1. bookVolume 7 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
08 Sep 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Demand Drivers of Female Labor Force Participation: Evidence From Selected African Countries

Published Online: 04 Jul 2019
Page range: 81 - 94
Received: 04 Apr 2019
Accepted: 16 Apr 2019
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
08 Sep 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

This study investigates the demand drivers of female labor participation in a panel of twenty (20) selected African countries across five sub-regional groupings (West Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Central Africa and South Africa), over the period 1990-2015. The study sourced data from World Bank Data Bank. Poverty and gender inequality in employment were used and measured respectively by life expectancy at birth and gender ratio in labor participation. Other variables included are wage rates, female marginal labor productivity and household income. Autoregressive Distributive Lags (ARDL) procedure of dynamic panel model was used. The result from the Dynamic Fixed Effect (DFE) revealed that female marginal productivity of labor and gender inequality in employment have a significant positive impact on demand for female labor in the long run, however female marginal productivity was found negative in the short run. It is therefore important that, in order to bridge the gender gap in employment, government should ensure gender sensitive policies and remove all forms of institutional barriers to female labor demand. Efforts should also be made to improve female productivity through training, literacy and household food security. In order for female demand to meet desired response, adequate support services and provisions that can entice female to work outside home should be provided.

Keywords

JEL Classification

[1] Population Reference Bureau, World Population Data Sheet: With a special focus on women’s empowerment, (2015)Search in Google Scholar

[2] United Nations, World Population Prospects, key findings and advance tables, Department of Economics and Social Affairs, Population Divisions (2015). Retrieved from https://esa.un.org>publication>filesSearch in Google Scholar

[3] United Nations, Investing in Women and Girls: International Women’s Day 2008, United Nations Backgrounder, 2008. http://www.univienna.org/pdf/factsheets_women_2008_e.pdf.feb 2008Search in Google Scholar

[4] Ernst and Young, Women of Africa, A Powerful Untapped Economic Force for the Continent, 2011, retrieved from http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/WomenofAfrica/$FILE/Women%20of%20Africa%20final.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

[5] World Bank, In Times of Crisis, Women can be Agents of Change: Interview with Otaviano Canuto,Vice President and Head of the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management (PREM) Network,” PREM Newsletter: Gender Equality as Smart Economics, Fall 2009.Search in Google Scholar

[6] Sachs, G. Australia’s Hidden Resource: The Economic Case for Increasing Female Participation, Research Report, Goldman Sachs JB Were Investment Research, (2009)Search in Google Scholar

[7] Morikawa, Y. The opportunities and challenges for female labor force participation in Morocco, Global Economy and Development (Working Paper 86), Brookings (2015)Search in Google Scholar

[8] Mahapatra, S. Women participation in labor force. New Delhi, Rajat Publications, 2002, 46-54Search in Google Scholar

[9] Klassen, S. and Pieters, J. Push or Pull? Drivers of female Labor Force Participation during India’s Economic Boom, IZA Discussion Paper Series, 2012, (N0. 6395). Germany.Search in Google Scholar

[10] Bernal, R., and Cardenas, M. Determinants of labor demand in Colombia: 1976-1996. NBER working paper series, WP10077, 2003. http://www.nber.org/paper/Search in Google Scholar

[11] Plekutowska, A. Determinants of labor demand for immigrants in Poland. University of Bialystok, 2007 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242251937Search in Google Scholar

[12] Rotaru, P. C. A regional Model for labor demand in Romania, Theoretical and Applied Economics, 8(585), 2013, 7-14Search in Google Scholar

[13] Maleszyk, P. The determinants of labor demand in the Lubelskie Voivodship, Barometer Regionalny, 2014,53-63.Search in Google Scholar

[14] Ibrahim, M. A. The determinants of private sector demand for employment in Egypt: 1990-2007, Advances in Management and Applied Economics, 3(1), 2013, 163-182. ISSN: 1792-7544,1792 5527(online). Sciencepress limitedSearch in Google Scholar

[15] Nguyen, K. T. Determinants of labor demand in the manufacturing sector: Does firm ownership matter? Crawford School of Public Policy, 2013Search in Google Scholar

[16] Adam, A., and Moutos, T. Industry level labor elasticities across Euro Zone: will there be any gain after the pain of internal devaluation. Economics Analysis and Research Department Special Studies Division, 2014, Working Paper ISSN 1109 6691Search in Google Scholar

[17] Samuelson, P. A. Tale of Two Macroeconomics, Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, 15(3), 2003, 361-363Search in Google Scholar

[18] Statistical, Economics and Social Research and Training for Islamic Countries (2007) http://www.sesrtcic.org/stat_database.phpSearch in Google Scholar

[19] National Gender Policy, Federal Republic of Nigeria Situation Analysis / Framework. The Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development, 2009, Abuja.Search in Google Scholar

[20] Danish Trade Union Council, Malawi Labor Market Profile. Danish Trade Union Council for International Development and Co-operation, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

[21] African Development Bank, Gender Profile of the Union of Comoros. Africa Development Fund, Abidjan, Cote D’ Ivoire, 2009Search in Google Scholar

[22] D. N. GUJARATI, Basic Econometric, (4th Ed.) (The McGraw-Hill Companies. NewYork, 2004).Search in Google Scholar

[23] Engel, R. F., and Granger, C. W. J. Cointegration and error correction: Representation, estimation and testing, Econometrica, 55(2), 1987, 251-276Search in Google Scholar

[24] World Bank, World Development Report 2012: Gender. The World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

[25] Klasen, S. and Lamanna, F. The impact of gender inequality in education and employment on economic growth: New evidence for a panel of countries, Feminist Economics, 15(3), 2009, 91-132Search in Google Scholar

[26] Revenga, A. and Shetty, S. Empowering women is smart economics, Finance and Development, 49(1), 2012, 40-43Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo