Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

Effect of breed and diet on carcass parameters and meat quality of spent hens

Published Online: 29 May 2021
Page range: -
Received: 31 Dec 2020
Accepted: 06 May 2021
Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

Two spent hen breeds (Mos and Isa Brown) fed with three different diets [commercial feeding (CF); corn, pea, and triticale (CPT); and corn and wheat (CW)] were studied to assess their laying performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality parameters (breast and drumstick). A total of 48 hens reared in a traditional free-range system were used. Birds were slaughtered at 72 weeks of age after the moulting in an accredited abattoir, and measurements (for each bird) of carcass and meat started at 24h post-mortem. The results demonstrated a breed and diet effect (P < 0.05) on laying performance, carcass, and meat quality. The Mos breed showed lower laying performance, higher live weight (P < 0.001), carcass weight (P < 0.001), dressing percentage (P < 0.001), and carcass fat (P < 0.001) than Isa Brown. The breed also affected physicochemical parameters of drumstick and breast (P < 0.05). Concerning the diet effect, spent hens fed with commercial feeding shown heavier live weight (P <0.01) and carcass weight (P <0.01). Diet significantly affected most of meat quality parameters, being CPT the formulation that most affected (P < 0.05) drumstick composition, while in the breast was CF (P <0.001). Significant (P ≤ 0.005) effect in breast colour, cooking loss and hardness were observed in animals fed with alternative diets to CF. Regarding nutritional quality, no breed or diet effect (P < 0.05) was observed in MUFAs, PUFAs and n-6 contents of meat. Overall, both breeds showed a high protein and low-fat content in the breast, showing these hens as an opportunity for the development of meat products as well as an economic purpose for spent hens that reach the end of their productive lives.


AOCS (2005). AOCS Official Procedure Am5-04. Rapid determination of oil/fat utilizing high temperature solvent extraction. In Sampling and analysis of vegetable oil source materials AOCS. American Oil Chemists Society.Search in Google Scholar

Berger Q., Guettier E., Urvoix S., Bernard J., Ganier P., Chahnamian M., Mignon-Grasteau S. (2021). The kinetics of growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency reveal a good capacity of adaptation of slow- and rapid-growing broilers to alternative diets. Poultry Sci., 100: 101010.Search in Google Scholar

Bligh E.G., Dyer W.J. (1959). A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian J. Biochem. Physiol., 37: 911–917.Search in Google Scholar

Cassandro M., De Marchi M., Penasa M., Rizzi C. (2015). Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits of the padovana chicken breed, a commercial line, and their cross. It. J. Anim. Sci., 14: 3848.Search in Google Scholar

Chauhan S.S., England E.M. (2018). Postmortem glycolysis and glycogenolysis: insights from species comparisons. Elsevier Ltd., Meat Sci., 144: 118–126.Search in Google Scholar

Choe J., Kim H.-Y. (2020). Physicochemical characteristics of breast and thigh meats from old broiler breeder hen and old laying hen and their effects on quality properties of pressed ham. Poultry Sci., 99: 2230–2235.Search in Google Scholar

Chueachuaychoo A., Wattanachant S., Benjakul S. (2011). Quality characteristics of raw and cooked spent hen Pectoralis major muscles during chilled storage: Effect of salt and phosphate. Int. Food Res. J., 18: 601–613.Search in Google Scholar

CIE. (1976). Colorimetry: Official recommendations of the International Commission on Illumination, CIE No. 15 E-1.3.1. International Commission on Illumination.Search in Google Scholar

Díaz, O., Rodríguez, L., Torres, A., & Cobos, Á. (2013). Composition and physico-chemical properties of meat from capons fed cereals. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 12(11), 1953–1960.Search in Google Scholar

FAO. (2010). Fat and fatty acid requirements for adults. In Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition (Vol. 91, pp. 55–62).Search in Google Scholar

FAO. (2015). The second report on the state of the world’s animal genetic resources for food and agriculture (pp. 1–606). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Search in Google Scholar

FAO. (2020). FAOSTAT statistical database. Livestock primary.Search in Google Scholar

Franco, D., Rois, D., Vázquez, J. A., & Lorenzo, J. M. (2012a). Comparison of growth performance, carcass components, and meat quality between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line slaughtered at 10 months. Poultry Science, 91(5), 1227–1239.Search in Google Scholar

Franco, D., Rois, D., Vázquez, J. A., Purriños, L., González, R., & Lorenzo, J. M. (2012b). Breed effect between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line and finishing feed effect of commercial fodder or corn. Poultry Science, 91(2), 487–498.Search in Google Scholar

Franco, D., Rois, D., Vázquez, J. A., & Lorenzo, J. M. (2013). Carcass morphology and meat quality from roosters slaughtered at eight months affected by genotype and finishing feeding. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 11(2), 382–393.Search in Google Scholar

Franco, Daniel, Pateiro, M., Rois, D., Vázquez, J. A., & Lorenzo, J. M. (2016). Effects of Caponization on Growth Performance, Carcass and Meat Quality of Mos Breed Capons Reared in Free-Range Production System. Annals of Animal Science, 16(3), 909–929.Search in Google Scholar

Franco, Daniel, Rois, D., Arias, A., Justo, J. R., Marti-Quijal, F. J., Khubber, S., Barba, F. J., López-Pedrouso, M., & Lorenzo, J. M. (2020). Effect of breed and diet type on the freshness and quality of the eggs: A comparison between MOS (Indigenous Galician breed) and Isa brown hens. Foods, 9(3).Search in Google Scholar

Freeman, S. R., Poore, M. H., Middleton, T. F., & Ferket, P. R. (2009). Alternative methods for disposal of spent laying hens: Evaluation of the efficacy of grinding, mechanical deboning, and of keratinase in the rendering process. Bioresource Technology, 100(19), 4515–4520.Search in Google Scholar

Gálvez, F., Domínguez, R., Maggiolino, A., Pateiro, M., Carballo, J., De Palo, P., Barba, F. J., & Lorenzo, J. M. (2020). Meat Quality of Commercial Chickens Reared in Different Production Systems: Industrial, Range and Organic. Annals of Animal Science, 20(1), 263–285.Search in Google Scholar

Husak, R. L., Sebranek, J. G., & Bregendahl, K. (2008). A Survey of Commercially Available Broilers Marketed as Organic, Free-Range, and Conventional Broilers for Cooked Meat Yields, Meat Composition, and Relative Value1. Poultry Science, 87(11), 2367–2376.Search in Google Scholar

ISO (International Organization for Standardization). (1978). Determination of nitrogen content, ISO 937:1978 standard. In: International standards meat and meat products. International Organization for Standardization, Genève, Switzerland.Search in Google Scholar

ISO (International Organization for Standardization). (1997). Determination of moisture content, ISO 1442:1997 standard. In: International standards meat and meat products. International Organization for Standardization, Genève, Switzerland.Search in Google Scholar

ISO (International Organization for Standardization). (1998). Determination of ash content, ISO 936:1998 standard. In: International standards meat and meat products. International Organization for Standardization, Genève, Switzerland.Search in Google Scholar

Jaturasitha, S., Srikanchai, T., Kreuzer, M., & Wicke, M. (2008). Differences in Carcass and Meat Characteristics Between Chicken Indigenous to Northern Thailand (Black-Boned and Thai Native) and Imported Extensive Breeds (Bresse and Rhode Island Red). Poultry Science, 87, 160–169.Search in Google Scholar

Jensen, J. F. (1984). Method of dissection of broiler carcasses and description of parts. World Poultry Science Association.Search in Google Scholar

Jin, S. K., Kim, I. S., Jung, H. J., Kim, D. H., Choi, Y. J., & Hur, S. J. (2007). The Development of Sausage Including Meat from Spent Laying Hen Surimi. Poultry Science, 86(12), 2676–2684.Search in Google Scholar

Jin, S. K., Hur, I. C., Jeong, J. Y., Choi, Y. J., Choi, B. D., Kim, B. G., & Hur, S. J. (2011). The development of imitation crab sticks by substituting spent laying hen meat for Alaska pollack. Poultry Science, 90(8), 1799–1808.Search in Google Scholar

Khwunsiri, C., Saowakon, W., & Siripongvutikorn, S. (2007). Chemical and physical properites of raw and cooked spent hen, broiler and Thai indigenous chiciken muscles in mixed herbs acidified soup (Tom Yum). In Journal of Food Technology (Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 180–186).Search in Google Scholar

Kim, H.-J., Kim, H.-J., Jeon, J., Nam, K.-C., Shim, K.-S., Jung, J.-H., Kim, K. S., Choi, Y., Kim, S.-H., & Jang, A. (2020). Comparison of the quality characteristics of chicken breast meat from conventional and animal welfare farms under refrigerated storage. Poultry Science.Search in Google Scholar

Limpisophon, K., E-tun, S., Koeipudsa, C., Charoensuk, D., & Malila, Y. (2019). Characterization of Breast Meat Collected from Spent Lohmann Brown Layers in Comparison to Commercial Ross Broilers. In Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science (Vol. 21). scielo.Search in Google Scholar

MAPA. (2020). Raza aviar Galiña de Mos. Ministerio de Agricultura Pesca y Alimentación.Search in Google Scholar

Mir, N. A., Rafiq, A., Kumar, F., Singh, V., & Shukla, V. (2017). Determinants of broiler chicken meat quality and factors affecting them: a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 54(10), 2997–3009.Search in Google Scholar

Mueller, S., Kreuzer, M., Siegrist, M., Mannale, K., Messikommer, R. E., & Gangnat, I. D. M. (2018). Carcass and meat quality of dual-purpose chickens (Lohmann Dual, Belgian Malines, Schweizerhuhn) in comparison to broiler and layer chicken types. Poultry Science, 97(9), 3325–3336.Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen Van, D.; Moula, N.; Moyse, E.; Do Duc, L.; Vu Dinh, T.; Farnir, F. Productive Performance and Egg and Meat Quality of Two Indigenous Poultry Breeds in Vietnam, Ho and Dong Tao, Fed on Commercial Feed. Animals 2020, 10, 408.Search in Google Scholar

OECD. (2020). Meat consumption. Agricultural Output. Statistics.Search in Google Scholar

OJEU. (2008). Commission Regulation (EC) No 543/2008 laying down detailed rules for the application of Council Regulation (EC) No 1234/2007 as regards the marketing standards for poultry meat. Official Journal of the European Union, L157, 46–87.Search in Google Scholar

Pateiro, M., Rois, D., Lorenzo, J. M., Vazquez, J. A., & Franco, D. (2018). Effect of breed and finishing diet on growth performance, carcass and meat quality characteristics of Mos young hens. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 16(1), e0402.Search in Google Scholar

Polizer Rocha, Y. J., Lorenzo, J. M., Barros, J. C., Baldin, J. C., & Trindade, M. A. (2019). Effect of chicken meat replacement by spent laying hen meat on physicochemical properties and sensorial characteristics of fresh sausage. British Poultry Science, 60(2), 139–145.Search in Google Scholar

Rizzi, C., Marangon, A., & Chiericato, G. M. (2007). Effect of Genotype on Slaughtering Performance and Meat Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Organic Laying Hens. Poultry Science, 86(1), 128–135.Search in Google Scholar

Rois, D., Rivero, C. J., Fernández, M., Justo, J. R., López, C., Lorenzo, J. M., Lama, J. J., García-Fontán, M. C., Franco, D., Arias, A., Feijóo, J., & Adán, S. (2011). Crecimiento de pollos mos en diferentes estaciones del año: Comparación con una estirpe industrial. Archivos de Zootecnia, 60(231), 329–332.Search in Google Scholar

Ruhnke, I., Normant, C., Campbell, D. L. M., Iqbal, Z., Lee, C., Hinch, G. N., & Roberts, J. (2018). Impact of on-range choice feeding with black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) on flock performance, egg quality, and range use of free-range laying hens. Animal Nutrition, 4(4), 452–460.Search in Google Scholar

Safder, M., Temelli, F., & Ullah, A. (2019). Extraction, optimization, and characterization of lipids from spent hens: An unexploited sustainable bioresource. Journal of Cleaner Production, 206, 622–630.Search in Google Scholar

Sales, J. (2014). Effects of access to pasture on performance, carcass composition, and meat quality in broilers: A meta-analysis1. Poultry Science, 93(6), 1523–1533.Search in Google Scholar

Semwogerere, F, Neethling, J., Muchenje, V., & Hoffman, L. C. (2018). Effects of production systems on the carcass and meat quality characteristics of spent laying hens. Poultry Science, 97(6), 1990–1997.Search in Google Scholar

Semwogerere, Farouk, Neethling, J., Muchenje, V., & Hoffman, L. C. (2019). Meat quality, fatty acid profile, and sensory attributes of spent laying hens fed expeller press canola meal or a conventional diet. Poultry Science, 98(9), 3557–3570.Search in Google Scholar

Świątkiewicz, S., Arczewska-Włosek, A., Krawczyk, J., Szczurek, W., Puchała, M., & Józefiak, D. (2018). Effect of selected feed additives on egg performance and eggshell quality in laying hens fed a diet with standard or decreased calcium content. Annals of Animal Science, 18(1), 167–183.Search in Google Scholar

Świątkiewicz, S., Arczewska-Włosek, A., Szczurek, W., Calik, J., Bederska-ŁOjewska, D., Orczewska-Dudek, S., Muszyński, S., Tomaszewska, E., & Józefiak, D. (2020). Algal Oil as Source of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Laying Hens Nutrition: Effect on Egg Performance, Egg Quality Indices and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk Lipids. Annals of Animal Science, 20(3), 961–973.Search in Google Scholar

USDA. (2019). Chicken from farm to table. U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service.Search in Google Scholar

Van, D. N., Moula, N., Moyse, E., Duc, L. Do, Dinh, T. V., & Farnir, F. (2020). Productive performance and egg and meat quality of two indigenous poultry breeds in vietnam, ho and dong tao, fed on commercial feed. Animals, 10(3).Search in Google Scholar

Wang, H., Wu, J., & Betti, M. (2013). Chemical, rheological and surface morphologic characterisation of spent hen proteins extracted by pH-shift processing with or without the presence of cryoprotectants. Food Chemistry, 139(1–4), 710–719.Search in Google Scholar

Wattanachant, S., Benjakul, S., & Ledward, D. A. (2004). Composition, color, and texture of thai indigenous and broiler chicken muscles. Poultry Science, 83(1), 123–128.Search in Google Scholar

Yu, W., Field, C. J., & Wu, J. (2018). Purification and identification of anti-inflammatory peptides from spent hen muscle proteins hydrolysate. Food Chemistry, 253, 101–107.Search in Google Scholar

Zotte, A. D., Ricci, R., Cullere, M., Serva, L., Tenti, S., & Marchesini, G. (2020). Research Note: Effect of chicken genotype and white striping–wooden breast condition on breast meat proximate composition and amino acid profile. Poultry Science.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo