrix for Composite Applications. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering 4(1) (2014) 281-288. Search in Google Scholar

33. Jinhong D., Ming C.H.: The Fabrication, Properties, and Uses of Graphene/Polymer Composites. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 213 (2012) 1060-1077. Search in Google Scholar

34. Yuan J., Zhao X., Ye L.: Structure and properties of urea-formaldehyde resin/polyurethane blend prepared via in-situ polymerization. RSC Advances 5 (2015) 53700-53707. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo