1. bookAHEAD OF PRINT
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Evaluation of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil supplementation on growth performance, digestive enzymes, intestinal histomorphology and gut microbiota of Black Sea salmon, Salmo labrax

Published Online: 17 Sep 2021
Page range: -
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

This study aimed to determine the effect of dietary oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil (EO) on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, intestinal histomorphology, and intestinal microbiota of the Black Sea salmon juvenile (Salmo labrax). Fish fed with diets have at different levels oregano EO such as 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg−1. For this purpose, a total of 675 fish were distributed randomly in triplicate into 5 experiment groups in 15 experiment tanks. Fish with average initial weights of 3.52±0.01g were fed by hand 3% level of live weight for 90 days. At the end of the study, feeding with oregano EO supplementation didn’t significantly affected the growth performance of fish. Except for pepsin, there were no significant differences in the activity of digestive enzymes among the control and oregano EO groups. Besides, oregano EO at the doses of 50 or 400 mg kg−1 may have the potential to increase the surface area required for digestion by increasing intestinal villi length. Moreover, all doses of oregano EO showed antimicrobial properties by decreasing the count of lactic acid bacteria in the intestine. Supplementation with 100 and 200 mg kg−1 oregano EO in diets decreased the total coliform, Escherichia coli and lactic acid bacteria counts when compared to the control group. The results showed that oregano EO may affect positively digestion and absorption without adverse effects on the growth performance of Black Sea salmon juvenile.

Keywords

Abdel-Latif H.M.R., Abdel-Tawwab M, Khafaga AF., Dawood M.A.O. (2020 a). Dietary oregano essential oil improved the growth performance via enhancing the intestinal morphometry and hepato-renal functions of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings. Aquaculture, 526: 735432.Search in Google Scholar

Abdel-Latif H.M., Abdel-Tawwab M., Khafaga A.F., Dawood M.A. (2020 b). Dietary origanum essential oil improved antioxidative status, immune-related genes, and resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol., 104: 1–7.Search in Google Scholar

Abd El-Naby A.S., Al-Sagheer A.A., Negm S.S., Naiel M.A.E. (2019). Dietary combination of chitosan nanoparticle and thymol affects feed utilization, digestive enzymes, antioxidant status, and intestinal morphology of Oreochromis niloticus, Aquaculture, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734577.Search in Google Scholar

Abo-State H.A., El-Monairy M.M., Hammouda Y.A., Elgendy M.Y. (2017). Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on the growth performance and susceptibility of Oreochromis niloticus to Aeromonas hydrophila. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 12: 141–148.Search in Google Scholar

Ahmad M.H., El-Gamal R.M., Hazaa M.M., Hassan S.M., El Araby D.A. (2009). The use of Origanium vulgare extract in practical diets as a growth and immunity promoter for nile tilapia, Oreochromıs niloticus (l.) Fingerlinges challenged with pathogenic. Egypt. J. Experıim. Biol. (Zoology), 5: 457–463.Search in Google Scholar

Ahmadifar E., Falahatkar B., Akrami R. (2011). Effects of dietary thymol-carvacrol on growth performance, hematological parameters and tissue composition of juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. J. Appl. Ichthyol., 27: 1057–1060.Search in Google Scholar

Ahmadifar E., Yousefi M., Karimi M., Fadaei Raieni R., Dadar M., Yilmaz S., Abdel-Latif H. M. (2020). Benefits of dietary polyphenols and polyphenol-rich additives to aquatic animal health: an overview. Rev. Fish. Sci. Aquacult., 1–34.Search in Google Scholar

Al-Sagheer A.A., Mahmoud H.K., Reda F.M., Mahgoub S.A., Ayyat M.S. (2017). Supplementation of diets for Oreochromis niloticus with essential oil extracts from lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) and effects on growth, intestinal microbiota, antioxidant and immune activities. Aquacult. Nutrit., 24: 1006–1014.Search in Google Scholar

Amer S.A., Metwally A.E., Ahmed S.A.A. (2018). The influence of dietary supplementation of cinnamaldehyde and thymol on the growth performance, immunity and antioxidant status of monosex Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus). Egypt. J. Aquat. Res., 44: 251–256.Search in Google Scholar

Amhamed I.D., Mohamed G.A., Almabrok A.A., Altief T.A.S., Bilen S. (2018). Efficacy of dietary Chenopodium album extract on some health parameters, digestive enzymes and growth performance in juvenile Cyprinus carpio. Alint. J. Agricult. Sci., 33: 165–176.Search in Google Scholar

Alagawany M., Farag M.R., Salah A.S., Mahmoud M.A. (2020). The role of oregano herb and its derivatives as immunomodulators in fish. Rev. Aquacult., 1–12, doi: 10.1111/raq.12453.Search in Google Scholar

Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Vol. I (15th edn). AOAC, Arlington, VA. MA.Search in Google Scholar

Bieth J., Metais P. (1968). The simultaneous presence of trypsin and trypsin inhibitors in some pathological effusions. Clin. Chim. Acta, 22: 639–642.Search in Google Scholar

Bradford M.M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analyt. Biochem., 72: 248–254.Search in Google Scholar

Cararo L.M., Sado R.Y., Muelbert B., Borba M.R. (2017). Evaluation of oregano essential oil as a growth promoter and resistance stimulator against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in silver catfish juveniles, Rhamdia sp. (Siluriformes, Heptapteridae). Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, 38: 3871–3886.Search in Google Scholar

Carneiro C.L.S., Assis C.E., Modesto A.L.S., Maciel J.F.R., Campelo D.A.V., Luz R.K., Jener Zuanon A.S., Salaro A.L. (2021). Oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare) dietary supplementation improved growth performance, body protein retention and muscle hyperplasia of the Neotropical catfish Lophiosilurus alexandri. Aquacult. Nutr., https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.13263.Search in Google Scholar

Cruz Villeda D.A. (2013). Effect of dietary essential oils supplementation on growth performance, protein digestibility and digestive enzymes in juvenile gilthead seabream fed a low fishmeal diet. Universidade Do Algarve, Master thesis.Search in Google Scholar

Çakmak E,. Çankırılıgil E.C, Özel O. T. (2018) The fifth culture generation of Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax): Culture characteristics, meat yield and proximate composition. Ege J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 35: 103–110.Search in Google Scholar

Dawood M.A., El Basuini M.F., Zaineldin A.I., Yilmaz S., Hasan M., Ahmadifar E., ... & Sewilam H. (2021). Antiparasitic and antibacterial functionality of essential oils: an alternative approach for sustainable aquaculture. Pathogens, 10: 185.Search in Google Scholar

Dinardo F.R., Maggiolino A., Casalino E., Deflorio M., Centoducati G. (2021). A Multi-Biomarker approach in european sea bass exposed to dynamic temperature changes under dietary supplementation with origanum vulgare essential oil. Animals, 11: 982. Espirito Santo A.H., Brito T.S., Brandao L.L.,Tavares G.C., Leibowitz M.P.,Search in Google Scholar

Prado, S.A., Ferraz V.P., Hoyos D.C.M., Turra E.A., Teixeira E.A., Figueiredo H.C.P., Leal C.A.G., Ribeiro B.A.P. (2018). Dietary supplementation of dry oregano leaves increases the innate immunity and resistance of Nile tilapia against Streptococcus agalactiae infection. J. World Aquacult. Soc., 51: 418–436.Search in Google Scholar

European Commission. (2010). Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. The Official Journal of the European Union, 276: 1–79.Search in Google Scholar

Ferreira P.M.F., Caldas D.W., Salaro A.L., Sartori S.S.R., Oliveira J.M., Cardoso A.J.S., Zuanon J.A.S. (2016). Intestinal and liver morphometry of the yellow tail tetra (Astyanax altiparanae) fed with oregano oil. Ann. Braz. Acad. Sci., 88: 911–922.Search in Google Scholar

Giannenas I., Triantafillou E., Stavrakakis S., Margaroni M., Mavridis S., Steiner T., Karagouni E. (2012). Assessment of dietary supplementation with carvacrol or thymol containing feed additives on performance, intestinal microbiota and antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 350–353; 26–32.Search in Google Scholar

Gioda C.R., Pretto A., Freitas C.S., Leitemperger J., Loro V.L., Lazzari R., Lissner L.A., Baldisserotto B., Salbego J. (2017). Different feeding habits influence the activity of digestive enzymes in freshwater fish. Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, 47: 03.Search in Google Scholar

Hani Y.M.İ., Marchand A., Turies C., Kerambrun E., Palluel O., Bado-Nilles A., Beaudouin R., Porcher J.M., Geffard A., Dedourge-Geffard O. (2018). Digestive enzymes and gut morphometric parameters of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus): Influence of body size and temperature. PLoS ONE, 13, e0194932.Search in Google Scholar

Harrigan W.F., McCance M.E. (1976). Laboratory methods in food and dairy microbiology. London, UK, Academic Press Inc.Search in Google Scholar

Heidarieh M., Mirvaghefi A.R., Sepahi A., Sheikhzadeh N., Shahbazfar A.A., Akbari M. (2013). Effects of dietary aloe vera on growth performance, skin and gastrointestine morphology in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 13: 367–373.Search in Google Scholar

Helander I.M., Alakomi H.L., Latva-Kala K., Mattila-Sandholm T., Pol I., Smid E.J., Gorris L.G.M., Wright A. (1998). Characterization of the action of selected essential oil components on gram-negative bacteria. J. Agricult. Food Chem., 46: 3590–3595.Search in Google Scholar

Heluy G.M., Ramos L.R.V., Pedrosa V.F., Sarturi C., Figueiredo P.G.P., Vidal L.G.P., França I.F., Pereira M.M. (2020). Oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil as an additive in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings reared in salinized water. Aquacult. Res., doi: 10.1111/are.14658.Search in Google Scholar

Infante J.Z., Cahu C L. (1994). Influence of diet on pepsin and some pancreatic enzymes in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A: Physiology, 109: 209–212.Search in Google Scholar

Kilkenny C., Browne W.J., Cuthill I.C., Emerson M., Altman D.G. (2010). Improving bioscience research reporting: The ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research. PLoS Biology, 8, e1000412.Search in Google Scholar

Khafaga A.F., Naiel M.A., Dawood M.A., Abdel-Latif H.M. (2020). Dietary Origanum vulgare essential oil attenuates cypermethrin-induced biochemical changes, oxidative stress, histopathological alterations, apoptosis, and reduces DNA damage in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Aquat. Toxicol., 228: 105624.Search in Google Scholar

Khojasteh S.M.B. (2012). The morphology of the post-gastric alimentary canal in teleost fishes: a brief review. Int. J. Aquat. Sci., 3: 2.Search in Google Scholar

Magouz F.I., Mahmoud S.A., El -Morsy R.A.A., Paray B.A., Soliman A.A., Zaineldin A.I., Dawood M.A.O. (2021). Dietary menthol essential oil enhanced the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, immune-related genes, and resistance against acute ammonia exposure in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture, 530: 735944.Search in Google Scholar

Mohammadi G., Rafiee G., El Basuini M.F., Doan H.V., Ahmed H.A., Dawood M.A.O., Abdel-Latif H.M.R. (2020). Oregano (Origanum vulgare), St John's-wort (Hypericum perforatum), and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) extracts improved the growth rate, antioxidative, and immunological responses in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Aquacult. Rep., 18: 100445.Search in Google Scholar

Mohapatra S., Chakraborty T., Prusty A.K., Das P., Paniprasad K., Mohanta K.N. (2012). Use of different microbial probiotics in the diet of rohu, Labeo rohita fingerlings: effects on growth, nutrient digestibility and retention, digestive enzyme activities and intestinal microflora. Aquacult. Nutr., 18: 1–11.Search in Google Scholar

Mumford S., Heidel J., Smith C., Morrison J., MacConnell B., Blazer V. (2007). Fish histology and histopathology. Retrieved from https://training.fws.gov/resources/course-resources/fish-histology/Fish_Histology_Manual_v4.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Munglue P. (2016). Effects of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) stamen extract on growth performance, feed utilization and ıntestinal morphology of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (in Italic). KKU Res. J., 22(1).Search in Google Scholar

Munglue P., Rattana K., Sangchanjiradet S., Jankam A., Dasri H. ( 2019). Growth performance and intestinal morphology of hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × Clarias gariepinus) fed diet supplemented with rice paddy herb (Limnophila aromatica) extract. Asia-Pacific J. Sci. Technol., 24: 1–12.Search in Google Scholar

Navarrete P., Toledo I., Mardones P., Opazo R., Espejo R., Romero J. (2010). Effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil on intestinal bacterial microbiota of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and bacterial isolates. Aquacult. Res., 41: 667–678.Search in Google Scholar

Okumuş İ., Kurtoğlu İ. Z., Atasaral Ş. (2004) General overview of Turkish sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations. In: Sea trout: Biology, conservation and management, G. Harris, N. Milner (eds). Proc. First International Sea Trout Symposium, Blackwell Publishing, Cardiff, UK, pp. 115–116.Search in Google Scholar

Oswald R.L. (1978). Injection anesthesia for experimental studies in fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Comparative Pharmacology, 60: 19–26.Search in Google Scholar

Özel O.T., Cakmak E., Coskun I., Çankırılıgil E.C. (2018). Evaluation of growth performance and intestine villi morphology of black sea trout (Salmo labrax Pallas, 1814) fed with different protein levels containing diets. Ege J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 35: 125–130.Search in Google Scholar

Rafieepour A., Hajirezaee S., Rahimi R. (2019). Dietary oregano extract (Origanum vulgare L.) enhances the antioxidant defence in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss against toxicity induced by organophosphorus pesticide, diazinon. Toxin Rev., DOI: 10.1080/15569543.2018.1550092.Search in Google Scholar

Ran C., Hu J., Liu W. (2016). Thymol and carvacrol affect hybrid tilapia through the combination of direct stimulation and an ıntestinal microbiota-mediated effect: Insights from a germ-free zebrafish Model. J. Nutr., 146: 1132–1140.Search in Google Scholar

Ringø E., Gatesoupe F. (1998). Lactic acid bacteria in fish: A review. Aquaculture, 160: 177–203.Search in Google Scholar

Roofchaee A., Irani M., Ebrahimzadeh M.A., Akbari M.R. (2011). Effect of dietary oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on growth performance, cecal microflora and serum antioxidant activity of broiler chickens. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10: 6177–6183.Search in Google Scholar

Seden M.E.A., Abbass F.E., Ahmad M.H. (2009). Effect of Origanum vulgare as a feed additive on growth performance, feed utilization and whole body composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlinges challenged with pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 34: 1683–1695.Search in Google Scholar

Shabana M.S., Karthika M., Ramasubramanian V. (2019). Effect of dietary Citrus sinensis peel extract on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, muscle biochemical composition, and metabolic enzyme status of the freshwater fish, Catla catla. J. Basic Appl. Zool., 80: 1–9.Search in Google Scholar

Tan C., Wei H., Sun H., Ao J., Long G., Jiang S., Peng J. (2015). Effects of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil to sows on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake of sows, and piglet performance. Hindawi Publishing Corporation BioMed Research International, Article ID: 525218, 9 pp.Search in Google Scholar

Tseng H.C., Grendell J.H., Rothman S.S. (1982). Food, duodenal extracts, and enzyme secretion by the pancreas. Am. J. Physiol. Gastroint. Liver Physiol., 243: G304–G312.Search in Google Scholar

Ture M., Altinok I., Alp H. (2018). Effects of cage farming on antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, and Lactococcus garvieae. Microb. Drug Resist., 24: 1422–1430.Search in Google Scholar

Valladao G.M.R., Gallani S.U., Kotzent S., Assane I.M., Pilarski F. (2019). Effects of dietary thyme essential oil on hemato-immunological indices, intestinal morphology, and microbiota of Nile tilapia. Aquacult. Int., https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-018-0332-5Search in Google Scholar

Versaw K.W., Cuppet L.S., Winters D.D., Williams L.E. (1989). An improved colorimetric assay for bacterial lipase in nonfat dry milk. J. Food Sci., 54: 1557–1558.Search in Google Scholar

Worthington T.M. (1982). Pepsin enzymes and related biochemical, Freehold N.J. Worthington Diagnostic System Inc. Retrieved from http://www.worthington-biochem.com/index/manual.html.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang R., Wang X.W., Liu L.L., Cao Y.C., Zhu H. (2019). Dietary oregano essential oil improved the immune response, activity of digestive enzymes, and intestinal microbiota of the koi carp, Cyprinus carpio. Aquaculture, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734781.Search in Google Scholar

Zheng Z.L., Tan J.Y.W., Liu H.Y. (2009). Evaluation of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum L.) on growth, antioxidant effect and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Aquaculture, doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.04.025.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo