1. bookVolume 84 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
24 Jan 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Copyright
© 2020 Sciendo

The influence of neonatal infections on the development of cerebral palsy

Published Online: 18 Mar 2021
Page range: 37 - 49
Received: 24 Oct 2020
Accepted: 14 Feb 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
24 Jan 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Copyright
© 2020 Sciendo
Abstract

One of the most significant biological factors predisposing to cerebral palsy (CP) are infections. The paper aims to analyze neonatal infections’ influence in the risk of CP development with consideration of all significant risk factors including single, twin, full-term and pre-term pregnancies.

278 children with CP attending the chosen school-educational centers in Poland were included in the questionnaire. The control group included data obtained from the medical documentation of 435 children born in Limanowa County Hospital, Poland. Socio-economic factors, factors connected with pregnancy, and the coexisting disorders and diseases in children were taken into consideration. Constructed models of logistic regression were applied in the statistical analysis.

Neonatal infections increase the risk of CP development in all children (odds ratio (OR) 5.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6–9.8), children from single pregnancies (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 3.0–11.29), full-term (OR 6.2, 95% CI: 3.2–12.3), and single full-term pregnancies (OR 6.0, 95% CI: 3.0–12.0). The influence of neonatal infections in the risk of CP development in children from pre-term and single premature pregnancies was not indicated.

Neonatal infections are an independent risk factor for CP development in newborns from full-term pregnancy (>37 weeks of pregnancy). The patho-mechanism of CP is different in children from full-term and premature pregnancy and results from interrelating factors are discussed in this paper.

Keywords

Ancel P, Livinec F, Larroque B, Marret S, Arnaud C, Pierrat V, Dehan M, N’Guyen S, Escande B, Burguet A, Thiriez G, Picaud JCh, André M, Bréart G, Kaminski M. 2006. Cerebral Palsy Among Very Preterm Children in Relation to Gestational Age and Neonatal Ultrasound Abnormalities: The EPIPAGE Cohort Study. Pediatrics 117:828–35.Search in Google Scholar

Brooks J, Strauss DJ, Shavelle RM, Tran LM, Rosenbloom L, Wu YW. 2014. Recent trends in cerebral palsy survival. Part I: period cohort effects. Dev Med Child Neurol 56:1059–64.Search in Google Scholar

Chang M, Ma H, Lu T. 2015. Estimating the prevalence of cerebral palsy in Taiwan: A comparison of different case definitions. Res Dev Disabil 36:207–12.Search in Google Scholar

Costantine MM, How HY, Coppage K, Maxwell RA, Sibai BM. 2007. Does peripartum infection increase the incidence of cerebral palsy in extremely low birth weight infants? Am J Obstet Gynecol 196(5):6–8.Search in Google Scholar

Dammann O, Leviton A. 1997. Does prepreg-nancy bacterial vaginosis increase a mother’s risk of having a preterm infant with cerebral palsy? Dev Med Child Neurol 39:836–40.Search in Google Scholar

Decembrino L, Pozzi M, Falcone R, Stronati M. 2014. Chorioamnionitis and neonatal outcome: early vs late preterm infants. Ital J Peadiatr 40:1–2.Search in Google Scholar

Froslev-Friis Ch, Dunkfase-Heinl U, Holmgren Andersen JD, Stausbol-Gron B, Hansen AV, Garne E. 2015. Epidemiology of cerebral palsy in Southern Denmark. Danish Medical J 62(1):1–5.Search in Google Scholar

Gilbert WM, Jacoby BN, Xing G, Danielsen BD. Smith LH. 2010. Adverse Obstetrical Events are Associated with Significant Risk of Cerebral Palsy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 203(4):1–5.Search in Google Scholar

Girard S, Kadhim H, Roy M, Lavoie K, Brochu ME, Larouche A, Sebire G. 2009. Role of perinatal inflammation in cerebral palsy. Pediatr Neurol 40(3):168–74.Search in Google Scholar

Greenwood C, Yudkin P, Sellers S, Impey L, Doyle P. 2005. Why is there a modifying effect of gestational age on risk factors for cerebral palsy. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 90:141–6.Search in Google Scholar

Grether J, Nelson KB, Emery S, Cummins SK. 1996. Prenatal and perinatal factors and cerebral palsy in very low birth weight infants. J Pediatr 128(3):407–15.Search in Google Scholar

Grether J, Nelson KB, Walsh E, Willoughby RE, Redline RW. 2003. Intrauterine Exposure to Infection and Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 157:26–32.Search in Google Scholar

Grether JK, Nelson KB. 1997. Maternal infection and cerebral palsy in infants of normal birth weight. JAMA 278(3):207–11.Search in Google Scholar

Himmelmann K, Hagberg G, Uvebrant P. 2010. The changing panorama of cerebral palsy in Sweden. X. Prevalence and origin in the birth-year period 1999-2002. Acta Paediatr 99:1337–43.Search in Google Scholar

Hjern A, Thorngren-Jerneck K. 2008. Peri-natal complications and socio-economic differences in cerebral palsy in Sweden – a national cohort study. BMC Pediatrics 8(49):1–7.Search in Google Scholar

Jacobsson B, Hagberg G, Hagberg B, Ladfors L, Niklasson A, Hagberg H. 2002. Cerebral palsy in preterm infants: a population-based case-control study of antenatal and intrapartal risk factors. Acta Paediatr 91:846–951.Search in Google Scholar

Jacobsson B, Hagberg G. 2004. Antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 18(3):425–36.Search in Google Scholar

Jacobsson B, Ladfors L, Milson I. 2004. Advanced Maternal Age and Adverse Peri-natal Outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 104(4):727–32.Search in Google Scholar

Jarvis SN, Holloway JS, Hey EN. 1985. Increase in cerebral palsy in normal birth-weight babies. Arch Dis Child 60:1113–21.Search in Google Scholar

Jaskulski T, Zgorzalewicz B. 1993. Zastosowanie komputerowego rejestru do badań nad epidemiologią mózgowego porażenia dziecięcego. Neurologia Dziecięca 2(3):13–9.Search in Google Scholar

Koman AL, Smith PB, Shilt JS. 2004. Cerebral palsy. The Lancet 363:1619–31.Search in Google Scholar

Kornacka MK, Bokiniec R, Bargiel A. 2009. Risk factors for preterm encephalopathy. Ginekol Pol 80(8):620–3.Search in Google Scholar

Korzeniewski S. 2006. The Descriptive Epidemiology of Cerebral Palsy. Clin Perinatol 33:251–67.Search in Google Scholar

Kułak W, Sobaniec W. 2004. Cerebral palsy in children in north-eastern Poland. Journal of Pediatric Neurology 2(2):79–84.Search in Google Scholar

Lang TC, Fuentes-Afflick E, Gilbert WM, Newman T, Xing G, Wu YW. 2012. Cerebral palsy among Asian ethnic subgroups. Pediatrics 129(4):992–8.Search in Google Scholar

Liu J, Li S, Lin Q, Li Z. 1999. Prevalence of cerebral palsy in China. Int J Epidemiol 28:949–54.Search in Google Scholar

Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM. 2014. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics. 7th edition. Section 11, Gowen CW. Elsevier Saunders.Search in Google Scholar

Martin JK. 1960. Cerebral Palsy in Manitoba. Can. Med. Assoc. J 82:411–7.Search in Google Scholar

Michałowicz R. 2001. Mózgowe porażenie dziecięce. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL.Search in Google Scholar

Milewska A, Mileańczuk-Lubecka BA, Koch-anowski J, Werner B. 2011. Analiza czynników ryzyka mózgowego porażenia dziecięcego. Nowa Pediatria 4:79–84.Search in Google Scholar

Murphy DJ, Sellers S, MacKenzie IZ, Yudkin PL, Johnson AM. 1995. Case-control study of antenatal and intrapartum risk factors for cerebral palsy in very preterm singleton babies. Lancet 346(8988):1449–54.Search in Google Scholar

O’Shea M, Klinepeter KL, Dillard R. 1998. Prenatal Events and the Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Very Low Birth Weight Infants. Am J Epidemiol 147(4):362–9.Search in Google Scholar

Öztürk A, Demirici F, Yavuz T, Yildiz S, Degirmenci Y, Döşoglu M, Avşar Y. 2007. Ante-natal and delivery risk factors and prevalence of cerebral palsy in Duzce (Turkey). Brain Dev 29:39–42.Search in Google Scholar

Pappas A, Kendrick DE, Shankaran S, Stoll BJ, Bell EF, Laptook AR, Walsh MC, Das A, Hale EC, Newman NS, Higgins RD. 2014. Chorioamnionintis and Early Childhood Outcomes among Extremely Low-Gestational-Age Neonates. JAMA Pediatrics 168(2):137–47.Search in Google Scholar

Pharoah POD, Cooke T, Rosenbloom I, Cooke RWJ. 1987. Trends in birth prevalence of cerebral palsy. Arch Dis Child 62:379–84.Search in Google Scholar

Pilypiene I, Drazdiene N, Dumalakiene I, Vezbergiene N, Bartkevičiene D, Šilkünas M, Bumbuliene Ž. 2015. The significance of fetal inflammatory response syndrome in early and later adaptation of premature infants. Arch Gynecol Obstet 291(1):67–72.Search in Google Scholar

Platt MJ, Cans Ch, Johanson A, Surman G, Topp M, Torrioli M, Krageloh-Mann I. 2007. Trends in cerebral palsy among infants of very low birthweight (<1500 g) or born prematurely (< 32 weeks) in 16 European centres: a database study. The Lancet 369:43–50.Search in Google Scholar

Reddihough DS, Collins KJ. 2003. The epidemiology and causes of cerebral palsy. Aust J Physiother 49:7–12.Search in Google Scholar

Robertson ChMT, Svenson LW, Joffres MR. 1998. Prevalence of cerebral palsy in Alberta. Can J Neurol Sci 25:117–22.Search in Google Scholar

Robertson ChMT, Watt M, Yasui Y. 2007. Changes in the Prevalence of cerebral Palsy for Children Born Very Prematurely Within a Population-Based Program Over 30 Years. JAMA 297(24):2733–40.Search in Google Scholar

Sellier E, Anderson G, Surman G, Cans Ch. 2010. Trends in prevalence of cerebral palsy in children born with a birthweight of 2500 g or over in Europe from 1980–1998. Eur J Epidemiol 25(9):635–42.Search in Google Scholar

Škrablin S, Maurac I, Banovič V, Bošnjak-Nadj K. 2008. Perinatal factors associated with the neurologic impairment of children born preterm. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 102:12–8.Search in Google Scholar

Soleimani F, Vameghi R, Biglarian A. 2003. Antenatal and Intrapartum Risk Factors of Cerebral Palsy in Term and Near-term Newborns. Arch Iran Med 16(4):213–6.Search in Google Scholar

Spinillo A, Capuzzo E, Orcesi S, Stronati M, Mario M, Fazzi E. 1997. Antenatal and delivery risk factors simultaneously associated with neonatal death and cerebral palsy in preterm infants. Early Hum Dev 48:81–91.Search in Google Scholar

Steenwinckel JV, Schang AL, Sigaut S, Chhor V, Degos V, Hagberg H, Baud O, Fleiss B, Gressens P. 2004. Brain damage of the preterm infant: new insights into the role inflammation. Biochem Soc Trans 42(2):557–63.Search in Google Scholar

Stoll BJ, Hansen NI, Adams-Chapman I, Fanaroff AA, Hintz SR, Vohr B, Higgins RD. 2004. Neurodevelopmental and Growth Impairment Among Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants With Neonatal Infection. JAMA 292(19):2357–65.Search in Google Scholar

Strunk T, Inder T, Wang X, Burgner D, Mallard C, Levy O. 2014. Infection-induced inflammation and cerebral injury in preterm infants. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 14(8):751–62.Search in Google Scholar

Tran U, Gray PH, O’Callaghan MJ. 2005. Neonatal antecedents for cerebral palsy in extremely preterm babies and interaction with maternal factors. Early Hum Dev 81(6):555–61.Search in Google Scholar

Wilson-Costello D, Friedman H, Minich N, Fanaroff AA, Hack M. 2005. Improved survival rates with increased neurodevelopmental disability for extremely low birth weight infants in the 1990s. Pediatrics 115(4):997–1003.Search in Google Scholar

Winter S, Autry A, Boyle C, Yeargin-Allsopp M. 2002. Trends in the Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy in a population – Based Study. American Academy Of Pediatrics 110:1220–5.Search in Google Scholar

Wu YW, Colford JM. 2002. Chorioamnionitis as a risk factor for cerebral palsy: a meta-analysis. JAMA 284(11):1417–24.Search in Google Scholar

Yoon BH, Jong JK, Romero R, Park KH, Gomez R, Choi JH, Kim IO. 1997. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha), neonatal brain white matter lesions, and cerebral palsy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 177(1):19–26.Search in Google Scholar

Zgorzalewicz B, Mieszczanek T, Zgorzalewicz M. 2001. Epidemiologia opisowa mózgowego porażenia dziecięcego. Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja 3(4):467–71.Search in Google Scholar

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo