1. bookVolume 13 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)
    Special Issue: Sparsely populated rural areas
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1803-8417
First Published
24 Feb 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

What Do Public Policies Teach us About Rural Depopulation: The Case Study of Spain

Published Online: 12 Jul 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 13 (2021) - Issue 2 (June 2021)<br/>Special Issue: Sparsely populated rural areas
Page range: 330 - 351
Received: 16 Nov 2020
Accepted: 27 Feb 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1803-8417
First Published
24 Feb 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

This study evaluates the policies developed in Spain to address depopulation and explains the reasons for their low effectiveness. We consider that the low impact of these policies is due to an incorrect diagnosis and design in terms of their content and governance. Therefore, we propose that depopulation policies should have the objective of enabling citizens to reside where they wish and obtain the best possible quality of life. These policies should be implemented within a new governance framework in which the foundations on which they are based and the way in which they are implemented are renewed. With the support of the European Union, such action could be carried out more efficiently and could constitute a reference of successful territorial cohesion contributing to erasing the populist opinion in places that believe that they do not matter.

Keywords

[1] Adam-Hernández, A. & Harteisen, U. (2020). A Proposed Framework for Rural Resilience– How can peripheral village communities in Europe shape change? Ager 28, 7–42. DOI: 10.4422/ager.2019.05. Search in Google Scholar

[2] Anisi, D. (1992). Jerarquía, mercado, valores: una reflexión económica sobre el poder. Madrid: Alianza. Search in Google Scholar

[3] Arrow, K. J., Dasgupta, P., Goulder, L. H., Mumford, K. J. & Oleson, K. (2012). Sustainability and the measurement of wealth. Environment and Development Economics, 17(3), 317–353.10.1017/S1355770X12000137 Search in Google Scholar

[4] Ayuda, M. I., Sáez, L. A. & Pinilla, V. (2000). El problema de la despoblación en Aragón: causas, características y perspectivas. Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica 18(1), 137–173. Search in Google Scholar

[5] Ayuda, M. I., Sáez, L. A. & Pinilla, V. (2003). La despoblación en Aragón: análisis y políticas. In García, F., ed., La lucha contra la despoblación todavía necesaria: políticas y estrategias sobre la despoblación de las áreas rurales en el siglo XXI (pp. 43–104). Zaragoza: CEDDAR. Search in Google Scholar

[6] Baraja, E. (2003). La despoblación, un fenómeno sociodemográfico todavía vigente en Castilla y León. In García, F., ed., La lucha contra la despoblación todavía necesaria: políticas y estrategias sobre la despoblación de las áreas rurales en el siglo XXI (pp. 105–126). Zaragoza: CEDDAR. Search in Google Scholar

[7] Boadway, R., Pestieau, P. & Wildasin, D. (1989). Tax-transfer policies and the voluntary provision of public goods. Journal of Public Economics 39 (2), 157–176. DOI: 10.1016/0047-2727(89)90038-8.10.1016/0047-2727(89)90038-8 Search in Google Scholar

[8] Bock, B. B. (2016). Rural marginalisation and the role of social innovation; a turn towards nexogenous development and rural reconnection. Sociologia Ruralis 56(4), 552–573. DOI: 10.1111/soru.12119.10.1111/soru.12119 Search in Google Scholar

[9] Bosworth, G. & Atterton, J. (2012). Entrepreneurial in-migration and neoendogenous rural development. Rural Sociology 77(2), 254–279. DOI: 10.1111/j.1549-0831.2012.00079.x.10.1111/j.1549-0831.2012.00079.x Search in Google Scholar

[10] Camarero, L. (2019). Los patrimonios de la despoblación: La diversidad del vacío. PH: Boletín del Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Histórico 27(98), 50–69. DOI: 10.33349/2019.98.4517.10.33349/2019.98.4517 Search in Google Scholar

[11] Camarero, L. (2020). Despoblamiento, baja densidad y brecha rural: un recorrido por una España desigual. Panorama Social 31, 47–73. Search in Google Scholar

[12] Camarero, L. & Oliva, J. (2018). Movilidades, hibridaciones rurales y paisajes sociales. En Movilidades, trayectorias vitales y sostenibilidad rural. In Oliva, J., ed., Movilidades, trayectorias vitales y sostenibilidad rural (pp. 21–33). Pamplona: Universidad Pública de Navarra. Search in Google Scholar

[13] Casini, L., Boncinelli, F., Gerini, F., Romano, C., Scozzafava, G. & Contini, C. (2021). Evaluating rural viability and well-being: Evidence from marginal areas in Tuscany. Journal of Rural Studies, 82, 64–75. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2021.01.002.10.1016/j.jrurstud.2021.01.002 Search in Google Scholar

[14] Coleman, D. & Rowthorn, R. (2011). Who’s Afraid of Population Decline? A Critical Examination of Its Consequences. Population and Development Review 37, 217–248. DOI: 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2011.00385.x.10.1111/j.1728-4457.2011.00385.x21280372 Search in Google Scholar

[15] Collantes, F. & Pinilla, V. (2004). Extreme Depopulation in the Spanish rural mountain areas: a case study in Aragon in the 19th and 20th centuries. Rural History, 15(2), 149–66. DOI: 10.1017/S0956793304001219.10.1017/S0956793304001219 Search in Google Scholar

[16] Collantes, F. & Pinilla, V. (2011). Peaceful Surrender. The Depopulation of Rural Spain in the Twentieth Century. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Search in Google Scholar

[17] Collantes, F. & Pinilla, V. (2019) ¿Lugares que no importan? La despoblación de la España rural desde 1900 hasta el presente. Zaragoza: Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza. Search in Google Scholar

[18] Collantes, F., Pinilla, V., Sáez, L. A. & Silvestre, J. (2014). Reducing depopulation in rural Spain: the impact of immigration. Population, Space and Place 20(7), 606–621. DOI: 10.1002/psp.1797.10.1002/psp.1797 Search in Google Scholar

[19] Dalen, H. P. & Henkens C. J. (2011). Who fears and who welcomes population decline? Demographic Research 25, Art. 13, 437–464. DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2011.25.13.10.4054/DemRes.2011.25.13 Search in Google Scholar

[20] Danson, M. & Whittam, G. (2011). Scotland’s Civic Society v. England’s Big Society? Diverging roles of the VCS in public service delivery. Social Policy and Society, 10(3), 353–363. DOI: 10.1017/S147474641100008X.10.1017/S147474641100008X Search in Google Scholar

[21] Dezio, C. (2020). Restart from resources. Rural heritage as Antifragile Territorial Capital. Journal valori e valutazioni 24, 209–217. Search in Google Scholar

[22] Díez, J. M. & Pardo, A. (2020). Depopulation, ageing and social policies in Castilla y León. Revista Galega De Economía, 29(2), 1–18. DOI: 10.15304/rge.29.2.6959.10.15304/rge.29.2.6959 Search in Google Scholar

[23] Dyrting, S., Taylor, A. & Shalley, F. (2020). A life-stage approach for understanding population retention in sparsely populated areas. Journal of Rural Studies 80, 439–451. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2020.10.021.10.1016/j.jrurstud.2020.10.021 Search in Google Scholar

[24] Dubois, A. & Roto, J. (2012). Making the best of Europe’s Sparsely Populated Areas. [Working Paper]. Stockholm: NORDREGIO. Search in Google Scholar

[25] Escalona, A.I, Escolano, S., Sáez, L. A. & Sánchez-Valverde, B. (2016). The location of creative clusters in non-metropolitan areas: A methodological proposition. Journal of Rural Studies, 45, 112–122. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.03.007.10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.03.007 Search in Google Scholar

[26] Fernández, E. & Rubiera, F. (2020). Population forecast for small areas: estimates for the parishes of five northwestern Spanish provinces. Revista Galega de Economía, 29(2), 1–14. DOI: 10.15304/rge.29.2.7121.10.15304/rge.29.2.7121 Search in Google Scholar

[27] Feser, E. & Sweeney, S. (1999). Out-migration, population decline, and regional economic distress. Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce. Search in Google Scholar

[28] García, A. S. (2007). Internalizing Immigration Policy within the Nation-State: The Local Initiative of Aguaviva, Spain [Working Paper 151]. The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California at San Diego. Search in Google Scholar

[29] Gkartzios, M. & Lowe, P. (2019). Revisiting Neo-Endogenous Rural Development. In Scott, M., Gallent, N. and Gkartzios, M., eds., The Routledge Companion to Rural Planning (pp. 159–169). New York: Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

[30] Goerlich, F. J., Reig, E., Albert, C. & Robledo, J. C. (2020). Las áreas urbanas funcionales en España: Economía y calidad de Vida. Bilbao, Fundación BBVA. Search in Google Scholar

[31] González, J. (2017). Desarrollo rural en España: una política de estado inaplazable. Documentación social 185, 103–119. Search in Google Scholar

[32] Grau, H. R. & Aide, T. M. (2007). Are rural–urban migration and sustainable development compatible in mountain systems? Mountain Research and Development 27(2), 119–123. DOI: 10.1659/mrd.0906.10.1659/mrd.0906 Search in Google Scholar

[33] Johnson, T. G. & Fannin, J. M. (2019). A New Conceptual Framework for Rural Cultural Wealth [Reseach Paper,]. Rural Policy Research Institute, Iowa City: University of Iowa. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32215.32161. Search in Google Scholar

[34] Li, Y., Westlund, H. & Liu, Y. (2019). Why some rural areas decline while some others not: An overview of rural evolution in the world. Journal of Rural Studies 68, 135–143. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.03.003.10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.03.003 Search in Google Scholar

[35] López, J. & Salas, V. (2002). Economía y política de la financiación de servicios públicos en territorios con desigual densidad de demanda. Revista de Economía Aplicada 10, 28, 121–150. Search in Google Scholar

[36] Lutz, W. & Gailey, N. (2020). Depopulation as a Policy Challenge in the Context of Global Demographic Trends. New York: UNDP. Search in Google Scholar

[37] Makkonen, T. & Kahila, P. (2020). Vitality policy as a tool for rural development in peripheral Finland. Growth and Change, DOI: 10.1111/grow.12364.10.1111/grow.12364 Search in Google Scholar

[38] Mankiw, N. G. & Weil, D. N. (1989). The baby boom, the baby bust, and the housing market. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 19(2), 235–258. DOI: 10.1016/0166-0462(89)90005-7.10.1016/0166-0462(89)90005-7 Search in Google Scholar

[39] Marini, M. B. & Mooney, P. H. (2006). Rural economies. In Cloke, P., Marsden, T. & Mooney, P., eds., Handbook of rural studies (pp. 91–103). London: Sage. Search in Google Scholar

[40] Matanle, P. & Sáez, L. A. (2019). Searching for a Depopulation Dividend in the 21st Century: Perspectives from Japan, Spain and New Zealand. Journal of the Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture. 83(1). Search in Google Scholar

[41] Melendez-Pastor, I., Hernández, E. I., Navarro-Pedreño, J. & Gómez, I. (2014). Socioeconomic factors influencing land cover changes in rural areas: The case of the Sierra de Albarracín (Spain). Applied Geography 52, 34–45. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.04.013.10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.04.013 Search in Google Scholar

[42] Moralli, M. & Allegrini, G. (2020). Crises redefined: towards new spaces for social innovation in inner areas? European Societies, 23(Sup. 1), 5831–5843. DOI: 10.1080/14616696.2020.1841263.10.1080/14616696.2020.1841263 Search in Google Scholar

[43] Nussbaum, M. C. & Sen, A., eds. (1993). The Quality of Life. Oxford: Clarendon Press.10.1093/0198287976.001.0001 Search in Google Scholar

[44] Palacios, A., Pinilla, V. & Sáez, L. A. (2017). La despoblación en Aragón, 20002016: tendencias, datos y reflexiones para el diseño de políticas [Working Paper]. Zaragoza: Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Economía y Empresa. Search in Google Scholar

[45] Paniagua, Á. (2016). Despoblación, sostenibilidad social y espacio rural. Algunas consideraciones para el debate, Ambienta 116, 58–67. Search in Google Scholar

[46] Pinilla, V. (1995). Crisis, declive y adaptación de las economías de montaña: una interpretación sobre la despoblación en Aragón. In Acín, J. L. & Pinilla, V., eds., Pueblos abandonados: ¿un mundo perdido? (pp. 55–78). Zaragoza: Rolde de Estudios Aragoneses. Search in Google Scholar

[47] Pinilla, V. & Sáez, L.A., eds. (2009). Tendencias recientes en la evolución de la población de las comarcas aragonesas: el problema de las comarcas demográficamente regresivas (20002007). Zaragoza: CEDDAR. Search in Google Scholar

[48] Pinilla, V., Ayuda, M. I. & Sáez, L. A. (2008). Rural depopulation and the migration turnaround in Mediterranean Western Europe: a case study of Aragón. Journal of Rural and Community Development. 3(1), 1–22. Search in Google Scholar

[49] Ramió-Matas, C. (2017). La necesidad de diseñar en el futuro unos nuevos valores públicos. GIGAPP Estudios Working Papers, 20–38. Search in Google Scholar

[50] Rey, A. del, Cebrián, M. & Ortega, J. A. (2009). Despoblamiento y envejecimiento en Castilla y León durante el siglo XX: análisis a través de la emigración femenina y la pérdida de nacimientos. Ager, 8, 113–149. Search in Google Scholar

[51] Rodríguez-Pose, A. (2018). The revenge of the places that don’t matter (and what to do about it). Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 11(1), 189–209. DOI: 10.1093/cjres/rsx024.10.1093/cjres/rsx024 Search in Google Scholar

[52] Sáez, L. A., Ayuda, M. I. & Pinilla, V. (2016). Pasividad autonómica y activismo local frente a la despoblación en España: el caso de Aragón analizado desde la Economía Política, Ager 21, 11–41. Search in Google Scholar

[53] Sampedro, R. & Camarero, L. (2020). Foreign Immigration to Rural Spain: An Exploration of the Precarious Rural Cosmopolitanism in the Post-Crisis Scenario. In Döner, F., Figueiredo, E. & Rivera, M., eds., Crisis and Postcrisis in Rural Territories. Social Change, Challenges and Opportunities in Southern and Mediterranean Europe (pp. 9–30). Cham: Springer. Search in Google Scholar

[54] Sánchez-Alonso, B. (2014). Those who Left and Those who Stayed Behind: Explaining Emigration from the Regions of Spain, 1880–1914. Journal of Economic History, 60(3), 732–757. Search in Google Scholar

[55] Silvestre, J. (2001). Viajes de corta distancia: una visión espacial de las migraciones interiores en España. Revista de Historia Económica 19, 247–283. DOI: 10.1017/S0212610900009125.10.1017/S0212610900009125 Search in Google Scholar

[56] Silvestre, J. (2002). Las emigraciones interiores en España durante los siglos XIX y XX: una revisión bibliográfica. Ager, 2, 227–248. Search in Google Scholar

[57] Silvestre, J. (2005). Internal migrations in Spain, 1877–1930. European Review of Economic History 9(2), 233–265. DOI:10.1017/S1361491605001462.10.1017/S1361491605001462 Search in Google Scholar

[58] Sörvik, J., Teräs, J., Dubois, A. & Pertoldi, M. (2019). Smart specialisation in sparsely populated areas: Challenges, opportunities and new openings. Regional Studies, 53(7), 1070–1080. DOI: 10.1080/00343404.2018.1530752.10.1080/00343404.2018.1530752 Search in Google Scholar

[59] Stockdale, A., Theunissen, N. & Haartsen, T. (2018). Staying in a state of flux: A life course perspective on the diverse staying processes of rural young adults. Population, Space and Place 24(8), 21–39. DOI: 10.1002/psp.2139.10.1002/psp.2139 Search in Google Scholar

[60] Taima, M. & Asami, Y. (2020). Determinants and policies of native metropolitan young workers’ migration toward non-metropolitan areas in Japan. Cities, 102, Art. 102733. DOI: 10.1016/j.cities.2020.102733.10.1016/j.cities.2020.102733 Search in Google Scholar

[61] Tomé, P. (2020). Las culturas «tradicionales» ante los procesos de despoblación. Práctica urbanística: Revista mensual de urbanismo, 162. Search in Google Scholar

[62] Ubels, H., Bock, B. & Haartsen, T. (2019). An evolutionary perspective on experimental local governance arrangements with local governments and residents in Dutch rural areas of depopulation. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space 37(7), 1277–1295. DOI: 10.1177/2399654418820070.10.1177/2399654418820070 Search in Google Scholar

[63] Vaishar, A., Šťastná, M., Zapletalová, J. & Nováková, E. (2020). Is the European countryside depopulating? Case study Moravia, Journal of Rural Studies, 80, 567–577. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2020.10.044.10.1016/j.jrurstud.2020.10.044 Search in Google Scholar

[64] Wiseman, J. (1990). Principles of Political Economy. Constitutional Political Economy 1(1), 101–124. DOI: 10.1007/BF02393035.10.1007/BF02393035 Search in Google Scholar

[65] Wu, B., Liu, L. & Carter, C. J. (2019). Bridging social capital as a resource for rural revitalisation in China? A survey of community connection of university students with home villages. Journal of Rural Studies in press. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.05.008.10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.05.008 Search in Google Scholar

[66] Barca, F. (2009). An Agenda for a Reformed Cohesion Policy; a place-based approach to meeting European Union challenges and expectations. http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/archive/policy/future/pdf/report_barca_v0306.pdf. Search in Google Scholar

[67] Comisión Europea (2007). Cuarto informe sobre la cohesión económica y social. Luxemburgo: Oficina de Publicaciones Oficiales de las Comunidades Europeas. <http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docoffic/official/reports/cohesion4/index_es.htm >. Search in Google Scholar

[68] Margaras, V. (2016). Sparsely populated and underpopulated areas. European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2016/586632/EPRS_BRI(2016)586632_EN.pdf. Search in Google Scholar

[69] OECD (2018). OECD Regions and Cities at a Glance 2018. Paris: OECD. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo