Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

A review on recirculating aquaculture system: influence of stocking density on fish and crustacean behavior, growth performance, and immunity

Published Online: 09 Mar 2022
Volume & Issue: AHEAD OF PRINT
Page range: -
Received: 12 Nov 2021
Accepted: 04 Jan 2022
Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

The human population is expected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050. This in turn will put more pressure on the limited available resources such as land and freshwater. Combined with the high food demand, highly virulent pathogens, and worsening effects of climate change, cases of chronic hunger and malnutrition are expected to escalate in the future. Therefore, the implementation of sustainable food production systems is crucial in safeguarding food security. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) have gained much attention today for the intensive production of certain aquatic species in controlled conditions. In these systems, wastewater is purified via several water purification steps and recycled back into the system. As such, water quality parameters such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide, pH, Total Ammonia-Nitrogen, nitrites, nitrates, and total soluble solutes are maintained within the desirable range required for proper growth and survival of the reared species. However, maintenance of good water quality largely depends on certain factors, most noticeably, the stocking density. Stocking densities below and above the recommended optimal levels negatively impact the behavior, growth performance, and immunity of reared animals. As a consequence, huge production losses are incurred. This review, therefore, aims to discuss the effect of stocking density on behavior, growth performance, feed utilization, and immunity of reared species in RAS. Moreover, optimum stocking densities of several aquatic species reared in RAS under certain culturing conditions are highlighted for sustainable production of food.


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