1. bookAHEAD OF PRINT
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

The effect of Silybum marianum seed, Thymus vulgaris, and Rosmarinus officinalis powders in alleviating the risks of aflatoxin B1 in young broiler chicks

Published Online: 29 May 2021
Page range: -
Received: 04 Sep 2020
Accepted: 15 Apr 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

This investigation was aimed to evaluate the effects of Silybum marianum seed, Thymus vulgaris, and Rosmarinus officinalis powders and their combination in alleviating the risks of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in young broiler chicks. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were allocated to 6 experimental groups from d 1 to 21. The experimental dietary groups included: Negative control (NC) received the basal diet, Positive control (PC) containing 2 mg AFB1/kg diet; Positive control + 10 g/kg diet of Silybum marianum seed (SMS); Positive control + 10 g/kg diet of Thymus vulgaris (TV); Positive control + 5 g/kg diet of Rosmarinus officinalis (RO); Positive control + 10 g/kg diet of SMS + 10 g/kg diet of TV + 5 g/kg diet of RO as a blend of herbs (BH). There was no difference between feed intake and body weight gain among the experimental groups (P>0.05). In contrast, the feed conversion rate (FCR) in NC and SMS groups was lower than other groups (P<0.05). Calcium levels and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were lower in serum samples, but the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were higher in PC chickens (P<0.05). Increase in the thigh muscle malondialdehyde (MDA) in chickens fed AFB1 was significantly reduced in the NC, SMS, and BH chickens (P<0.05). Chickens of NC and SMS groups showed the highest response to respiratory burst of heterophile (NBT assay) and lymphocyte proliferation assays (MTT assay) (P<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of studied herbs, especially SMS, to the AFB1 contaminated diet could have a protective effect against aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens.

Keywords

Amiri Dumari M., Sarir H., Fani Makki O., Afzali N. (2014). Effect of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) on biochemical parameters and immunity of broiler chicks fed Aflatoxin B1 after three weeks. Iran J. Toxicol., 26: 1098-1103.Search in Google Scholar

AOAC. (2000). Aflatoxins in corn, almonds, Brazil nuts, peanuts, and pistachio nuts, multifunctional column (Mycosep) Method. Natural toxins-chapter 49. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international, 17th edition, volume II, AOAC international, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Baer-Dubowska W., Szaefer H., Krajka-Kuzniak V. (1998). Inhibition of murine hepatic cychrome P450 activities by natural and synthetic phenolic compounds. Xenobiotica, 28: 735-743.Search in Google Scholar

Bailey C.A., Latimer G.W., Barr A.C., Wigle W.L., Haq A.U., Balthrop J.E., Kubena L.F. (2006). Efficacy of montmorillonite clay (NovaSil PLUS) for protecting full-term broilers from aflatoxicosis. J. Appl. Poultry Res., 15: 198–206.Search in Google Scholar

Bbosa G.S., Kitya D., Lubega A., Ogwal-Okeng J., Anokbonggo W.W., Kyegombe D.B. (2013). Review of the biological and health effects of aflatoxins on body organs and body systems. Aflatoxins recent advances and future prospects., 12: 239-265.Search in Google Scholar

Benzie I.F.F., Strain J.J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem. 239: 70-76.Search in Google Scholar

Bollineni R.C., Guldvik I.J., Grönberg H., Wiklund F., Mills I.G., Thiede B. (2015). A difrential protein solubility approach for the depletion of highly abundant proteins in plasma using ammonium sulfate. Analyst, 140 (24): 8109-8117.Search in Google Scholar

Botsoglou N.A., Fletouris D.J., Papageorgiou G.E., Vassilopoulos V.N., Mantis A.J., Trakatellis A.G. (1994). Rapid, sensitive, and specific thiobarbituric acid method for measuring lipid peroxidation in animal tissue, food, and feedstuff samples. J. Agric. Food Chem., 42: 1931–1937.Search in Google Scholar

Brooks R.L., Bounous D.I., Andreasen C.B. (1996). Functional comparison of avian heterophils with human and canine neutrophils. Comp Hematol. Int., 6 (3): 153-159.Search in Google Scholar

Cao G., Sofic E., Prior R.L. (1997). Antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids: structure activity relationships. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 22 (5): 749-760.Search in Google Scholar

Chand N., Din Muhammad F., Durrani R., Subhan Qureshi M., Shahibzada S. Ullah. (2011). Protective effect of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) against aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 24 (7): 1111-1118.Search in Google Scholar

Chen X., Horn N., Applegate T.J. (2014). Efficiency of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the adverse effects of graded levels of aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci., 93: 2037–2047.Search in Google Scholar

Choi H.S., Kim J.W., Cha Y.N., Kim C. (2006). A quantitative nitroblue tetrazolium assay for determining intracellular superoxide anion production in phagocytic cells. J. Immunoass. Imunochem., 27 (1): 31-44.Search in Google Scholar

Corrier D.E. (1991). Mycotoxicosis: mechanisms of immunosuppression. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 30 (1): 73-87.Search in Google Scholar

Da Silva Cardoso V., Vermelho A.B., Ribeiro De Lima C.A., De Oliveira G.M., De Lima M.E.F., Da Silva L.H.P., Direito G.M., Miranda Danelli M.D.G. (2016). Antigenotoxic effect of piperine in broiler chickens intoxicated with aflatoxin B1. Toxins., 8 (11): 316.Search in Google Scholar

Ditta Y.A., Mahad S., Bacha U. (2019). Aflatoxins: Their toxic effect on poultry and recent advances in their treatment. In: P.B., Njobeh, F., Stepman, (Editors). Mycotoxins: impact and management strategies. InTech: Rijeka, Croatia, 127 pp.Search in Google Scholar

El-Nekeety A.A., Mohamed S.R., Hathout A.S., Hassan N.S., Aly S.E., Abdel-Wahhab M.A. (2011). Antioxidant properties of Thymus vulgaris oil against aflatoxin-induce oxidative stress in male rats. Toxicon., 57: 984-991.Search in Google Scholar

El-Nezami H., Kankaanpaa P., Salminen S., Ahokas J. (1998). Ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind a common food carcinogen, aflatoxin B1. Food Chem. Toxicol., 36: 321-326.Search in Google Scholar

Fraschini F., Demartini G., Esposti D. (2002). Pharmacology of silymarin. Clin. Drug Investig., 22: 51–65.Search in Google Scholar

Glahn R.P., Beers K.W., Bottje W.G., Wideman R.F., Huff W.E., Thomas W. (1991). Aflatoxicosis alters avian renal function, calcium, and vitamin D metabolism. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 34: 319-321.Search in Google Scholar

Hamzawy A., El-Denshary E.S.M., Hasan N.S., Manaa F., Abdel-Wahhab M.A. (2012). Antioxidant and hepatorenoprotective effects of Thyme vulgaris extract in rats during aflatoxicosis. Int. J. Pharmacol., 2: 106-117.Search in Google Scholar

Hussain Z., Khan M.Z., Khan A., Javed I., Saleemi M.K., Mahmood S., Asi M.R. (2010). Residues of aflatoxin B1 in broiler meat: Effect of age and dietary aflatoxin B1 levels. Food Chem, Toxicol., 48: 3304–3307.Search in Google Scholar

Loi M., Paciolla C., Logrieco A.F., Mulè G. (2020). Plant bioactive compounds in pre-and postharvest management for aflatoxins reduction. Front. Microbiol., 11: 243-259.Search in Google Scholar

Malekinezhad P., Ellestad L.E., Afzali N., Farhangfar S.H., Omidi A., Mohammadi A. (2020). Evaluation of berberine efficacy in reducing the effects of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A added to male broiler rations. Poult. Sci., 100: 797-809.Search in Google Scholar

Manafi M., Hedayati M. Yari, M. (2014 b). Aflatoxicosis and herbal detoxification: the effectiveness of thyme essence on performance parameters and antibody titers of commercial broilers fed aflatoxin B1. Res. Zool., 4: 43-50.Search in Google Scholar

Manafi M., Hedayati M., Yari M. (2014 a). Application of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essence on chicks fed aflatoxin B1: impacts on internal organ weights, biochemical traits and mortality. Zoology, 1: 13-19.Search in Google Scholar

Mosmann T. (1983). Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J. Immunol. Methods, 65: 55-63.Search in Google Scholar

Naghdi Badi H., Yazdani D., Sajad Manazari F. (2004). Effective of spacing and harvesting time on herbage yield and quality/quantity of oil in thyme, Thymus vulgaris L. Ind. Crops Prod., 19 (3): 231-236.Search in Google Scholar

Nakavuma J.L., Kirabo A., Bogere P., Nabulime M.M., Kaaya A.N., Gnonlonfin B., (2020). Awareness of mycotoxins and occurrence of aflatoxins in poultry feeds and feed ingredients in selected regions of Uganda. Int. J. Food Contam., 7: 1-10.Search in Google Scholar

Oguz H., Bahcivan E., Erdogan T. (2018). Detoxification of aflatoxin in poultry feed: An update. Eurasian J. Vet. Sci., 27 (1): 1–12.Search in Google Scholar

Ozer J., Ratner M., Shaw M., Bailey W., Schomaker S. (2008). The current state of serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Toxicol., 245: 194-205.Search in Google Scholar

Palanivel M.G., Rajkapoor B., Kumar R.S., Einstein J.W., Kumar E.P., Kumar M.R., Kavitha K., Kumar M.P., Jayakar B. (2008). Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Pisonia aculeata L. against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. Scientia Pharma., 76: 203-216.Search in Google Scholar

Pepping J. (1999). Milk thistle: Silybum marianum. Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm., 56: 1195-1197.Search in Google Scholar

Raei H., Karimi Torshizi M.A., Sharafi M., Ahmadi H. (2021). Improving seminal quality and reproductive performance in male broiler breeder by supplementation of camphor. Theriogenology, 166: 1-8.Search in Google Scholar

Rasouli-Hiq A., Baghezadeh Kasmani F., Mehri M., Karimi Torshizi M.A. (2016). Nigella sativa (black cumin seed) as a biological detoxifier in diet contaminated with aflatoxin B1. J. Anim. Physiol. An. N., 101: 77-86.Search in Google Scholar

Rotimi O.A., Rotimi S.O., Duru C.U., Ebebeinwe O.J., Abiodun A.O., Oyeniyi B.O., Faduyile F.A. (2017). Acute aflatoxin B1-induced hepatotoxicity alters gene expression and disrupts lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in rats. Toxicol. Rep., 4: 408–414.Search in Google Scholar

Sahoo P.K., Mukherjee S.C. (2001). Immunosuppressive effects of aflatoxin B1 in Indian major carp (Labeo rohita). Comp Immunol. Microb., 24 (3): 143-149.Search in Google Scholar

SAS. Institute. (2012). SAS® User’s Guide: Statistics. Version & Edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Shabani A., Dastar B., Hassani S., Khomeiri M., Shabanpour B. (2016). Decreasing the effects of aflatoxins on color and oxidative stability of broiler meats using nanozeolite. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. 18 (1): 109-121.Search in Google Scholar

Shotwell O.L., Hesseltine C., Stubblefield R., Sorenson W. (1966). Production of aflatoxin on rice. Appl. Microbiol., 14: 425–428.Search in Google Scholar

Shushtari N., Abtahi Froushani S.M. (2017). Caffeine augments the Instruction of anti-inflammatory macrophages by the conditioned medium of mesenchymal stem cells. Cell J., 19 (3): 415-424.Search in Google Scholar

Solcan C., Gogu M., Floristean V., Oprisan B., Solcan G. (2013). The hepatoprotective effect of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) berries on induced aflatoxin B1 poisoning in chickens. Poult. Sci., 92: 966–974.Search in Google Scholar

Tedesco D., Steidler S., Galletti S., Taneni M., Sonzogni O., Ravarotto L. (2004). Efficacy of silymarin-phospholipid complex in reducing the toxicity of aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci., 83: 1839-1843.Search in Google Scholar

Tsukamoto H., Rippe R., Niemelä O., Lin M. (1995). Roles of oxidative stress in activation of Kupffer and Ito cells in liver fibrogenesis. J. Gastroen. Hepatol., 10: 50-53.Search in Google Scholar

Zhao J., Shirley R.B., Dibner JD., Uraizee F., Officer M., Kitchell M., Vazquez-Anon M., Knight C.D. (2010). Comparison of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate and yeast cell wall on counteracting aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci., 89: 2147-2156.Search in Google Scholar

Zimmermann C.E.P., Machado A.K., Cadoná F.C., Jaques J.A.S., Schlemmer K.B., Lautert C., Cruz I.B.M., Zanette R.A., Leal D.B.R., Santurio J.M. (2014). In-Vitro cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 to broiler lymphocytes of broiler chickens. Braz. J. Poultry Sci., 16 (3): 307-312.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo