1. bookVolume 20 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)
Journal Details
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19 Oct 2012
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access type Open Access

How High-Loft Textile Thermal Insulation Properties Depend on Compressibility

Published Online: 18 Sep 2020
Page range: 338 - 343
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
19 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

This paper investigates the performance of high-loft thermal insulations in terms of their compression properties, recovery behavior and thermal resistance. The aforementioned properties belong to the basic producer requirements for winter functional sportswear, sleeping bags or blankets. Majority of thermal insulation producers declare high quality of their products claiming durability and insulation within beginning of their application. But, it is important to uncover how dynamic compressive loading (which simulates real condition of using) influences heat transport of tested filling for the whole lifetime period. Therefore, two groups of top synthetic thermal insulation materials were tested before and after compression loading. Subsequently, relaxation behavior of samples was determined by thickness recovery after the compression test. Furthermore, thermal resistance was measured before and after the compression test to find out the change in thermal effectivity of samples. In summary, these results have not met expectations and show a rather poor correlation between the rate of compression after dynamic loading and the drop of thermal resistance of tested fillings.

Keywords

Introduction

A number of studies deal with research of thermal insulation effectivity of filling materials up to now [1, 2, 3]. Apart from natural filling material as the goose down, the synthetic nonwoven insulations and newly “artificial down” are well known for their superior thermal insulating properties and these are widely used as an insulating filling material for winter outerwear or sleeping bags [4, 5, 6]. Researchers often refer to thermal insulation performance of fillings in relation to their thickness or weight. In general, thermal resistance of fillings increases with the increase in their thickness [2, 5]. If the porosity of nonwoven fabrics remains constant, the change in thickness (in range of 6–9 mm) has no significant impact on the conductive heat transfer and radiative heat transfer according to the study by Zhu et al. [7]. Physical properties of insulation materials such as bending stiffness, compressibility and recoverability are key determinants to provide the required thermal protection [6, 8]. Furthermore, effects of fiber cross-sectional shapes and fabric weight on thermal insulation, thickness, density, compression and air permeability of polyester needle-punched fabrics have been studied by Debnath and Madhusoothanan [9]. One of the conclusions in this report was that the percentage compression decreases with the increase in fabric weight regardless of cross-sectional shapes of polyester fibers. Although some research has been carried out on the topic of insulation performance, there has been no detailed investigation of the relationship between the compression ratio after cyclic loading (simulating real conditions of use) and the decrease in insulation of fillings. This study tries to analyze how much thermal insulation can deteriorate during lifetime period of products made from the tested materials. This study is a follow-up of our earlier study that dealt with the assessment of thermal resistance of synthetic fillings used for sportswear (the same tested material as in the current study), intended for low ambient temperatures (below zero) [10].

Experimental details
Materials

Two sets of insulation materials frequently used in the production of highly functional sportswear and sleeping bags, high-loft insulation materials ClimaShield® and Primaloft® were evaluated in the study. It was interesting to evaluate the influence of weight on compressibility and relaxation behavior of samples after dynamic loading and their thermal performance. Therefore, six groups of samples were tested depending on different weights of fillings. Furthermore, change in thermal properties of samples before and after loading was analyzed. The basic characteristics of the tested samples are shown in Table 1.

Specification of the tested samples

Sample codesRaw materialStructureWeight (g/m2)Thickness (mm)
AA1100% polyesterNonwoven (hollow fibers)739.4
A21029.9
A314213.5
BB1Nonwoven (hollow fibers, microfibers)558.5
B2929.3
B311913.2

Sample A (Primaloft®) uses patented structure of fine microfibers with hollow fibers of higher diameters, by which efficient thermal insulation properties are achieved (Figure 1). Higher amount of air that ensures the thermal insulation capacities even in small thickness of the insulation layer is bound on the cavities between microfibers due to their microscopic dimensions. Thanks to the hollow fibers of bigger diameters, elasticity and thermal insulation properties are maintained even after long-term use, compressing, washing and drying.

Figure 1

Sample A of textile insulation, magnification of 10 mm and 100 mm [10]

Three-dimensional (3D) structure of B (ClimaShield®) textil (as well as in down) is created by thermally bonded cross fibers with hollow channels of triangular cross-section. Diameter of the fibers is in the range of classic hollow fibers and microfibers but due to the cross-section, the fibers are mechanically stronger than common hollow fibers (Figure 1). A batting is a typical chemically tied web of synthetic fibers with subsequent longitudinal layering. Before being measured, the samples had been air-conditioned for 24 hours. The measurement was carried out in an air-conditioned room under constant conditions at a relative humidity of 65% and the standard temperature of 20°C.

Methods

The experiment simulated real wearing conditions of winter jackets including carrying a backpack. The performance of the tested insulations was investigated by the following ways:

measuring of compression and relaxation behavior by static and dynamic loading and

measuring of the thermal resistance before and after the test of dynamic loading.

The results from the abovementioned methods were compared and discussed to detect the real efficiency of the tested materials. Final values (means) of all the tested parameters correspond to five measurements on average.

Compression and relaxation behavior
Static loading

Repeated compression-recovery test was carried out by the device developed by the Technical University of Liberec [11], as shown in Figure 3. This simple device consists of a transparent perspex cylinder (base diameter is 14 cm) and a pressure plate for a set of required compression values. To ensure accuracy of measurements, five layers of materials were measured simultaneously and the image processing method NIS Element system was used for both before and after loading measurements.

Figure 2

Sample B of textile insulation, magnification of 10 mm and 100 mm [10]

Figure 3

Schema of static loading measurement

Mutual combinations of two different settings of loading time (10 and 30 min) and two settings of relaxation time (15 and 40 min) were used for the testing. In total, five cycles were done for each type of the test and each sample. The pressure of static loading was 300 Pa. The measuring conditions were arranged according to the standard EN ISO 33886-1: Polymeric materials, cellular flexible – Determination of stress–strain characteristic in compression.

The compression C [%] and recovery R [%] were determined by means of equations (1) and (2). Generally, compression is reduction in volume when pressure was applied. In this case, the compression after relaxation (15 min or 40 min) was measured. C=(h1h2h1)×100[%]\matrix{{C = \left({{{{h_1} - {h_2}} \over {{h_1}}}} \right) \times 100} \hfill & {[\% ]} \hfill \cr} where h1 is the original height of the samples and h2 is the height of the samples after removal of load (after relaxation time).

Recovery is given by equation (2) as the degree to which a sample mass recovered to its original height upon unloading. R=(h4h3h1h3)×100[%]\matrix{{R = \left({{{{h_4} - {h_3}} \over {{h_1} - {h_3}}}} \right) \times 100} \hfill & {[\% ]} \hfill \cr} where h1 is the original height of the samples, h3 is the height of the samples under load, and h4 is the height of samples after removal of load.

Dynamic loading

To study the thickness variation of insulation fabrics under dynamic loading, the measurement device shown in Figure 4 was used. This instrument was developed at the Technical University of Liberec [12]. A pressure plate with a contact area of 78.5 cm2 (diameter is 10 cm) moved vertically up and down with a frequency of 400 cycles per min, applying a dynamic load of 6 kPa on the samples. The applied pressure of static loading corresponds to the average loading by straps of a 10 kg backpack. This pressure was determined by the XSENSOR® X3 pressure mapping system. Twenty-four thousand cycles were applied to each tested sample to simulate real conditions of backpack wearing. Number of applied cycles should be reflecting how many times wearer uses backpack (puts backpack on or off) during two seasons approximately.

Figure 4

Instrument for dynamic compression test, schema and real photo [12]

The variation of thickness of the tested samples was measured by digital thickness gauge SDL M034A both before and after dynamic loading. Applied pressure (during all measurements of thickness) was set to 50 Pa because the other devices use a low pressure for the measurement of thermal properties, for example, for Togmeter SDL M 259 the pressure is 5 Pa and equipment Fox 314 according to ASTM D1518 measures under a pressure of 70 Pa. Moreover, the carried experiment for fixing thickness of sample by different pressures confirmed the abovementioned conclusion.

The compression C [%] was determined by means of equation (1). Parameter h2 is the height of the samples, which was measured immediately after the removal of load on the contrary of static loading that is measured under load. This parameter should simulate the sample behavior of the sample after taking the backpack off.

Measurement of thermal resistance

Thermal resistance Rct [m2K/W] of samples both before and immediately after dynamic loading was investigated by a hotplate system developed at the Technical university of Liberec [10]. The equipment (Figure 5) for measuring thermal resistance consists of two principal parts, namely, thermal resistance measuring the equipment itself and an air-conditioning chamber. The air-conditioning chamber allows creation of an environment (humidity and temperature), which corresponds to the real conditions (temperatures below zero included), in which the tested materials for sportswear are actually used. Maximum deviation of temperature and humidity in the chamber was set at the requested value of ±1°C, ±2% RH. This chamber controls the air velocity on the outer surface of the tested sample as well. The air velocity corresponds to 1 m/s. The measuring equipment consisting of a heating plate, the constant surface temperature of which is ensured using a simple regulation circuit with a thermocouple sensor at the value of 35 ± 1°C, is placed into the air-conditioning chamber. The tested sample, edges of which are fixed by a frame, is placed onto the heating plate. Thermal resistance Rct is determined on the basis of sensing the sample surface temperature on both fabric sides of the fabric and the quantity of heat flowing through the fabric measured by a thermal flux sensor. The data obtained from the abovementioned sensors are wirelessly transferred from the measuring center to a PC. Standardized measurement of thermal insulation properties was carried out under standard laboratory conditions, i.e. ambient temperature of 20°C and relative humidity of 65%. The used method performs well in accordance with the standard EN 31092:1993 (ISO 11092) by Sweating Guarded Hotplate System 8.2 [10]. Furthermore, the aforementioned device enables us to test small size samples, which are impossible to measure by the SGHP system.

Figure 5

Schema of TUL measuring equipment [10]

Results and discussion
Variability of thickness

Producers declare the weight of the tested samples to be 60, 90 and 130 g/m2. Experimentally measured weights of the tested samples are in the range of 55–142 g/m2. The thickness was measured under pressure equal to 50 Pa at steady state thickness. Coefficient of thickness variation is in the range of 18–40%, as shown in Figure 6. It is a well-known fact that both rate of weight irregularity and thickness irregularity of tested nonwovens are caused by the way of web processing. The abovementioned fact can influence variation degree of the tested samples from point of view of their compressibility and thermal properties.

Figure 6

Thickness variability of the tested samples

Compression and relaxation behavior

The results of compression C [%] and recovery [%], equations (1) and (2), are particularly shown in Figures 7 and 8.

Figure 7

Compression C [%] of the tested samples after static loading

Figure 8

Recovery R [%] of the tested samples after static loading

<sec id="j_aut-2019-0015_s_003_s_002_s_001_s_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b3b5b1Aa"><div>Static loading</div><p>Two times of loading (10 and 30 min) and subsequently two times of relaxation (15 and 40 min) were applied to the tested materials.</p><p>These results are in accordance with recent studies [<a data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type="bibr" data-tooltip-info='<span class="ref" id="j_aut-2019-0015_ref_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b2Aa"><label>[2]</label><span class="mixed-citation">Havenith, G., (2002). Moisture accumulation in sleeping bags at sub-zero temperature; effect of semipermeable and impermeable covers, Textile Research Journal, 72(4), 281–284.</span><span class="element-citation" publication-type="journal" publication-format="print"><span class="name"><span class="surname">Havenith</span><span class="given-names">G.</span></span><year>2002</year><article-title>Moisture accumulation in sleeping bags at sub-zero temperature; effect of semipermeable and impermeable covers</article-title><span class="source">Textile Research Journal</span><volume>72</volume><issue>4</issue><span class="fpage">281</span><span class="lpage">284</span></span></span>' href="#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b2Aa">2</a>, <a data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type="bibr" data-tooltip-info='<span class="ref" id="j_aut-2019-0015_ref_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b5Aa"><label>[5]</label><span class="mixed-citation">Williams, J. T. (2009). Textiles for cold weather apparel, Woodhead Publishing, 432, ISBN: 9781845694111.</span><span class="element-citation" publication-type="book" publication-format="print"><span class="name"><span class="surname">Williams</span><span class="given-names">J. T.</span></span><year>2009</year><span class="source">Textiles for cold weather apparel</span><publisher-name>Woodhead Publishing</publisher-name><span class="fpage">432</span><span class="comment">ISBN: 9781845694111.</span></span></span>' href="#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b5Aa">5</a>], indicating that intensity of high-loft insulations compressibility is influenced by the loading time and the time of relaxation. Generally, longer relaxation time ensures decreasing of thickness compression and thereby the reducing heat losses over the original value of fillings. It is caused by reappearing of air gaps in the fibrous structure of fillings. Furthermore, the compression <italic>C</italic> [%] becomes smaller as the weight of filling increased, in particular by PrimaLoft<sup>®</sup> Sport sample A. The values of recovery <italic>R</italic> [%] confirm these results. This may be because the sample A contains the hollow fibers of bigger diameters that ensure high elasticity.</p></sec><sec id="j_aut-2019-0015_s_003_s_002_s_001_s_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b3b5b2Aa"><div>Dynamic loading</div><p>As can be seen from <a data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type="fig" rid="j_aut-2019-0015_fig_009_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b3b5b2b2Aa">Figure 9</a>, the trend of compression <italic>C</italic> [%] after dynamic loading (24,000 cycles) following above mentioned, namely the ability to recover is growing with increasing material thickness.</p><figure id="j_aut-2019-0015_fig_009_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b3b5b2b2Aa" position="float" fig-type="figure"><h2>Figure 9</h2><figCaption><p>Compression of the tested samples after dynamic loading</p></figCaption><img xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_009.jpg" src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_009.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=7f1878570cc171f138ca5005a95efbf9d4f1b8de21b5b84be78dddfbde073ef1" class="mw-100"></img></figure></sec></sec></sec><sec id="j_aut-2019-0015_s_003_s_003_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4Aa"><label>3.3</label><div>Thermal resistance</div><p>The graph in <a data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type="fig" rid="j_aut-2019-0015_fig_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b3Aa">Figure 10</a> summarizes the results of influence of compressibility on thermal insulation properties of filling materials. The thermal resistance <italic>R</italic><sub>ct</sub> [m<sup>2</sup>K/W] was chosen as an indicator of thermal insulation.</p><figure id="j_aut-2019-0015_fig_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b3Aa" position="float" fig-type="figure"><h2>Figure 10</h2><figCaption><p>Thermal resistance of the tested samples after dynamic loading test</p></figCaption><img xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_010.jpg" src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_010.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=5996b684d40ae02dd5c65c37250b12983c995ee71fba2976971bb7e66d77978c" class="mw-100"></img></figure><p><a data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type="fig" rid="j_aut-2019-0015_fig_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b3Aa">Figure 10</a> provides the results obtained from the analysis of influence of dynamic loading on thermal resistance. The fillings are forced to regroup their internal structure and the air is discharged out of the fabric due to the applied pressure.</p><p>Generally, the thermal resistance of air is much bigger than thermal resistance of fibrous polymers. This fact causes a decrease in thermal resistance of filling [<a data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type="bibr" data-tooltip-info='<span class="ref" id="j_aut-2019-0015_ref_013_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c13Aa"><label>[13]</label><span class="mixed-citation">Cooper, T. (1979). Textiles as protection against extreme winter weather, Textiles, 8(3), Shirley institute, Manchester, 72–83</span><span class="element-citation" publication-type="journal" publication-format="print"><span class="name"><span class="surname">Cooper</span><span class="given-names">T.</span></span><year>1979</year><article-title>Textiles as protection against extreme winter weather</article-title><span class="source">Textiles</span><volume>8</volume><issue>3</issue><span class="comment">Shirley institute, Manchester,</span><span class="fpage">72</span><span class="lpage">83</span></span></span>' href="#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_013_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c13Aa">13</a>, <a data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type="bibr" data-tooltip-info='<span class="ref" id="j_aut-2019-0015_ref_014_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c14Aa"><label>[14]</label><span class="mixed-citation">Kolinova, M., Syrovatkova, M., Komarkova, P, Tresnak, R. (2017). The thermal and porous properties of protective rubber boots. Vlakna A Textil. 24(4), 15–21.</span><span class="element-citation" publication-type="journal" publication-format="print"><span class="name"><span class="surname">Kolinova</span><span class="given-names">M.</span></span><span class="name"><span class="surname">Syrovatkova</span><span class="given-names">M.</span></span><span class="name"><span class="surname">Komarkova</span><span class="given-names">P</span></span><span class="name"><span class="surname">Tresnak</span><span class="given-names">R.</span></span><year>2017</year><article-title>The thermal and porous properties of protective rubber boots</article-title><span class="source">Vlakna A Textil</span><volume>24</volume><issue>4</issue><span class="fpage">15</span><span class="lpage">21</span></span></span>' href="#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_014_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c14Aa">14</a>].</p><p><italic>R</italic><sub>ct</sub> difference [%] was determined by means of <a data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type="disp-formula" rid="j_aut-2019-0015_eq_003_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b6b5Aa">equations (3)</a> as follows: <disp-formula id="j_aut-2019-0015_eq_003_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b6b5Aa"><label>(3)</label><alternatives><graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_eq_003.png"></graphic><math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><mrow><mtable><mtr><mtd><mrow><msub><mi>R</mi><mrow><mi>ct</mi></mrow></msub><mi>difference</mi><mo>=</mo><mrow><mo>(</mo><mrow><mfrac><mrow><msub><mi>R</mi><mrow><mi>ct</mi><mn>1</mn></mrow></msub><mo>−</mo><msub><mi>R</mi><mrow><mi>ct</mi><mn>2</mn></mrow></msub></mrow><mrow><msub><mi>R</mi><mrow><mi>ct</mi><mn>1</mn></mrow></msub></mrow></mfrac></mrow><mo>)</mo></mrow><mo>*</mo><mn>100</mn></mrow></mtd><mtd><mrow><mo>[</mo><mo>%</mo><mo>]</mo></mrow></mtd></mtr></mtable></mrow></math><tex-math>\matrix{{{R_{ct}}difference = \left({{{{R_{ct1}} - {R_{ct2}}} \over {{R_{ct1}}}}} \right)*100} \hfill & {[\% ]} \hfill \cr}</tex-math></alternatives></disp-formula> where <italic>Rct1</italic> is the value of thermal resistance measured before the dynamic loading (before compression), and <italic>Rct2</italic> is the thermal resistance measured after application of dynamic loading (after removal of load).</p><p>The good news is that the drop in thermal insulation (i.e., “<italic>Rct</italic> difference [%]”) ranged from 7 to 15% even in the case of compression after dynamic stress loading was about 28%, see sample B1 in <a data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type="fig" rid="j_aut-2019-0015_fig_011_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b8Aa">Figure 11</a>. In addition to that <a data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type="fig" rid="j_aut-2019-0015_fig_012_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b9Aa">Figure 12</a> shows poor correlation between compression <italic>C</italic> [%] and <italic>R</italic><sub>ct</sub> difference [%].</p><figure id="j_aut-2019-0015_fig_011_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b8Aa" position="float" fig-type="figure"><h2>Figure 11</h2><figCaption><p>Dependence between compression <italic>C</italic> [%] and <italic>R</italic><sub>ct</sub> difference [%]</p></figCaption><img xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_011.jpg" src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_011.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=30a153fc8167a63368e3ba5bfe02d113ef6eaafefc4eee4234fe9ced2a3f2923" class="mw-100"></img></figure><figure id="j_aut-2019-0015_fig_012_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b9Aa" position="float" fig-type="figure"><h2>Figure 12</h2><figCaption><p>Effect of compression <italic>C</italic> [%] to <italic>R</italic><sub>ct</sub>.</p></figCaption><img xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_012.jpg" src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_012.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=b84d6fa2e9748934f0f0501815329462a5fb70758f08c82ef3616af3b441989e" class="mw-100"></img></figure></sec></sec><sec id="j_aut-2019-0015_s_004_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b3Aa"><label>4</label><div>Conclusion</div><p>This research extends the knowledge of high-loft thermal insulation materials that considerably affect the wearing comfort of sportswear or sleeping bags. The tested group of filling materials was investigated with respect to compression behavior and thermal properties. This investigation confirmed that intensity of high-loft insulations compressibility is influenced by loading time and time of relaxation.</p><p>Furthermore, the study complements earlier studies particularly regarding the impact of both weight (thickness) and compressibility on thermal properties of fillings. The results of this study indicate that the compressibility of filling becomes smaller as the weight of fillings increased. The degree of compression is heavily dependent on the mass unevenness of filling. Variations of thickness can reach even 40%. On the other hand, this drawback can be balanced out by input raw material, namely appropriate ratio of microfibers and hollow fibers of bigger diameters in the filling structure. The relevance of the above is clearly supported by the current findings regarding the poor correlation (<italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup> = 0.4) between the compression rate (up to 28%) and the corresponding rate of change in thermal resistance (7–18%).</p><p>Further research should focus on determining the relation between long-term stress on the filling and its moisture management transport under pressure.</p></sec></div></div></div></div><div id="pane-4" class="SeriesTab_card__26XnC SeriesTab_tab-pane__3pc7y card tab-pane" role="tabpanel" aria-labelledby="tab-4"><div class="SeriesTab_card-header__1DTAS card-header d-md-none pl-0" role="tab" id="heading-4"><h4 class="mb-0"><a data-toggle="collapse" href="#collapse-4" data-parent="#content" aria-expanded="true" aria-controls="collapse-4" style="padding:24px 0">Figures & Tables<svg aria-hidden="true" focusable="false" data-prefix="fas" data-icon="chevron-down" class="svg-inline--fa fa-chevron-down fa-w-14 " role="img" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 448 512"><path fill="currentColor" d="M207.029 381.476L12.686 187.132c-9.373-9.373-9.373-24.569 0-33.941l22.667-22.667c9.357-9.357 24.522-9.375 33.901-.04L224 284.505l154.745-154.021c9.379-9.335 24.544-9.317 33.901.04l22.667 22.667c9.373 9.373 9.373 24.569 0 33.941L240.971 381.476c-9.373 9.372-24.569 9.372-33.942 0z"></path></svg></a></h4></div><div id="collapse-4" class="SeriesTab_seriesTabCollapse__2csiF collapse" role="tabpanel" aria-labelledby="heading-4" data-parent="#content"><div class="SeriesTab_series-tab-body__1tZ1H SeriesTab_card-body__31JEh card-body Article_figures-tables__2SC5X"><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 1</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_001.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=a4606461a096c4c093b58df6e0482fa0035dc6ff2214593686ec45fe9951271a" alt="Sample A of textile insulation, magnification of 10 mm and 100 mm [10]" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Sample A of textile insulation, magnification of 10 mm and 100 mm [10]</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 2</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_002.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=0f09848077d63e9ef968942241b4c7b72b705237e8fa0bfa9d58c229593c556f" alt="Sample B of textile insulation, magnification of 10 mm and 100 mm [10]" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Sample B of textile insulation, magnification of 10 mm and 100 mm [10]</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 3</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_003.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=c2318161e37fca661c02de264e05d746907dd3d91b44475aee146940ac530209" alt="Schema of static loading measurement" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Schema of static loading measurement</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 4</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_004.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=a5c15d584fa09b9ff9d75b6482d4da77b2ce366f9b7e2119844b34b0d5dbffbe" alt="Instrument for dynamic compression test, schema and real photo [12]" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Instrument for dynamic compression test, schema and real photo [12]</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 5</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_005.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=d3ef59c89ca75ea2ece41906b1753f069ab8658f3f031bad9ecdf4d9f98b6311" alt="Schema of TUL measuring equipment [10]" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Schema of TUL measuring equipment [10]</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 6</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_006.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=e92e04a4dd710de71ed57664816ec33cfa6484678664eaad21e032f5d2669fb0" alt="Thickness variability of the tested samples" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Thickness variability of the tested samples</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 7</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_007.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=35ce305a136f25b88cdbd918933bae84cd76e375db8b7c2c330c9aa1d843010e" alt="Compression C [%] of the tested samples after static loading" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Compression C [%] of the tested samples after static loading</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 8</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_008.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=674b82e0b69698ea50aa238c643317248ac9430d8e2e8c9a3d6acf6b23bfa6da" alt="Recovery R [%] of the tested samples after static loading" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Recovery R [%] of the tested samples after static loading</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 9</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_009.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=7f1878570cc171f138ca5005a95efbf9d4f1b8de21b5b84be78dddfbde073ef1" alt="Compression of the tested samples after dynamic loading" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Compression of the tested samples after dynamic loading</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 10</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_010.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=5996b684d40ae02dd5c65c37250b12983c995ee71fba2976971bb7e66d77978c" alt="Thermal resistance of the tested samples after dynamic loading test" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Thermal resistance of the tested samples after dynamic loading test</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 11</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_011.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=30a153fc8167a63368e3ba5bfe02d113ef6eaafefc4eee4234fe9ced2a3f2923" alt="Dependence between compression C [%] and Rct difference [%]" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Dependence between compression C [%] and Rct difference [%]</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 12</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_012.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=b84d6fa2e9748934f0f0501815329462a5fb70758f08c82ef3616af3b441989e" alt="Effect of compression C [%] to Rct." class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Effect of compression C [%] to Rct.</figcaption></figure><h4 class="mb-4 mt-4">Specification of the tested samples</h4><table rules="all"><thead><tr><th align="center" valign="middle" colspan="2"><bold>Sample codes</bold></th><th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Raw material</bold></th><th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Structure</bold></th><th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Weight (g/m<sup>2</sup>)</bold></th><th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Thickness (mm)</bold></th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="3">A</td><td align="center" valign="middle">A1</td><td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="6">100% polyester</td><td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="3">Nonwoven (hollow fibers)</td><td align="center" valign="middle">73</td><td align="center" valign="middle">9.4</td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="middle">A2</td><td align="center" valign="middle">102</td><td align="center" valign="middle">9.9</td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="middle">A3</td><td align="center" valign="middle">142</td><td align="center" valign="middle">13.5</td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="3">B</td><td align="center" valign="middle">B1</td><td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="3">Nonwoven (hollow fibers, microfibers)</td><td align="center" valign="middle">55</td><td align="center" valign="middle">8.5</td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="middle">B2</td><td align="center" valign="middle">92</td><td align="center" valign="middle">9.3</td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="middle">B3</td><td align="center" valign="middle">119</td><td align="center" valign="middle">13.2</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div></div><div id="reference" class="SeriesTab_card__26XnC SeriesTab_tab-pane__3pc7y card tab-pane" role="tabpanel" aria-labelledby="tab-5"><div class="SeriesTab_card-header__1DTAS card-header d-md-none pl-0" role="tab" id="heading-5"><h4 class="mb-0"><a data-toggle="collapse" href="#collapse-5" data-parent="#content" aria-expanded="true" aria-controls="collapse-5" style="padding:24px 0">References<svg aria-hidden="true" focusable="false" data-prefix="fas" data-icon="chevron-down" class="svg-inline--fa fa-chevron-down fa-w-14 " role="img" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 448 512"><path fill="currentColor" d="M207.029 381.476L12.686 187.132c-9.373-9.373-9.373-24.569 0-33.941l22.667-22.667c9.357-9.357 24.522-9.375 33.901-.04L224 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Prof. Katarzyna Grabowska, Ph.D., D.Sc. - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eVice-Editors\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eIzabella Ciesielska-Wróbel, Ph.D. - Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Belgium\u003cBR\u003eMagdalena Tokarska, Ph.D., D.Sc. - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eEditors\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eMałgorzata Koszewska, Ph.D., D.Sc. - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland\u003cBR\u003eElżbieta Sąsiadek, Ph.D. - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eFinancial Assistant\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eM.Sc. Magdalena Kołcz - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003ePromotion\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eMałgorzata Koszewska, Ph.D., D.Sc. - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003ePublic Relation Officer\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eM.Sc. Ewelina Pabjańczyk-Wlazło - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eTypesetting\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eAssoc. Prof. Zbigniew Stempień, Ph.D., D.Sc. - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eEditorial Advisory Board\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003eProf. Vladan Koncar - ENSAIT, Roubaix, FRANCE\u003cBR\u003eProf. Paul Kiekens - University of Ghent, BELGIUM\u003cBR\u003eProf. M. Neznakomova - Technical University Sofia - Department of Textile Engineering, BULGARIA\u003cBR\u003eProf. J. Militky - Technical University of Liberec - Textile Faculty - Department of Textile Materials, CZECH REPUBLIC\u003cBR\u003eProf. P. Nousiainen - Tampere University of Technology - Fibre Materials Science Institute, FINLAND\u003cBR\u003eProf. L. Schacher - ENSISA - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Ingénieurs Sud Alsace, FRANCE\u003cBR\u003eProf. T. Gries - RWTH Aachen - Institut für Textiltechnik der Rheinisch-Westfälischen T.H. Aachen, GERMANY\u003cBR\u003eProf. C. Cherif - TU Dresden - Institute of Textile and Clothing Technology, GERMANY\u003cBR\u003eProf. T. Peppas - TEI Piraeus - Department of Textile Engineering - Faculty of Technological Applications, GREECE\u003cBR\u003eProf. S. Sicardi - Politecnico di Torino - Department of Materials Science and Technical Engineering, ITALY\u003cBR\u003eProf. S. Stanys - Kaunas University of Technology - Faculty of Design and Technologies - Department of Textile Technology, LITHUANIA\u003cBR\u003eProf. M. Warmoeskerken - University of Twente - Faculty for Engineering Technology - Engineering of Fibrous Smart Materials, THE NETHERLANDS\u003cBR\u003eProf. I. Krucinska / Prof. J. Masajtis - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design - Lodz University of Technology, POLAND\u003cBR\u003eProf. S. Boryniec - University of Bielsko-Biala - Faculty of Textile Engineering and Environmental Protection - Institute of Textile Engineering and Polymer Materials, POLAND\u003cBR\u003eProf. M. de Araújo - University of Minho - School of Engineering, PORTUGAL\u003cBR\u003eProf. Manuel José dos Santos Silva - Universidade da Beira Interior - Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Texteis, PORTUGAL\u003cBR\u003eProf. C. Loghin - Technical University of Iasi - Faculty of Textiles and Leather Engineering, ROMANIA\u003cBR\u003eProf. A. Majcen le Marechal / Prof. J. Gersak - University of Maribor - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering - Department of Textiles, SLOVENIA\u003cBR\u003eDr. K. Dimitrovski - University of Ljubljana - Faculty for Natural Sciences and Engineering - Department of Textiles, SLOVENIA\u003cBR\u003eProf. F.J. Carrión-Fité / Prof. A. Naik / Prof. J.M. Canal - UPC - Department of Textile and Paper Engineering, SPAIN\u003cBR\u003eProf. K. Tingsvik - University of BorÄs - School of Textiles, SWEDEN\u003cBR\u003eProf. C. Carr - University of Manchester - School of Materials - Textiles and Paper Group, U.K.\u003cBR\u003eProf. R.H. Wardman - Heriot Watt University - School of Textiles and Design, U.K.\u003cBR\u003eProf. Genti Guxho - Polytechnic University of Tirana - Textile and Fashion Department, ALBANIA\u003cBR\u003eProf. A.M. Grancaric - University of Zagreb - Faculty of Textile Technology, CROATIA\u003cBR\u003eProf. M. Radetic - University of Belgrade - Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy - Textile Engineering Department, SERBIA\u003cBR\u003eProf. I. Tarakcioglu / Prof. H. Kadoglu Ege University - Faculty of Engineering - Textile Engineering Department, TURKEY\u003cBR\u003eProf. Bulent Ozipek - Istanbul Technical University - School of Textile Technologies and Design, TURKEY\u003cBR\u003eProf. Sükriye Ülkü / Prof. Recep Eren Uludag - University - Faculty of Engineering and Architecture -Textile Engineering Department, TURKEY\u003cBR\u003eProf. Victoria Vlasenko - Kiev National University of Technologies and Design, UKRAINE\u003cBR\u003eProf. Jarosław Janicki, Ph.D., D.Sc. - University of Bielsko-Biała, POLAND\u003cBR\u003eProf. W. Oxenham / Prof. D. Buchanan / Dr. B. Godfrey - North Carolina State University - College of Textiles, USA\u003cBR\u003eProf. Wei Li - Donghua University - College of Textiles, CHINA \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eContact\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cA href=\"mailto:autexrj@info.p.lodz.pl\"\u003eautexrj@info.p.lodz.pl\u003c/A\u003e\u003cBR\u003e\u003cA href=\"http://www.autexrj.com/\"\u003ewww.autexrj.com/\u003c/A\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003ePublisher\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003eDe Gruyter Poland\u003cBR\u003eBogumiła Zuga 32A Str.\u003cBR\u003e01-811 Warsaw, Poland\u003cBR\u003eT: +48 22 701 50 15 \u003c/P\u003e"},{"type":"submission","language":"English","textformat":null,"content":"\u003cDIV align=justify\u003e \u003cP\u003ePlease submit your manuscripts to Autex Research Journal via \u003cA href=\"http://www.editorialmanager.com/arj/\"\u003eEditorial Manager\u003c/A\u003e. \u003c/P\u003e\u003cBR\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cA href=\"https://content.sciendo.com/supplemental/journals/aut/aut-overview.xml/Instruction_for_Authors.pdf\"\u003eInformation for Authors\u003c/A\u003e\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eOpen Access License\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eThis journal provides immediate open access to its content under the \u003cA href=\"https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/\"\u003eCreative Commons BY 4.0 license\u003c/A\u003e. Authors who publish with this journal retain all copyrights and agree to the terms of the above-mentioned CC BY 4.0 license. \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cA href=\"https://content.sciendo.com/supplemental/journals/aut/aut-overview.xml/Editorial_Policy.pdf\"\u003eEditorial Policy\u003c/A\u003e \u003c/P\u003e\u003c/DIV\u003e"},{"type":"advantages","language":"English","textformat":null,"content":"\u003cDIV align=justify\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003ePrint version ISSN: 1470-9589\u003cBR\u003eElectronic version ISSN: 2300-0929\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eOnly few journals deal with textile research at an international and global level complying with the highest standards.\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eAutex Research Journal has the aim to play a leading role in distributing scientific and technological research results on textiles publishing original and innovative papers after peer reviewing, guaranteeing quality and excellence.\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eEverybody dedicated to textiles and textile related materials is invited to submit papers and to contribute to a positive and appealing image of this Journal. \u003c/P\u003e\u003c/DIV\u003e"}]}],"metrics":{"metric":[{"name":"5-year Impact Factor","value":1.216},{"name":"Cite Score","value":1.8},{"name":"Impact Factor","value":1},{"name":"SCImago Journal Rank","value":0.452},{"name":"Source Normalized Impact per Paper","value":1.212}]},"pricing":null,"publicationFrequency":{"frequency":"4","period":"YEAR"},"permissions":null,"contributors":"","serial":"","publishMonth":"09","publishYear":"2020","tableCount":null,"figureCount":null,"refCount":null,"keywords":[],"figures":null,"tables":null,"planPubDates":[],"epubLink":null,"pdfLink":null,"coverImage":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/60078a1dfd113962cb04c565/cover-image.jpg","coverImageOriginal":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/60078a1dfd113962cb04c565/cover-image-original.jpg","pdfFiles":[],"parentObjectId":"60078a1dfd113962cb04c565","relatedTitles":null,"forAuthors":null,"nextPackageId":"60078a2efd113962cb04c568","prevPackageId":null,"parentName":"Volume 20 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)","grandParentId":"6005ae4de797941b18f2377e","grandParentName":"Autex Research Journal","publisherName":"Sciendo","publisherLocation":null,"nextMap":{"id":{"timestamp":1611106872,"date":"2021-01-20T01:41:12.000+00:00"},"doi":"10.2478/aut-2019-0016"},"prevMap":{"id":{"timestamp":1611271021,"date":"2021-01-21T23:17:01.000+00:00"},"doi":null},"counter":0,"apaString":"Glombikova,V.,Komarkova,P.,Hercikova,E. \u0026 Havelka,A.(2020).\u003carticle-title\u003eHow High-Loft Textile Thermal Insulation Properties Depend on Compressibility\u003c/article-title\u003e. 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Textiles for cold weather apparel, Woodhead Publishing, 432, ISBN: 9781845694111.","doi":null,"mixed-citation":"\u003cref id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b5Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[5]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cmixed-citation\u003eWilliams, J. T. (2009). Textiles for cold weather apparel, Woodhead Publishing, 432, ISBN: 9781845694111.\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"book\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eWilliams\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eJ. 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Structures and properties of the Goose Down as a material for Thermal Insulation, Textile Research Journal, 77(8), 617–626.\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eGao\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eJ.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eYu\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eW.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003ePan\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eN.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2007\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eStructures and properties of the Goose Down as a material for Thermal Insulation\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003csource\u003eTextile Research Journal\u003c/source\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e77\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e8\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cfpage\u003e617\u003c/fpage\u003e\u003clpage\u003e626\u003c/lpage\u003e\u003c/element-citation\u003e\u003c/ref\u003e"},{"refId":"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_007_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b7Aa","citeString":"Zhu, G., Kremenakova, D., Wang, Y., Militky, J. 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The thermal and porous properties of protective rubber boots. Vlakna A Textil. 24(4), 15–21.","doi":null,"mixed-citation":"\u003cref id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_014_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c14Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[14]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cmixed-citation\u003eKolinova, M., Syrovatkova, M., Komarkova, P, Tresnak, R. (2017). The thermal and porous properties of protective rubber boots. Vlakna A Textil. 24(4), 15–21.\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eKolinova\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eM.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eSyrovatkova\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eM.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eKomarkova\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eP\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eTresnak\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eR.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2017\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eThe thermal and porous properties of protective rubber boots\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003csource\u003eVlakna A Textil\u003c/source\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e24\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e4\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cfpage\u003e15\u003c/fpage\u003e\u003clpage\u003e21\u003c/lpage\u003e\u003c/element-citation\u003e\u003c/ref\u003e"}],"pdfUrl":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/10.2478_aut-2019-0015.pdf?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=8f3ef66b04895b703d0d2a4a8e4637c62b682fe1d8d5f66a6f4663705b682517","authorNotes":null,"publishMonth":"09","publishYear":"2020","receivedDate":null,"acceptedDate":null,"ePubDate":"2020-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00","ePubDateText":"18 September 2020","pPubDate":null,"pPubDateText":null,"issueDate":"2020-09-01T00:00:00.000+00:00","coverDate":"2020-09-01T00:00:00.000+00:00","tableCount":null,"figureCount":null,"refCount":null,"articleCategories":null,"titleGroup":"{\"article-title\":\"How High-Loft Textile Thermal Insulation Properties Depend on Compressibility\"}","fundingGroup":null,"abstractContent":[{"title":"Abstract","language":"","content":"\u003cp\u003eThis paper investigates the performance of high-loft thermal insulations in terms of their compression properties, recovery behavior and thermal resistance. The aforementioned properties belong to the basic producer requirements for winter functional sportswear, sleeping bags or blankets. Majority of thermal insulation producers declare high quality of their products claiming durability and insulation within beginning of their application. But, it is important to uncover how dynamic compressive loading (which simulates real condition of using) influences heat transport of tested filling for the whole lifetime period. Therefore, two groups of top synthetic thermal insulation materials were tested before and after compression loading. Subsequently, relaxation behavior of samples was determined by thickness recovery after the compression test. Furthermore, thermal resistance was measured before and after the compression test to find out the change in thermal effectivity of samples. In summary, these results have not met expectations and show a rather poor correlation between the rate of compression after dynamic loading and the drop of thermal resistance of tested fillings.\u003c/p\u003e"}],"figures":[{"label":"Figure 1","caption":"Sample A of textile insulation, magnification of 10 mm and 100 mm [10]","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_001.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=a4606461a096c4c093b58df6e0482fa0035dc6ff2214593686ec45fe9951271a"},{"label":"Figure 2","caption":"Sample B of textile insulation, magnification of 10 mm and 100 mm [10]","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_002.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=0f09848077d63e9ef968942241b4c7b72b705237e8fa0bfa9d58c229593c556f"},{"label":"Figure 3","caption":"Schema of static loading measurement","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_003.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=c2318161e37fca661c02de264e05d746907dd3d91b44475aee146940ac530209"},{"label":"Figure 4","caption":"Instrument for dynamic compression test, schema and real photo [12]","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_004.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=a5c15d584fa09b9ff9d75b6482d4da77b2ce366f9b7e2119844b34b0d5dbffbe"},{"label":"Figure 5","caption":"Schema of TUL measuring equipment [10]","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_005.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=d3ef59c89ca75ea2ece41906b1753f069ab8658f3f031bad9ecdf4d9f98b6311"},{"label":"Figure 6","caption":"Thickness variability of the tested samples","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_006.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=e92e04a4dd710de71ed57664816ec33cfa6484678664eaad21e032f5d2669fb0"},{"label":"Figure 7","caption":"Compression C [%] of the tested samples after static loading","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_007.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=35ce305a136f25b88cdbd918933bae84cd76e375db8b7c2c330c9aa1d843010e"},{"label":"Figure 8","caption":"Recovery R [%] of the tested samples after static loading","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_008.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=674b82e0b69698ea50aa238c643317248ac9430d8e2e8c9a3d6acf6b23bfa6da"},{"label":"Figure 9","caption":"Compression of the tested samples after dynamic loading","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_009.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=7f1878570cc171f138ca5005a95efbf9d4f1b8de21b5b84be78dddfbde073ef1"},{"label":"Figure 10","caption":"Thermal resistance of the tested samples after dynamic loading test","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_010.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=5996b684d40ae02dd5c65c37250b12983c995ee71fba2976971bb7e66d77978c"},{"label":"Figure 11","caption":"Dependence between compression C [%] and Rct difference [%]","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_011.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=30a153fc8167a63368e3ba5bfe02d113ef6eaafefc4eee4234fe9ced2a3f2923"},{"label":"Figure 12","caption":"Effect of compression C [%] to Rct.","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_012.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=b84d6fa2e9748934f0f0501815329462a5fb70758f08c82ef3616af3b441989e"}],"tableContent":{"Specification of the tested samples":"\u003ctable rules=\"all\"\u003e\u003cthead\u003e\u003ctr\u003e\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"2\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSample codes\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eRaw material\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eStructure\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eWeight (g/m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eThickness (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\u003c/tr\u003e\u003c/thead\u003e\u003ctbody\u003e\u003ctr\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"3\"\u003eA\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eA1\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"6\"\u003e100% polyester\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"3\"\u003eNonwoven (hollow fibers)\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e73\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e9.4\u003c/td\u003e\u003c/tr\u003e\u003ctr\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eA2\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e102\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e9.9\u003c/td\u003e\u003c/tr\u003e\u003ctr\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eA3\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e142\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e13.5\u003c/td\u003e\u003c/tr\u003e\u003ctr\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"3\"\u003eB\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eB1\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"3\"\u003eNonwoven (hollow fibers, microfibers)\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e55\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e8.5\u003c/td\u003e\u003c/tr\u003e\u003ctr\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eB2\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e92\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e9.3\u003c/td\u003e\u003c/tr\u003e\u003ctr\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eB3\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e119\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e13.2\u003c/td\u003e\u003c/tr\u003e\u003c/tbody\u003e\u003c/table\u003e"},"tables":null,"articleContent":"\n\u003cdiv\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1aAa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e1\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eIntroduction\u003c/div\u003e\u003cp\u003eA number of studies deal with research of thermal insulation effectivity of filling materials up to now [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b1Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[1]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eScott, R. A. (2005). Textiles for protection, Woodhead Publishing, 784, ISBN: 9781855739215.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"book\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eScott\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eR. A.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2005\u003c/year\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eTextiles for protection\u003c/span\u003e\u003cpublisher-name\u003eWoodhead Publishing\u003c/publisher-name\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e784\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"comment\"\u003eISBN: 9781855739215.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b1Aa\"\u003e1\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b2Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[2]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eHavenith, G., (2002). Moisture accumulation in sleeping bags at sub-zero temperature; effect of semipermeable and impermeable covers, Textile Research Journal, 72(4), 281–284.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eHavenith\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eG.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2002\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eMoisture accumulation in sleeping bags at sub-zero temperature; effect of semipermeable and impermeable covers\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eTextile Research Journal\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e72\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e4\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e281\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e284\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b2Aa\"\u003e2\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_003_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b3Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[3]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eHavenith, G., Nilsson, H. (2004). Correction of clothing insulation for movement and wind effect, a meta-analysis, European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 92(6), 636–640.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eHavenith\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eG.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eNilsson\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eH.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2004\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eCorrection of clothing insulation for movement and wind effect, a meta-analysis\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e92\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e6\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e636\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e640\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_003_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b3Aa\"\u003e3\u003c/a\u003e]. Apart from natural filling material as the goose down, the synthetic nonwoven insulations and newly “artificial down” are well known for their superior thermal insulating properties and these are widely used as an insulating filling material for winter outerwear or sleeping bags [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_004_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b4Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[4]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eHavelka, A., et al. (2016). Possibilities of testing and evaluation of functional membrane textiles, Vlakna a Textil, 23(4), 42–46.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eHavelka\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eA.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cetal/\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2016\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003ePossibilities of testing and evaluation of functional membrane textiles\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eVlakna a Textil\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e23\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e4\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e42\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e46\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_004_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b4Aa\"\u003e4\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b5Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[5]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eWilliams, J. T. (2009). Textiles for cold weather apparel, Woodhead Publishing, 432, ISBN: 9781845694111.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"book\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eWilliams\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eJ. T.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2009\u003c/year\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eTextiles for cold weather apparel\u003c/span\u003e\u003cpublisher-name\u003eWoodhead Publishing\u003c/publisher-name\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e432\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"comment\"\u003eISBN: 9781845694111.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b5Aa\"\u003e5\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_006_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b6Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[6]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eGao, J., Yu, W., Pan, N. (2007). Structures and properties of the Goose Down as a material for Thermal Insulation, Textile Research Journal, 77(8), 617–626.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eGao\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eJ.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eYu\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eW.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003ePan\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eN.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2007\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eStructures and properties of the Goose Down as a material for Thermal Insulation\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eTextile Research Journal\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e77\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e8\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e617\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e626\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_006_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b6Aa\"\u003e6\u003c/a\u003e]. Researchers often refer to thermal insulation performance of fillings in relation to their thickness or weight. In general, thermal resistance of fillings increases with the increase in their thickness [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b2Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[2]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eHavenith, G., (2002). Moisture accumulation in sleeping bags at sub-zero temperature; effect of semipermeable and impermeable covers, Textile Research Journal, 72(4), 281–284.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eHavenith\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eG.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2002\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eMoisture accumulation in sleeping bags at sub-zero temperature; effect of semipermeable and impermeable covers\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eTextile Research Journal\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e72\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e4\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e281\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e284\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b2Aa\"\u003e2\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b5Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[5]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eWilliams, J. T. (2009). Textiles for cold weather apparel, Woodhead Publishing, 432, ISBN: 9781845694111.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"book\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eWilliams\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eJ. T.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2009\u003c/year\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eTextiles for cold weather apparel\u003c/span\u003e\u003cpublisher-name\u003eWoodhead Publishing\u003c/publisher-name\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e432\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"comment\"\u003eISBN: 9781845694111.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b5Aa\"\u003e5\u003c/a\u003e]. If the porosity of nonwoven fabrics remains constant, the change in thickness (in range of 6–9 mm) has no significant impact on the conductive heat transfer and radiative heat transfer according to the study by Zhu et al. [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_007_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b7Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[7]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eZhu, G., Kremenakova, D., Wang, Y., Militky, J. (2015). Study on thermal property of highly porous nonwoven fabrics, Industria Textila, 66(2), 74–79.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eZhu\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eG.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eKremenakova\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eD.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eWang\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eY.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eMilitky\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eJ.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2015\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eStudy on thermal property of highly porous nonwoven fabrics\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eIndustria Textila\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e66\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e2\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e74\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e79\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_007_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b7Aa\"\u003e7\u003c/a\u003e]. Physical properties of insulation materials such as bending stiffness, compressibility and recoverability are key determinants to provide the required thermal protection [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_006_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b6Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[6]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eGao, J., Yu, W., Pan, N. (2007). Structures and properties of the Goose Down as a material for Thermal Insulation, Textile Research Journal, 77(8), 617–626.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eGao\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eJ.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eYu\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eW.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003ePan\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eN.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2007\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eStructures and properties of the Goose Down as a material for Thermal Insulation\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eTextile Research Journal\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e77\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e8\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e617\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e626\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_006_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b6Aa\"\u003e6\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_008_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b8Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[8]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eGao, J., Pan, N., Yu, W. (2010). Compression behaviour evaluation of single down fibre and down fibre assemblies. The Journal of The Textile Institute, 101(3), 253–260.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eGao\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eJ.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003ePan\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eN.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eYu\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eW.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2010\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eCompression behaviour evaluation of single down fibre and down fibre assemblies\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eThe Journal of The Textile Institute\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e101\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e3\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e253\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e260\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_008_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b8Aa\"\u003e8\u003c/a\u003e]. Furthermore, effects of fiber cross-sectional shapes and fabric weight on thermal insulation, thickness, density, compression and air permeability of polyester needle-punched fabrics have been studied by Debnath and Madhusoothanan [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_009_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b9Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[9]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eDebnath, S., Madhusoothanan, M. (2010). Thermal insulation, compression and air permeability of polyester needle-punched nonwoven. Indian Journal of Fibre Textile Research, 35, 38–44.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eDebnath\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eS.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eMadhusoothanan\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eM.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2010\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eThermal insulation, compression and air permeability of polyester needle-punched nonwoven\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eIndian Journal of Fibre Textile Research\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e35\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e38\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e44\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_009_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b9Aa\"\u003e9\u003c/a\u003e]. One of the conclusions in this report was that the percentage compression decreases with the increase in fabric weight regardless of cross-sectional shapes of polyester fibers. Although some research has been carried out on the topic of insulation performance, there has been no detailed investigation of the relationship between the compression ratio after cyclic loading (simulating real conditions of use) and the decrease in insulation of fillings. This study tries to analyze how much thermal insulation can deteriorate during lifetime period of products made from the tested materials. This study is a follow-up of our earlier study that dealt with the assessment of thermal resistance of synthetic fillings used for sportswear (the same tested material as in the current study), intended for low ambient temperatures (below zero) [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c10Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[10]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eHavelka, A., Glombikova, V., Kus, Z., Chotebor, M. (2015). The thermal insulation properties of high tech sportswear fillings. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 27(4) 549–560.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eHavelka\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eA.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eGlombikova\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eV.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eKus\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eZ.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eChotebor\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eM.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2015\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eThe thermal insulation properties of high tech sportswear fillings\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eInternational Journal of Clothing Science and Technology\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e27\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e4\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e549\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e560\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c10Aa\"\u003e10\u003c/a\u003e].\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e2\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eExperimental details\u003c/div\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_002_s_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b2Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e2.1\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eMaterials\u003c/div\u003e\u003cp\u003eTwo sets of insulation materials frequently used in the production of highly functional sportswear and sleeping bags, high-loft insulation materials ClimaShield\u003csup\u003e®\u003c/sup\u003e and Primaloft\u003csup\u003e®\u003c/sup\u003e were evaluated in the study. It was interesting to evaluate the influence of weight on compressibility and relaxation behavior of samples after dynamic loading and their thermal performance. Therefore, six groups of samples were tested depending on different weights of fillings. Furthermore, change in thermal properties of samples before and after loading was analyzed. The basic characteristics of the tested samples are shown in \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"table\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_tab_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b2b3Aa\"\u003eTable 1\u003c/a\u003e.\u003c/p\u003e\u003ctable-wrap id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_tab_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b2b3Aa\" position=\"float\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003eTable 1\u003c/label\u003e\u003ccaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eSpecification of the tested samples\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/caption\u003e\u003ctable rules=\"all\"\u003e\u003cthead\u003e\u003ctr\u003e\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"2\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSample codes\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eRaw material\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eStructure\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eWeight (g/m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eThickness (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\u003c/tr\u003e\u003c/thead\u003e\u003ctbody\u003e\u003ctr\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"3\"\u003eA\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eA1\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"6\"\u003e100% polyester\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"3\"\u003eNonwoven (hollow fibers)\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e73\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e9.4\u003c/td\u003e\u003c/tr\u003e\u003ctr\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eA2\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e102\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e9.9\u003c/td\u003e\u003c/tr\u003e\u003ctr\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eA3\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e142\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e13.5\u003c/td\u003e\u003c/tr\u003e\u003ctr\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"3\"\u003eB\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eB1\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"3\"\u003eNonwoven (hollow fibers, microfibers)\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e55\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e8.5\u003c/td\u003e\u003c/tr\u003e\u003ctr\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eB2\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e92\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e9.3\u003c/td\u003e\u003c/tr\u003e\u003ctr\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eB3\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e119\u003c/td\u003e\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e13.2\u003c/td\u003e\u003c/tr\u003e\u003c/tbody\u003e\u003c/table\u003e\u003c/table-wrap\u003e\u003cp\u003eSample A (Primaloft\u003csup\u003e®\u003c/sup\u003e) uses patented structure of fine microfibers with hollow fibers of higher diameters, by which efficient thermal insulation properties are achieved (\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"fig\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b2b5Aa\"\u003eFigure 1\u003c/a\u003e). Higher amount of air that ensures the thermal insulation capacities even in small thickness of the insulation layer is bound on the cavities between microfibers due to their microscopic dimensions. Thanks to the hollow fibers of bigger diameters, elasticity and thermal insulation properties are maintained even after long-term use, compressing, washing and drying.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b2b5Aa\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 1\u003c/h2\u003e\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eSample A of textile insulation, magnification of 10 mm and 100 mm [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c10Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[10]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eHavelka, A., Glombikova, V., Kus, Z., Chotebor, M. (2015). The thermal insulation properties of high tech sportswear fillings. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 27(4) 549–560.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eHavelka\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eA.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eGlombikova\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eV.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eKus\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eZ.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eChotebor\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eM.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2015\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eThe thermal insulation properties of high tech sportswear fillings\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eInternational Journal of Clothing Science and Technology\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e27\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e4\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e549\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e560\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c10Aa\"\u003e10\u003c/a\u003e]\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_001.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_001.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=a4606461a096c4c093b58df6e0482fa0035dc6ff2214593686ec45fe9951271a\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\u003c/figure\u003e\u003cp\u003eThree-dimensional (3D) structure of B (ClimaShield®) textil (as well as in down) is created by thermally bonded cross fibers with hollow channels of triangular cross-section. Diameter of the fibers is in the range of classic hollow fibers and microfibers but due to the cross-section, the fibers are mechanically stronger than common hollow fibers (\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"fig\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b2b5Aa\"\u003eFigure 1\u003c/a\u003e). A batting is a typical chemically tied web of synthetic fibers with subsequent longitudinal layering. Before being measured, the samples had been air-conditioned for 24 hours. The measurement was carried out in an air-conditioned room under constant conditions at a relative humidity of 65% and the standard temperature of 20°C.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_002_s_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e2.2\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eMethods\u003c/div\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe experiment simulated real wearing conditions of winter jackets including carrying a backpack. The performance of the tested insulations was investigated by the following ways:\n\u003clist list-type=\"bullet\"\u003e\u003clist-item\u003e\u003cp\u003emeasuring of \u003citalic\u003ecompression and relaxation behavior\u003c/italic\u003e by static and dynamic loading and\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\u003clist-item\u003e\u003cp\u003emeasuring of the \u003citalic\u003ethermal resistance before and after the test of dynamic loading\u003c/italic\u003e.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\u003c/list\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe results from the abovementioned methods were compared and discussed to detect the real efficiency of the tested materials. Final values (means) of all the tested parameters correspond to five measurements on average.\u003c/p\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_002_s_002_s_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e2.2.1\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eCompression and relaxation behavior\u003c/div\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_002_s_002_s_001_s_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b2Aa\"\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eStatic loading\u003c/div\u003e\u003cp\u003eRepeated compression-recovery test was carried out by the device developed by the Technical University of Liberec [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_011_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c11Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[11]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eGlombikova, V. (2013). Apparatus for measuring compressibility of volume textile structures, National utility model No. 25543 (Czech Republic), 26.06.2013.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"other\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eGlombikova\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eV.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2013\u003c/year\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eApparatus for measuring compressibility of volume textile structures\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"comment\"\u003eNational utility model No. 25543 (Czech Republic), 26.06.2013.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_011_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c11Aa\"\u003e11\u003c/a\u003e], as shown in \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"fig\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_003_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b2b3Aa\"\u003eFigure 3\u003c/a\u003e. This simple device consists of a transparent perspex cylinder (base diameter is 14 cm) and a pressure plate for a set of required compression values. To ensure accuracy of measurements, five layers of materials were measured simultaneously and the image processing method NIS Element system was used for both before and after loading measurements.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b2b2Aa\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 2\u003c/h2\u003e\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eSample B of textile insulation, magnification of 10 mm and 100 mm [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c10Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[10]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eHavelka, A., Glombikova, V., Kus, Z., Chotebor, M. (2015). The thermal insulation properties of high tech sportswear fillings. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 27(4) 549–560.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eHavelka\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eA.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eGlombikova\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eV.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eKus\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eZ.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eChotebor\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eM.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2015\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eThe thermal insulation properties of high tech sportswear fillings\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eInternational Journal of Clothing Science and Technology\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e27\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e4\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e549\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e560\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c10Aa\"\u003e10\u003c/a\u003e]\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_002.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_002.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=0f09848077d63e9ef968942241b4c7b72b705237e8fa0bfa9d58c229593c556f\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\u003c/figure\u003e\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_003_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b2b3Aa\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 3\u003c/h2\u003e\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eSchema of static loading measurement\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_003.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_003.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=c2318161e37fca661c02de264e05d746907dd3d91b44475aee146940ac530209\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\u003c/figure\u003e\u003cp\u003eMutual combinations of two different settings of loading time (10 and 30 min) and two settings of relaxation time (15 and 40 min) were used for the testing. In total, five cycles were done for each type of the test and each sample. The pressure of static loading was 300 Pa. The measuring conditions were arranged according to the standard EN ISO 33886-1: Polymeric materials, cellular flexible – Determination of stress–strain characteristic in compression.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe compression \u003citalic\u003eC\u003c/italic\u003e [%] and recovery \u003citalic\u003eR\u003c/italic\u003e [%] were determined by means of \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"disp-formula\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_eq_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b2b5b9Aa\"\u003eequations (1)\u003c/a\u003e and \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"disp-formula\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_eq_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b2b6b3Aa\"\u003e(2)\u003c/a\u003e. Generally, compression is reduction in volume when pressure was applied. In this case, the compression after relaxation (15 min or 40 min) was measured.\n\u003cdisp-formula id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_eq_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b2b5b9Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e(1)\u003c/label\u003e\u003calternatives\u003e\u003cgraphic xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_eq_001.png\"\u003e\u003c/graphic\u003e\u003cmath xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\"\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmtable\u003e\u003cmtr\u003e\u003cmtd\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmi\u003eC\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmo\u003e=\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e(\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmfrac\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eh\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmn\u003e1\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmo\u003e−\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eh\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmn\u003e2\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eh\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmn\u003e1\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mfrac\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e)\u003c/mo\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e×\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmn\u003e100\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mtd\u003e\u003cmtd\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e[\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmo\u003e%\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmo\u003e]\u003c/mo\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mtd\u003e\u003c/mtr\u003e\u003c/mtable\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/math\u003e\u003ctex-math\u003e\\matrix{{C = \\left({{{{h_1} - {h_2}} \\over {{h_1}}}} \\right) \\times 100} \\hfill \u0026amp; {[\\% ]} \\hfill \\cr}\u003c/tex-math\u003e\u003c/alternatives\u003e\u003c/disp-formula\u003e\nwhere \u003citalic\u003eh\u003c/italic\u003e\u003csub\u003e1\u003c/sub\u003e is the original height of the samples and \u003citalic\u003eh\u003c/italic\u003e\u003csub\u003e2\u003c/sub\u003e is the height of the samples after removal of load (after relaxation time).\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eRecovery is given by \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"disp-formula\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_eq_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b2b6b3Aa\"\u003eequation (2)\u003c/a\u003e as the degree to which a sample mass recovered to its original height upon unloading.\n\u003cdisp-formula id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_eq_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b2b6b3Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e(2)\u003c/label\u003e\u003calternatives\u003e\u003cgraphic xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_eq_002.png\"\u003e\u003c/graphic\u003e\u003cmath xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\"\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmtable\u003e\u003cmtr\u003e\u003cmtd\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmi\u003eR\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmo\u003e=\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e(\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmfrac\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eh\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmn\u003e4\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmo\u003e−\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eh\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmn\u003e3\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eh\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmn\u003e1\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmo\u003e−\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eh\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmn\u003e3\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mfrac\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e)\u003c/mo\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e×\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmn\u003e100\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mtd\u003e\u003cmtd\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e[\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmo\u003e%\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmo\u003e]\u003c/mo\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mtd\u003e\u003c/mtr\u003e\u003c/mtable\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/math\u003e\u003ctex-math\u003e\\matrix{{R = \\left({{{{h_4} - {h_3}} \\over {{h_1} - {h_3}}}} \\right) \\times 100} \\hfill \u0026amp; {[\\% ]} \\hfill \\cr}\u003c/tex-math\u003e\u003c/alternatives\u003e\u003c/disp-formula\u003e\nwhere \u003citalic\u003eh\u003c/italic\u003e\u003csub\u003e1\u003c/sub\u003e is the original height of the samples, \u003citalic\u003eh\u003c/italic\u003e\u003csub\u003e3\u003c/sub\u003e is the height of the samples under load, and \u003citalic\u003eh\u003c/italic\u003e\u003csub\u003e4\u003c/sub\u003e is the height of samples after removal of load.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_002_s_002_s_001_s_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b3Aa\"\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eDynamic loading\u003c/div\u003e\u003cp\u003eTo study the thickness variation of insulation fabrics under dynamic loading, the measurement device shown in \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"fig\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_004_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b3b2Aa\"\u003eFigure 4\u003c/a\u003e was used. This instrument was developed at the Technical University of Liberec [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_012_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c12Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[12]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eHavelka, A., Kus, Z. (2015). Device for fatigue testing of textiles and multilayer textile composites, National utility model, No: 28065, 22.04.2015\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"other\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eHavelka\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eA.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eKus\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eZ.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2015\u003c/year\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eDevice for fatigue testing of textiles and multilayer textile composites\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"comment\"\u003eNational utility model, No: 28065, 22.04.2015\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_012_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c12Aa\"\u003e12\u003c/a\u003e]. A pressure plate with a contact area of 78.5 cm\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e (diameter is 10 cm) moved vertically up and down with a frequency of 400 cycles per min, applying a dynamic load of 6 kPa on the samples. The applied pressure of static loading corresponds to the average loading by straps of a 10 kg backpack. This pressure was determined by the XSENSOR\u003csup\u003e®\u003c/sup\u003e X3 pressure mapping system. Twenty-four thousand cycles were applied to each tested sample to simulate real conditions of backpack wearing. Number of applied cycles should be reflecting how many times wearer uses backpack (puts backpack on or off) during two seasons approximately.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_004_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b3b2Aa\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 4\u003c/h2\u003e\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eInstrument for dynamic compression test, schema and real photo [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_012_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c12Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[12]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eHavelka, A., Kus, Z. (2015). Device for fatigue testing of textiles and multilayer textile composites, National utility model, No: 28065, 22.04.2015\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"other\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eHavelka\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eA.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eKus\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eZ.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2015\u003c/year\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eDevice for fatigue testing of textiles and multilayer textile composites\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"comment\"\u003eNational utility model, No: 28065, 22.04.2015\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_012_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c12Aa\"\u003e12\u003c/a\u003e]\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_004.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_004.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=a5c15d584fa09b9ff9d75b6482d4da77b2ce366f9b7e2119844b34b0d5dbffbe\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\u003c/figure\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe variation of thickness of the tested samples was measured by digital thickness gauge SDL M034A both before and after dynamic loading. Applied pressure (during all measurements of thickness) was set to 50 Pa because the other devices use a low pressure for the measurement of thermal properties, for example, for Togmeter SDL M 259 the pressure is 5 Pa and equipment Fox 314 according to ASTM D1518 measures under a pressure of 70 Pa. Moreover, the carried experiment for fixing thickness of sample by different pressures confirmed the abovementioned conclusion.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe compression \u003citalic\u003eC\u003c/italic\u003e [%] was determined by means of \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"disp-formula\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_eq_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b2b5b9Aa\"\u003eequation (1)\u003c/a\u003e. Parameter \u003citalic\u003eh\u003c/italic\u003e\u003csub\u003e2\u003c/sub\u003e is the height of the samples, which was measured immediately after the removal of load on the contrary of static loading that is measured under load. This parameter should simulate the sample behavior of the sample after taking the backpack off.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_002_s_002_s_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b5Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e2.2.2\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eMeasurement of thermal resistance\u003c/div\u003e\u003cp\u003eThermal resistance \u003citalic\u003eR\u003c/italic\u003e\u003csub\u003ect\u003c/sub\u003e [m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003eK/W] of samples both before and immediately after dynamic loading was investigated by a hotplate system developed at the Technical university of Liberec [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c10Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[10]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eHavelka, A., Glombikova, V., Kus, Z., Chotebor, M. (2015). The thermal insulation properties of high tech sportswear fillings. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 27(4) 549–560.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eHavelka\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eA.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eGlombikova\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eV.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eKus\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eZ.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eChotebor\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eM.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2015\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eThe thermal insulation properties of high tech sportswear fillings\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eInternational Journal of Clothing Science and Technology\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e27\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e4\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e549\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e560\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c10Aa\"\u003e10\u003c/a\u003e]. The equipment (\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"fig\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b5b3Aa\"\u003eFigure 5\u003c/a\u003e) for measuring thermal resistance consists of two principal parts, namely, thermal resistance measuring the equipment itself and an air-conditioning chamber. The air-conditioning chamber allows creation of an environment (humidity and temperature), which corresponds to the real conditions (temperatures below zero included), in which the tested materials for sportswear are actually used. Maximum deviation of temperature and humidity in the chamber was set at the requested value of ±1°C, ±2% RH. This chamber controls the air velocity on the outer surface of the tested sample as well. The air velocity corresponds to 1 m/s. The measuring equipment consisting of a heating plate, the constant surface temperature of which is ensured using a simple regulation circuit with a thermocouple sensor at the value of 35 ± 1°C, is placed into the air-conditioning chamber. The tested sample, edges of which are fixed by a frame, is placed onto the heating plate. Thermal resistance \u003citalic\u003eR\u003c/italic\u003e\u003csub\u003ect\u003c/sub\u003e is determined on the basis of sensing the sample surface temperature on both fabric sides of the fabric and the quantity of heat flowing through the fabric measured by a thermal flux sensor. The data obtained from the abovementioned sensors are wirelessly transferred from the measuring center to a PC. Standardized measurement of thermal insulation properties was carried out under standard laboratory conditions, i.e. ambient temperature of 20°C and relative humidity of 65%. The used method performs well in accordance with the standard EN 31092:1993 (ISO 11092) by Sweating Guarded Hotplate System 8.2 [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c10Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[10]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eHavelka, A., Glombikova, V., Kus, Z., Chotebor, M. (2015). The thermal insulation properties of high tech sportswear fillings. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 27(4) 549–560.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eHavelka\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eA.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eGlombikova\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eV.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eKus\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eZ.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eChotebor\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eM.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2015\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eThe thermal insulation properties of high tech sportswear fillings\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eInternational Journal of Clothing Science and Technology\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e27\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e4\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e549\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e560\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c10Aa\"\u003e10\u003c/a\u003e]. Furthermore, the aforementioned device enables us to test small size samples, which are impossible to measure by the SGHP system.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b5b3Aa\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 5\u003c/h2\u003e\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eSchema of TUL measuring equipment [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c10Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[10]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eHavelka, A., Glombikova, V., Kus, Z., Chotebor, M. (2015). The thermal insulation properties of high tech sportswear fillings. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 27(4) 549–560.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eHavelka\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eA.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eGlombikova\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eV.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eKus\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eZ.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eChotebor\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eM.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2015\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eThe thermal insulation properties of high tech sportswear fillings\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eInternational Journal of Clothing Science and Technology\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e27\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e4\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e549\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e560\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c10Aa\"\u003e10\u003c/a\u003e]\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_005.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_005.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=d3ef59c89ca75ea2ece41906b1753f069ab8658f3f031bad9ecdf4d9f98b6311\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\u003c/figure\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_003_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e3\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eResults and discussion\u003c/div\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_003_s_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b2Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e3.1\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eVariability of thickness\u003c/div\u003e\u003cp\u003eProducers declare the weight of the tested samples to be 60, 90 and 130 g/m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e. Experimentally measured weights of the tested samples are in the range of 55–142 g/m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e. The thickness was measured under pressure equal to 50 Pa at steady state thickness. Coefficient of thickness variation is in the range of 18–40%, as shown in \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"fig\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_006_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b2b3Aa\"\u003eFigure 6\u003c/a\u003e. It is a well-known fact that both rate of weight irregularity and thickness irregularity of tested nonwovens are caused by the way of web processing. The abovementioned fact can influence variation degree of the tested samples from point of view of their compressibility and thermal properties.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_006_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b2b3Aa\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 6\u003c/h2\u003e\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eThickness variability of the tested samples\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_006.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_006.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=e92e04a4dd710de71ed57664816ec33cfa6484678664eaad21e032f5d2669fb0\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\u003c/figure\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_003_s_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b3Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e3.2\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eCompression and relaxation behavior\u003c/div\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe results of compression \u003citalic\u003eC\u003c/italic\u003e [%] and recovery [%], \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"disp-formula\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_eq_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b2b5b9Aa\"\u003eequations (1)\u003c/a\u003e and \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"disp-formula\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_eq_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b1b3b4b2b6b3Aa\"\u003e(2)\u003c/a\u003e, are particularly shown in \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"fig\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_007_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b3b3Aa\"\u003eFigures 7\u003c/a\u003e and \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"fig\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_008_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b3b4Aa\"\u003e8\u003c/a\u003e.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_007_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b3b3Aa\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 7\u003c/h2\u003e\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eCompression \u003citalic\u003eC\u003c/italic\u003e [%] of the tested samples after static loading\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_007.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_007.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=35ce305a136f25b88cdbd918933bae84cd76e375db8b7c2c330c9aa1d843010e\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\u003c/figure\u003e\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_008_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b3b4Aa\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 8\u003c/h2\u003e\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eRecovery \u003citalic\u003eR\u003c/italic\u003e [%] of the tested samples after static loading\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_008.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_008.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=674b82e0b69698ea50aa238c643317248ac9430d8e2e8c9a3d6acf6b23bfa6da\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\u003c/figure\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_003_s_002_s_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b3b5Aa\"\u003e\u003ctitle/\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_003_s_002_s_001_s_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b3b5b1Aa\"\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eStatic loading\u003c/div\u003e\u003cp\u003eTwo times of loading (10 and 30 min) and subsequently two times of relaxation (15 and 40 min) were applied to the tested materials.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eThese results are in accordance with recent studies [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b2Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[2]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eHavenith, G., (2002). Moisture accumulation in sleeping bags at sub-zero temperature; effect of semipermeable and impermeable covers, Textile Research Journal, 72(4), 281–284.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eHavenith\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eG.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2002\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eMoisture accumulation in sleeping bags at sub-zero temperature; effect of semipermeable and impermeable covers\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eTextile Research Journal\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e72\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e4\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e281\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e284\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b2Aa\"\u003e2\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b5Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[5]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eWilliams, J. T. (2009). Textiles for cold weather apparel, Woodhead Publishing, 432, ISBN: 9781845694111.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"book\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eWilliams\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eJ. T.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2009\u003c/year\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eTextiles for cold weather apparel\u003c/span\u003e\u003cpublisher-name\u003eWoodhead Publishing\u003c/publisher-name\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e432\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"comment\"\u003eISBN: 9781845694111.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1b5Aa\"\u003e5\u003c/a\u003e], indicating that intensity of high-loft insulations compressibility is influenced by the loading time and the time of relaxation. Generally, longer relaxation time ensures decreasing of thickness compression and thereby the reducing heat losses over the original value of fillings. It is caused by reappearing of air gaps in the fibrous structure of fillings. Furthermore, the compression \u003citalic\u003eC\u003c/italic\u003e [%] becomes smaller as the weight of filling increased, in particular by PrimaLoft\u003csup\u003e®\u003c/sup\u003e Sport sample A. The values of recovery \u003citalic\u003eR\u003c/italic\u003e [%] confirm these results. This may be because the sample A contains the hollow fibers of bigger diameters that ensure high elasticity.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_003_s_002_s_001_s_002_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b3b5b2Aa\"\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eDynamic loading\u003c/div\u003e\u003cp\u003eAs can be seen from \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"fig\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_009_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b3b5b2b2Aa\"\u003eFigure 9\u003c/a\u003e, the trend of compression \u003citalic\u003eC\u003c/italic\u003e [%] after dynamic loading (24,000 cycles) following above mentioned, namely the ability to recover is growing with increasing material thickness.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_009_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b3b5b2b2Aa\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 9\u003c/h2\u003e\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eCompression of the tested samples after dynamic loading\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_009.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_009.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=7f1878570cc171f138ca5005a95efbf9d4f1b8de21b5b84be78dddfbde073ef1\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\u003c/figure\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_003_s_003_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e3.3\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eThermal resistance\u003c/div\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe graph in \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"fig\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b3Aa\"\u003eFigure 10\u003c/a\u003e summarizes the results of influence of compressibility on thermal insulation properties of filling materials. The thermal resistance \u003citalic\u003eR\u003c/italic\u003e\u003csub\u003ect\u003c/sub\u003e [m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003eK/W] was chosen as an indicator of thermal insulation.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b3Aa\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 10\u003c/h2\u003e\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eThermal resistance of the tested samples after dynamic loading test\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_010.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_010.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=5996b684d40ae02dd5c65c37250b12983c995ee71fba2976971bb7e66d77978c\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\u003c/figure\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"fig\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_010_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b3Aa\"\u003eFigure 10\u003c/a\u003e provides the results obtained from the analysis of influence of dynamic loading on thermal resistance. The fillings are forced to regroup their internal structure and the air is discharged out of the fabric due to the applied pressure.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eGenerally, the thermal resistance of air is much bigger than thermal resistance of fibrous polymers. This fact causes a decrease in thermal resistance of filling [\u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_013_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c13Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[13]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eCooper, T. (1979). Textiles as protection against extreme winter weather, Textiles, 8(3), Shirley institute, Manchester, 72–83\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eCooper\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eT.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e1979\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eTextiles as protection against extreme winter weather\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eTextiles\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e8\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e3\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"comment\"\u003eShirley institute, Manchester,\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e72\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e83\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_013_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c13Aa\"\u003e13\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"bibr\" data-tooltip-info='\u003cspan class=\"ref\" id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_ref_014_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c14Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[14]\u003c/label\u003e\u003cspan class=\"mixed-citation\"\u003eKolinova, M., Syrovatkova, M., Komarkova, P, Tresnak, R. (2017). The thermal and porous properties of protective rubber boots. Vlakna A Textil. 24(4), 15–21.\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"element-citation\" publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eKolinova\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eM.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eSyrovatkova\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eM.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eKomarkova\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eP\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"name\"\u003e\u003cspan class=\"surname\"\u003eTresnak\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"given-names\"\u003eR.\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003cyear\u003e2017\u003c/year\u003e\u003carticle-title\u003eThe thermal and porous properties of protective rubber boots\u003c/article-title\u003e\u003cspan class=\"source\"\u003eVlakna A Textil\u003c/span\u003e\u003cvolume\u003e24\u003c/volume\u003e\u003cissue\u003e4\u003c/issue\u003e\u003cspan class=\"fpage\"\u003e15\u003c/span\u003e\u003cspan class=\"lpage\"\u003e21\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e\u003c/span\u003e' href=\"#j_aut-2019-0015_ref_014_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b1c14Aa\"\u003e14\u003c/a\u003e].\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eR\u003c/italic\u003e\u003csub\u003ect\u003c/sub\u003e difference [%] was determined by means of \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"disp-formula\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_eq_003_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b6b5Aa\"\u003eequations (3)\u003c/a\u003e as follows:\n\u003cdisp-formula id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_eq_003_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b6b5Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e(3)\u003c/label\u003e\u003calternatives\u003e\u003cgraphic xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_eq_003.png\"\u003e\u003c/graphic\u003e\u003cmath xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\"\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmtable\u003e\u003cmtr\u003e\u003cmtd\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eR\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmi\u003ect\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmi\u003edifference\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmo\u003e=\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e(\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmfrac\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eR\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmi\u003ect\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmn\u003e1\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmo\u003e−\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eR\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmi\u003ect\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmn\u003e2\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eR\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmi\u003ect\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmn\u003e1\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mfrac\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e)\u003c/mo\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e*\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmn\u003e100\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mtd\u003e\u003cmtd\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e[\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmo\u003e%\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmo\u003e]\u003c/mo\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mtd\u003e\u003c/mtr\u003e\u003c/mtable\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/math\u003e\u003ctex-math\u003e\\matrix{{{R_{ct}}difference = \\left({{{{R_{ct1}} - {R_{ct2}}} \\over {{R_{ct1}}}}} \\right)*100} \\hfill \u0026amp; {[\\% ]} \\hfill \\cr}\u003c/tex-math\u003e\u003c/alternatives\u003e\u003c/disp-formula\u003e\nwhere \u003citalic\u003eRct1\u003c/italic\u003e is the value of thermal resistance measured before the dynamic loading (before compression), and \u003citalic\u003eRct2\u003c/italic\u003e is the thermal resistance measured after application of dynamic loading (after removal of load).\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe good news is that the drop in thermal insulation (i.e., “\u003citalic\u003eRct\u003c/italic\u003e difference [%]”) ranged from 7 to 15% even in the case of compression after dynamic stress loading was about 28%, see sample B1 in \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"fig\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_011_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b8Aa\"\u003eFigure 11\u003c/a\u003e. In addition to that \u003ca data-toggle='tooltip' ref-type=\"fig\" rid=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_012_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b9Aa\"\u003eFigure 12\u003c/a\u003e shows poor correlation between compression \u003citalic\u003eC\u003c/italic\u003e [%] and \u003citalic\u003eR\u003c/italic\u003e\u003csub\u003ect\u003c/sub\u003e difference [%].\u003c/p\u003e\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_011_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b8Aa\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 11\u003c/h2\u003e\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eDependence between compression \u003citalic\u003eC\u003c/italic\u003e [%] and \u003citalic\u003eR\u003c/italic\u003e\u003csub\u003ect\u003c/sub\u003e difference [%]\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_011.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_011.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=30a153fc8167a63368e3ba5bfe02d113ef6eaafefc4eee4234fe9ced2a3f2923\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\u003c/figure\u003e\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_fig_012_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b2b4b9Aa\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 12\u003c/h2\u003e\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eEffect of compression \u003citalic\u003eC\u003c/italic\u003e [%] to \u003citalic\u003eR\u003c/italic\u003e\u003csub\u003ect\u003c/sub\u003e.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_012.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d600e797941b18f28c51/j_aut-2019-0015_fig_012.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20211127T171838Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=b84d6fa2e9748934f0f0501815329462a5fb70758f08c82ef3616af3b441989e\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\u003c/figure\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2019-0015_s_004_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab1b3Aa\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e4\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eConclusion\u003c/div\u003e\u003cp\u003eThis research extends the knowledge of high-loft thermal insulation materials that considerably affect the wearing comfort of sportswear or sleeping bags. The tested group of filling materials was investigated with respect to compression behavior and thermal properties. This investigation confirmed that intensity of high-loft insulations compressibility is influenced by loading time and time of relaxation.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eFurthermore, the study complements earlier studies particularly regarding the impact of both weight (thickness) and compressibility on thermal properties of fillings. The results of this study indicate that the compressibility of filling becomes smaller as the weight of fillings increased. The degree of compression is heavily dependent on the mass unevenness of filling. Variations of thickness can reach even 40%. On the other hand, this drawback can be balanced out by input raw material, namely appropriate ratio of microfibers and hollow fibers of bigger diameters in the filling structure. The relevance of the above is clearly supported by the current findings regarding the poor correlation (\u003citalic\u003eR\u003c/italic\u003e\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e = 0.4) between the compression rate (up to 28%) and the corresponding rate of change in thermal resistance (7–18%).\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eFurther research should focus on determining the relation between long-term stress on the filling and its moisture management transport under pressure.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003c/div\u003e","keywords":[{"title":"Keywords","language":null,"keywords":["Thermal insulation","compressibility","recovery","relaxation","thermal resistance"]}],"recentIssues":{"10.2478/aut-2021-0010":"\u003carticle-title\u003eApparel Industry in the EU–China Exports and Circular Economy\u003c/article-title\u003e","10.2478/aut-2021-0012":"\u003carticle-title\u003eExperimental and Modelling Studies on Thermal Insulation and Sound Absorption Properties of Cross-Laid Nonwoven 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