1. bookAHEAD OF PRINT
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Harnessing the value of rumen protected amino acids to enhance animal performance

Published Online: 12 May 2021
Page range: -
Received: 17 Dec 2020
Accepted: 05 Mar 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

In general, higher mammals need nine amino acids in their diets as building blocks to synthesize proteins while ruminants can produce some of them through the synthesis of microbial proteins. Diet is utilized by ruminal microorganisms to synthesize microbial protein (MCP) which is digested in the small intestine (SI). Although protein and amino acid requirements in ruminants are subject to microbial protein synthesis, it is not enough for optimal daily production. Therefore, there is a current trend towards supplementing amino acids in ruminant diets. In the rumen, free amino acids can be degraded by rumen bacteria, therefore, the AAs need to be supplemented in a protected form to be stable in the rumen and absorbable post-ruminal for metabolic purposes. The main site of amino acid absorption is the small intestine (SI), and there is a need to keep AA from ruminal degradation and direct them to absorption sites. Several approaches have been suggested by feed scientists to decrease this problem such as defaunation and debacterization of the rumen against amino acid-fermenting fungi and bacteria, inhibitors or antagonists of vitamin B6 enzymes, diet composition and also protecting AA from rumen degradation. A number of studies have evaluated the roles of amino acids concerning their effects on milk yield, growth, digestibility, feed intake and efficiency of nitrogen utilization of ruminants. The focus of this review was on experimental and research studies about AAs in feedstuff, metabolism, supplementing amino acids for ruminants and the current trends of using rumen protected amino acids.

Keywords

Acosta, D. A. V, A. C. Denicol, P. Tribulo, M. I. Rivelli, C. Skenandore, Z. Zhou, D. Luchini, M. N. Correa, P. J. Hansen, and F. C. Cardoso. 2016. “Effects of Rumen-Protected Methionine and Choline Supplementation on the Preimplantation Embryo in Holstein Cows.” Theriogenology 85(9):1669–79.Search in Google Scholar

Acosta, D. A. V, M. I. Rivelli, C. Skenandore, Z. Zhou, D. H. Keisler, D. Luchini, M. N. Corrêa, and F. C. Cardoso. 2017. “Effects of Rumen-Protected Methionine and Choline Supplementation on Steroidogenic Potential of the First Postpartum Dominant Follicle and Expression of Immune Mediators in Holstein Cows.” Theriogenology 96:1–9.Search in Google Scholar

Al-Qaisi, Mohmmad A., and Hosam H. Titi. 2014. “Effect of Rumen-Protected Methionine on Production and Composition of Early Lactating Shami Goats Milk and Growth Performance of Their Kids.” Archives Animal Breeding 57(1):1–11.Search in Google Scholar

Alonso-Mélendez, Erick, Germán D. Mendoza, Francisco A. Castrejón-Pineda, and Andrés E. Ducoing-Watty. 2016. “Milk Production in Dairy Goats Supplemented with Different Levels of Ruminally Protected Methionine.” The Journal of Dairy Research 83(2):148.Search in Google Scholar

Alonso, L., M. Maquivar, C. S. Galina, G. D. Mendoza, A. Guzmán, S. Estrada, M. Villareal, and R. Molina. 2008. “Effect of Ruminally Protected Methionine on the Productive and Reproductive Performance of Grazing Bos Indicus Heifers Raised in the Humid Tropics of Costa Rica.” Tropical Animal Health and Production 40(8):667–72.Search in Google Scholar

Amrutkar, S. A., S. S. Thakur, and S. P. Pawar. 2014. “Economics of Supplementing Rumen Protected Methionine and Lysine in the Ration of Lactating Crossbred Cows.” Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 31(1):14–19.Search in Google Scholar

Antongiovanni, Mauro, Pierlorenzo Secchiari, Marcello Mele, Arianna Buccioni, Andrea Serra, Guido Ferruzzi, Stefano Rapaccini, and Alessandro Pistoia. 2002. “Olive Oil Calcium Soaps and Rumen Protected Methionine in the Diet of Lactating Ewes: Effect on Milk Quality.” Italian Journal of Animal Science 1(1):55–63.Search in Google Scholar

Apelo, S. I. Arriola, J. R. Knapp, and M. D. Hanigan. 2014. “Invited Review: Current Representation and Future Trends of Predicting Amino Acid Utilization in the Lactating Dairy Cow.” Journal of Dairy Science 97(7):4000–4017.Search in Google Scholar

Awawdeh, Mofleh S. 2016. “Rumen-Protected Methionine and Lysine: Effects on Milk Production and Plasma Amino Acids of Dairy Cows with Reference to Metabolisable Protein Status.” Journal of Dairy Research 83(2):151–55.Search in Google Scholar

Ayyat, Mohamed S., Adham Al-Sagheer, Ahmed E. Noreldin, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Asmaa F. Khafaga, Mervat A. Abdel-Latif, Ayman A. Swelum, Muhammad Arif, and Abdelfattah Z. M. Salem. 2019. “Beneficial Effects of Rumen-Protected Methionine on Nitrogen-Use Efficiency, Histological Parameters, Productivity and Reproductive Performance of Ruminants.” Animal Biotechnology 1–16.Search in Google Scholar

Batistel, F., J. M. Arroyo, C. I. M. Garces, E. Trevisi, C. Parys, M. A. Ballou, F. C. Cardoso, and Juan J. Loor. 2018. “Ethyl-Cellulose Rumen-Protected Methionine Alleviates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress and Improves Neutrophil Function during the Periparturient Period and Early Lactation in Holstein Dairy Cows.” Journal of Dairy Science 101(1):480–90.Search in Google Scholar

Berthiaume, R., P. Dubreuil, M. Stevenson, B. W. McBride, and H. Lapierre. 2001. “Intestinal Disappearance and Mesenteric and Portal Appearance of Amino Acids in Dairy Cows Fed Ruminally Protected Methionine1.” Journal of Dairy Science 84(1):194–203.Search in Google Scholar

Blauwiekel, R., S. Xu, J. H. Harrison, K. A. Loney, R. E. Riley, and M. C. Calhoun. 1997. “Effect of Whole Cottonseed, Gossypol, and Ruminally Protected Lysine Supplementation on Milk Yield and Composition.” Journal of Dairy Science 80(7):1358–65.Search in Google Scholar

Broderick, G. A., and J. E. Balthrol. 1979. “CHEMICAL INHIBITION OF AMINO ACID D E A M I N A T I O N BY R U M I N A L MICROBES IN VITRO 1, 2 Amino Acid Deamination Were Tested in A.” 49(4).Search in Google Scholar

Broderick, G. A., M. J. Stevenson, and R. A. Patton. 2009. “Effect of Dietary Protein Concentration and Degradability on Response to Rumen-Protected Methionine in Lactating Dairy Cows.” Journal of Dairy Science 92(6):2719–28.Search in Google Scholar

Broderick, Glen A., Michael L. Murphy, and Peter Udén. 2004. “Effect of Inhibitor Concentration and End-Product Accumulation on Estimates of Ruminal in Vitro Protein Degradation.” Journal of Dairy Science 87(5):1360–71.Search in Google Scholar

Broderick, Glen Allen, T. Kowalczyk, and L. D. Satter. 1970. “Milk Production Response to Supplementation with Encapsulated Methionine per Os or Casein per Abomasum.” Journal of Dairy Science 53(12):1714–21.Search in Google Scholar

Cao, Y. C., X. J. Yang, L. Guo, C. Zheng, D. D. Wang, C. J. Cai, S. M. Liu, and J. H. Yao. 2018. “Effects of Dietary Leucine and Phenylalanine on Pancreas Development, Enzyme Activity, and Relative Gene Expression in Milk-Fed Holstein Dairy Calves.” Journal of Dairy Science 101(5):4235–44.Search in Google Scholar

Chalupa, William. 1975. “Rumen Bypass and Protection of Proteins and Amino Acids.” Journal of Dairy Science 58(8):1198–1218.Search in Google Scholar

Chalupa, William V, Alfred W. Chow, and Roger C. Parish. 1975. “Methods and Compositions for Inhibiting Rumen Microbial Deamination.”Search in Google Scholar

Chen, Dong, Jingcai Yan, Weijun Shen, Yang Song, Xinyi Lan, Kangle Yi, and Aziz ur Rahman Muhammad. 2020. “Effect of Inclusion of HMBi in the Ration of Goats on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Bacteria Community and Blood Serum Parameters.” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (November 2019):1–11.Search in Google Scholar

Clements, A. R., F. A. Ireland, T. Freitas, H. Tucker, and Daniel William Shike. 2017. “Effects of Supplementing Methionine Hydroxy Analog on Beef Cow Performance, Milk Production, Reproduction, and Preweaning Calf Performance.” Journal of Animal Science 95(12):5597–5605.Search in Google Scholar

Doelman, John, Julie J. M. Kim, Michelle Carson, John A. Metcalf, and John P. Cant. 2015. “Branched-Chain Amino Acid and Lysine Deficiencies Exert Different Effects on Mammary Translational Regulation.” Journal of Dairy Science 98(11):7846–55.Search in Google Scholar

DOMINGUEZ, J. H., M. G. LOPES, F. A. MACHADO, E. SANTOS, F. LOPES, J. S. FRANCK, F. A. B. DEL PINO, G. FISCHER, M. N. CORRÊA, and E. SCHMITT. 2017. “Efeito Da Suplementação de Metionina Sobre o Ganho de Peso e Diâmetro Folicular Em Novilhas de Corte Submetidas a Protocolo de Inseminação Artificial Em Tempo Fixo.” in SIMPOSIO INTERNACIONAL DE REPRODUCCION ANIMAL, 12. IRAAC Cordoba.Search in Google Scholar

Edmunds, B., K. H. Südekum, R. Bennett, A. Schröder, H. Spiekers, and F. J. Schwarz. 2013. “The Amino Acid Composition of Rumen-Undegradable Protein: A Comparison between Forages.” Journal of Dairy Science 96(7):4568–77.Search in Google Scholar

Flores, Adriana, German Mendoza, Juan Manuel Pinos-Rodriguez, Fernando Plata, Salvador Vega, and Ricardo Bárcena. 2009. “Effects of Rumen-Protected Methionine on Milk Production of Dairy Goats.” Italian Journal of Animal Science 8(2):271–75.Search in Google Scholar

Giallongo, F., Alexander Nikolov Hristov, J. Oh, T. Frederick, H. Weeks, J. Werner, H. Lapierre, R. A. Patton, A. Gehman, and C. Parys. 2015. “Effects of Slow-Release Urea and Rumen-Protected Methionine and Histidine on Performance of Dairy Cows.” Journal of Dairy Science 98(5):3292–3308.Search in Google Scholar

Girma, D. D., L. Ma, F. Wang, Q. R. Jiang, T. R. Callaway, J. K. Drackley, and D. P. Bu. 2019. “Effects of Close-up Dietary Energy Level and Supplementing Rumen-Protected Lysine on Energy Metabolites and Milk Production in Transition Cows.” Journal of Dairy Science 102(8):7059–72.Search in Google Scholar

Givens, D. .., and H. Rulquin. 2004. “Utilisation by Ruminants of Nitrogen Compounds in Silage-Based Diets.” Animal Feed Science and Technology 114(1–4):1–18.Search in Google Scholar

Hussein, H. S., and R. M. Jordan. 1991. “Fish Meal as a Protein Supplement in Ruminant Diets: A Review.” Journal of Animal Science 69(5):2147–56.Search in Google Scholar

Jaenisch, Rudolf, and Adrian Bird. 2003. “Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression: How the Genome Integrates Intrinsic and Environmental Signals.” Nature Genetics 33(3):245–54.Search in Google Scholar

Jurgens, Marshall H. 2002. Animal Feeding and Nutrition. Kendall Hunt.Search in Google Scholar

Kumar, Avinash, Henry A. Palfrey, Rashmi Pathak, Philip J. Kadowitz, Thomas W. Gettys, and Subramanyam N. Murthy. 2017. “The Metabolism and Significance of Homocysteine in Nutrition and Health.” Nutrition & Metabolism 14:78.Search in Google Scholar

Lapierre, H., D. R. Ouellet, L. Doepel, G. Holtrop, and G. E. Lobley. 2008. “Histidine, Lysine and Methionine: From Metabolism to Balanced Dairy Rations.” Pp. 19–36 in Proc. 44th Eastern Nutrition Conference of the Animal Nutrition Association of Canada (ANAC), University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada. University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.Search in Google Scholar

Lapierre, H., D. R. Ouellet, and G. E. Lobley. 2014. “Estimation of Histidine Requirement in Lactating Dairy Cows.” J. Dairy Sci. 97(E-Suppl. 1):757.Search in Google Scholar

Lee, C., Alexander Nikolov Hristov, T. W. Cassidy, K. S. Heyler, H. Lapierre, G. A. Varga, M. J. De Veth, R. A. Patton, and C. Parys. 2012. “Rumen-Protected Lysine, Methionine, and Histidine Increase Milk Protein Yield in Dairy Cows Fed a Metabolizable Protein-Deficient Diet.” Journal of Dairy Science 95(10):6042–56.Search in Google Scholar

Li, Xilong, Reza Rezaei, Peng Li, and Guoyao Wu. 2011. “Composition of Amino Acids in Feed Ingredients for Animal Diets.” Amino Acids 40(4):1159–68.Search in Google Scholar

Liu, K., Y. Liu, S. M. Liu, M. Xu, Z. P. Yu, X. Wang, Y. C. Cao, and J. H. Yao. 2015. “Relationships between Leucine and the Pancreatic Exocrine Function for Improving Starch Digestibility in Ruminants.” Journal of Dairy Science 98(4):2576–82.Search in Google Scholar

Liu, Shimin, Jason Lei, Serina Hancock, Victoria Scanlan, Steve Broomfield, Andrew Currie, and Andrew Thompson. 2016. “Lamb Survival, Glutathione Redox State and Immune Function of Neonates and Lambs from Periparturient Merino Ewes Supplemented with Rumen-Protected Methionine.” Archives of Animal Nutrition 70(5):389–401.Search in Google Scholar

Lobley, G. E. 1992. “Control of the Metabolic Fate of Amino Acids in Ruminants: A Review.” Journal of Animal Science 70(10):3264–75.Search in Google Scholar

Lopes, Matheus Gomes, José Henrique Echenique Dominguez, Marcio Nunes Corrêa, Eduardo Schmitt, and Geferson Fischer. 2019. “Rumen-Protected Methionine in Cattle: Influences on Reproduction, Immune Response, and Productive Performance.” Arquivos Do Instituto Biológico 86.Search in Google Scholar

Madsen, Torben G., Lotte Nielsen, and Mette O. Nielsen. 2005. “Mammary Nutrient Uptake in Response to Dietary Supplementation of Rumen Protected Lysine and Methionine in Late and Early Lactating Dairy Goats.” Small Ruminant Research 56(1–3):151–64.Search in Google Scholar

Mazinani, Mitra, Abas Ali Naserian, Brian Rude, Reza Valizadeh, and Abdolmansur Tahmasbi. 2019. “Production of Rumen-Protected Essential Amino Acids with Chemical Technique.” Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia 16(04):789–95.Search in Google Scholar

Mazinani, Mitra, Abbas Ali Naserian, Brian J. Rude, Abdol Mansour Tahmasbi, and Reza Valizadeh. 2020. “Effects of Feeding Rumen–Protected Amino Acids on the Performance of Feedlot Calves.” Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research 7(2):229–33.Search in Google Scholar

Mazinani, Mitra, and Brian Rude. 2020. “Population, World Production and Quality of Sheep and Goat Products.” American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences 15(4):291–99.Search in Google Scholar

Neinast, Michael D., Cholsoon Jang, Sheng Hui, Danielle S. Murashige, Qingwei Chu, Raphael J. Morscher, Xiaoxuan Li, Le Zhan, Eileen White, and Tracy G. Anthony. 2019. “Quantitative Analysis of the Whole-Body Metabolic Fate of Branched-Chain Amino Acids.” Cell Metabolism 29(2):417–29.Search in Google Scholar

Nichols, K., J. Doelman, J. J. M. Kim, M. Carson, J. A. Metcalf, and J. P. Cant. 2017. “Exogenous Essential Amino Acids Stimulate an Adaptive Unfolded Protein Response in the Mammary Glands of Lactating Cows.” Journal of Dairy Science 100(7):5909–21.Search in Google Scholar

NRC. 2001. “NRC. 2001.” Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle 7:381.Search in Google Scholar

Nursoy, Huseyin, M. Gonzalez Ronquillo, A. P. Faciola, and G. A. Broderick. 2018. “Lactation Response to Soybean Meal and Rumen-Protected Methionine Supplementation of Corn Silage-Based Diets.” Journal of Dairy Science 101(3):2084–95.Search in Google Scholar

Oke, B. O., and S. C. Loerch. 1989. “The Effects of Dietary Level and Formaldehyde Treatment of Corn on Site and Extent of Starch Digestion in Sheep.” J. Anim. Sci. 67(Suppl. 1):538.Search in Google Scholar

Ordway, R. S., S. E. Boucher, Nancy L. Whitehouse, Charles G. Schwab, and B. K. Sloan. 2009. “Effects of Providing Two Forms of Supplemental Methionine to Periparturient Holstein Dairy Cows on Feed Intake and Lactational Performance.” Journal of Dairy Science 92(10):5154–66.Search in Google Scholar

Osorio, J. S., P. Ji, James K. Drackley, D. Luchini, and Juan J. Loor. 2013. “Supplemental Smartamine M or MetaSmart during the Transition Period Benefits Postpartal Cow Performance and Blood Neutrophil Function.” Journal of Dairy Science 96(10):6248–63.Search in Google Scholar

Patton, R. A. 2010. “Effect of Rumen-Protected Methionine on Feed Intake, Milk Production, True Milk Protein Concentration, and True Milk Protein Yield, and the Factors That Influence These Effects: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Dairy Science 93(5):2105–18.Search in Google Scholar

Pereira, A. B. D., D. C. Moura, N. L. Whitehouse, and A. F. Brito. 2020. “Production and Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Finely Ground Field Pea plus Soybean Meal or Canola Meal with or without Rumen-Protected Methionine Supplementation.” Journal of Dairy Science 103(4):3161–76.Search in Google Scholar

Pitta, D. W., N. Indugu, B. Vecchiarelli, M. Hennessy, M. Baldin, and K. J. Harvatine. 2020. “Effect of 2-Hydroxy-4-(Methylthio) Butanoate (HMTBa) Supplementation on Rumen Bacterial Populations in Dairy Cows When Exposed to Diets with Risk for Milk Fat Depression.” Journal of Dairy Science 103(3):2718–30.Search in Google Scholar

Puniya, Anil Kumar, Rameshwar Singh, and Devki Nandan Kamra. 2015. “Rumen Microbiology: From Evolution to Revolution.” Rumen Microbiology: From Evolution to Revolution 1–379.Search in Google Scholar

Rémond, D., L. Bernard, and C. Poncet. 2000. “Amino Acid Flux in Ruminal and Gastric Veins of Sheep: Effects of Ruminal and Omasal Injections of Free Amino Acids and Carnosine.” Journal of Animal Science 78(1):158–66.Search in Google Scholar

Ren, Hao, Hanxun Bai, Xiaodong Su, Jie Pang, Xiaoyong Li, Shengru Wu, Yangchun Cao, Chuanjiang Cai, and Junhu Yao. 2020. “Decreased Amylolytic Microbes of the Hindgut and Increased Blood Glucose Implied Improved Starch Utilization in the Small Intestine by Using Rumen-Protected Leucine in Dairy Calves.” Journal of Dairy Science.Search in Google Scholar

Reynolds, C. K., D. L. Harmon, and M. J. Cecava. 1994. “Absorption and Delivery of Nutrients for Milk Protein Synthesis by Portal-Drained Viscera.” Journal of Dairy Science 77(9):2787–2808.Search in Google Scholar

Robinson, P. H., N. Swanepoel, I. Shinzato, and S. O. Juchem. 2011. “Productive Responses of Lactating Dairy Cattle to Supplementing High Levels of Ruminally Protected Lysine Using a Rumen Protection Technology.” Animal Feed Science and Technology 168(1–2):30–41.Search in Google Scholar

Robinson, P. H., D. M. Veira, and M. Ivan. 1998. “Influence of Supplemental Protein Quality on Rumen Fermentation, Rumen Microbial Yield, Forestomach Digestion, and Intestinal Amino Acid Flow in Late Lactation Holstein Cows.” Canadian Journal of Animal Science 78(1):95–105.Search in Google Scholar

Santos, F. A. P., J. E. P. Santos, C. B. Theurer, and J. T. Huber. 1998. “Effects of Rumen-Undegradable Protein on Dairy Cow Performance: A 12-Year Literature Review.” Journal of Dairy Science 81(12):3182–3213.Search in Google Scholar

Saxton, Robert A., Kevin E. Knockenhauer, Rachel L. Wolfson, Lynne Chantranupong, Michael E. Pacold, Tim Wang, Thomas U. Schwartz, and David M. Sabatini. 2016. “Structural Basis for Leucine Sensing by the Sestrin2-MTORC1 Pathway.” Science 351(6268):53–58.Search in Google Scholar

Schelling, G. T., C. R. Richardson, R. E. Tucker, and G. E. Mitchell. 1973. “Lamb Responses to Dietary Methionine and Oxytetracycline.” P. 356 in JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. Vol. 37. AMER SOC ANIMAL SCIENCE PO BOX 7410, CHAMPAIGN, IL 61826-7410 USA.Search in Google Scholar

Schwab, C. G. 1994. “Optimizing Amino Acid Nutrition for Optimum Yields of Milk and Milk Protein.” Pp. 114–32 in Proceedings of the Southwest Nutrition and Management Conference.Search in Google Scholar

Schwab, Charles G. 1995. “Protected Proteins and Amino Acids for Ruminants.” Biotechnology in Animal Feeds and Animal Feeding 141.Search in Google Scholar

Schwab, Charles G., and Glen A. Broderick. 2017. “A 100-Year Review: Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition in Dairy Cows.” Journal of Dairy Science 100(12):10094–112.Search in Google Scholar

Schwab, Charles George, L. D. Satter, and A. B. Clay. 1976. “Response of Lactating Dairy Cows to Abomasal Infusion of Amino Acids.” Journal of Dairy Science 59(7):1254–70.Search in Google Scholar

Sevi, Agostino, L. Taibi, Marzia Albenzio, Antonio Muscio, and G. Annicchiarico. 2000. “Effect of Parity on Milk Yield, Composition, Somatic Cell Count, Renneting Parameters and Bacteria Counts of Comisana Ewes.” Small Ruminant Research 37(1–2):99–107.Search in Google Scholar

Shelke, S. K., S. S. Thakur, and S. M. Shete. 2012. “Protected Nutrients Technology and the Impact of Feeding Protected Nutrients to Dairy Animals: A Review.” Int J Dairy Sci 7:51–62.Search in Google Scholar

Soda, Kuniyasu. 2019. “Spermine and Gene Methylation: A Mechanism of Lifespan Extension Induced by Polyamine-Rich Diet.” Amino Acids 52(2):213–24.Search in Google Scholar

Sturmey, R. G., A. Reis, H. J. Leese, and T. G. McEvoy. 2009. “Role of Fatty Acids in Energy Provision during Oocyte Maturation and Early Embryo Development.” Reproduction in Domestic Animals 44:50–58.Search in Google Scholar

Sulu, N., K. Bjørnstad, D. Grønseth, and W. Velle. 1989. “Ruminal Degradation and Outflow of Amino Acids in Cows.” Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 36(1-10):55–63.Search in Google Scholar

Sun, Hua, Xiao-ming ZHANG, Xin WANG, Yang LUO, Xiao-hua BI, Huan-xu LI, Xueshan ZHANG, and Shu-fan ZHAO. 2010. “Effect of Supplementing Rumen Protected Methionine on Milk Performance of Dairy Cow and Economic Benefits Analysis.” China Dairy Cattle 11.Search in Google Scholar

Swanepoel, N., P. H. Robinson, and L. J. Erasmus. 2010. “Amino Acid Needs of Lactating Dairy Cows: Impact of Feeding Lysine in a Ruminally Protected Form on Productivity of Lactating Dairy Cows.” Animal Feed Science and Technology 157(1–2):79–94.Search in Google Scholar

Swanepoel, Nadia, P. H. Robinson, and Lourens Jacobus Erasmus. 2015. “Effects of Ruminally Protected Methionine and/or Phenylalanine on Performance of High Producing Holstein Cows Fed Rations with Very High Levels of Canola Meal.” Animal Feed Science and Technology 205:10–22.Search in Google Scholar

Tedeschi, L. O., T. R. Callaway, J. P. Muir, and R. C. Anderson. 2011. “Potential Environmental Benefits of Feed Additives and Other Strategies for Ruminant Production.” Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 40:291–309.Search in Google Scholar

Toledo, Mateus Z., Giovanni M. Baez, Alvaro Garcia-Guerra, Nelson E. Lobos, Jerry N. Guenther, Eduardo Trevisol, Daniel Luchini, Randy D. Shaver, and Milo C. Wiltbank. 2017. “Effect of Feeding Rumen-Protected Methionine on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows.” PLoS One 12(12):e0189117.Search in Google Scholar

Velle, W., T. I. Kanui, A. Aulie, and Ø. V. Sjaastad. 1998. “Ruminal Escape and Apparent Degradation of Amino Acids Administered Intraruminally in Mixtures to Cows.” Journal of Dairy Science 81(12):3231–38.Search in Google Scholar

Volden, Harald, Weiert Velle, Øystein V. Sjaastad, Arnfinn Aulie, and Odd Magne Harstad. 2001. “Concentrations and Flow of Free Amino Acids in Ruminal and Duodenal Liquid of Dairy Cows in Relation to Feed Composition, Time of Feeding and Level of Feed Intake.” Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Science 51(1):35–45.Search in Google Scholar

Vudmaska, I., I. Petrukh, S. Sachko, V. Vlizlo, Y. Kosenko, M. Kozak, and A. Petruk. 2021. “Using Hop Cones, Vitamin E, Methionine, Choline and Carnitine for Treatment of Subclinical Ketosis in Transition Dairy Cows.” Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci 9(1):55–62.Search in Google Scholar

van Vuuren, Ad M., Carlos Pineiro, Klaas W. van der Hoek, and Oene Oenema. 2015. “Economics of Low Nitrogen Feeding Strategies.” Pp. 35–51 in Costs of ammonia abatement and the climate co-benefits. Springer.Search in Google Scholar

Vyas, D., and R. A. Erdman. 2009. “Meta-Analysis of Milk Protein Yield Responses to Lysine and Methionine Supplementation.” Journal of Dairy Science 92(10):5011–18.Search in Google Scholar

Wallace, R. John, and Andrew Chesson. 2008. Biotechnology in Animal Feeds and Animal Feeding. John Wiley & Sons.Search in Google Scholar

Waterman, Richard C., Valerie L. Ujazdowski, and Mark K. Petersen. 2012. “Effects of Rumen-Protected Methionine on Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations during a Period of Weight Loss for Late Gestating Beef Heifers.” Amino Acids 43(5):2165–77.Search in Google Scholar

Webb Jr, K. E., D. B. Dirienzo, and J. C. Matthews. 1993. “Recent Developments in Gastrointestinal Absorption and Tissue Utilization of Peptides: A Review.” Journal of Dairy Science 76(1):351–61.Search in Google Scholar

Williams, L. R., F. A. Martz, and E. S. Hilderbrand. 1970. “Feeding Encapsulated Methionine Supplement to Lactating Cows.” Journal of Dairy Science 53(12):1709–13.Search in Google Scholar

Wrenzycki, Christine, Doris Herrmann, Andrea Lucas-Hahn, Claudia Gebert, Karin Korsawe, Erika Lemme, Joseph W. Carnwath, and Heiner Niemann. 2005. “Epigenetic Reprogramming throughout Preimplantation Development and Consequences for Assisted Reproductive Technologies.” Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews 75(1):1–9.Search in Google Scholar

Yoder, P. S., X. Huang, I. A. Teixeira, J. P. Cant, and M. D. Hanigan. 2020. “Effects of Jugular Infused Methionine, Lysine, and Histidine as a Group or Leucine and Isoleucine as a Group on Production and Metabolism in Lactating Dairy Cows.” Journal of Dairy Science 103(3):2387–2404.Search in Google Scholar

Yu, Z. P., M. Xu, F. Wang, K. Liu, J. H. Yao, Z. Wu, D. K. Qin, and F. F. Sun. 2014. “Effect of Duodenal Infusion of Leucine and Phenylalanine on Intestinal Enzyme Activities and Starch Digestibility in Goats.” Livestock Science 162:134–40.Search in Google Scholar

Zang, Y., L. H. P. Silva, M. Ghelichkhan, M. Miura, N. L. Whitehouse, M. L. Chizzotti, and A. F. Brito. 2019. “Incremental Amounts of Rumen-Protected Histidine Increase Plasma and Muscle Histidine Concentrations and Milk Protein Yield in Dairy Cows Fed a Metabolizable Protein-Deficient Diet.” Journal of Dairy Science 102(5):4138–54.Search in Google Scholar

Zhao, K., W. Liu, X. Y. Lin, Z. Y. Hu, Z. G. Yan, Y. Wang, K. R. Shi, G. M. Liu, and Z. H. Wang. 2019. “Effects of Rumen-Protected Methionine and Other Essential Amino Acid Supplementation on Milk and Milk Component Yields in Lactating Holstein Cows.” Journal of Dairy Science 102(9):7936–47.Search in Google Scholar

Zhou, Z., M. Vailati-Riboni, Erminio Trevisi, James K. Drackley, D. N. Luchini, and Juan J. Loor. 2016. “Better Postpartal Performance in Dairy Cows Supplemented with Rumen-Protected Methionine Compared with Choline during the Peripartal Period.” Journal of Dairy Science 99(11):8716–32.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo