1. bookVolume 14 (2020): Issue 2 (December 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
26 Jun 2014
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Is neighborhood level Jobs-Housing Balance associated with travel behavior of commuters?: a case study on Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Published Online: 31 Dec 2020
Page range: 122 - 133
Received: 16 Aug 2020
Accepted: 04 Dec 2020
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
26 Jun 2014
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Being one of the densely populated cities of the world, city dwellers of Dhaka have to face severe traffic congestion daily while commuting for different purposes. According to the World Bank report, Dhaka is losing around 3.2 billion working hours daily as the current average driving speed is about seven kilometers per hour. To ease traffic congestion, urban policymakers around the world are concentrating on the geographical balance between the locations of jobs and housing. Despite the apparent acceptance of jobs-housing balance as a policy tool to guide urban development, little empirical research has been carried out on jobs-housing balance and its relation to the travel behavior of the residents. This study aims to close this research gap by: (a) quantifying neighborhoodlevel jobs-housing balance; (b) investigating whether there are any significant differences in commuting time and distance of the resident workers in correspondence with different Job-Housing Ratio (JHR) values of neighbourhoods. This paper uses Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs) demarcated on the Revised Strategic Transport Plan as a unit of measuring the Job-Housing Ratio, and then, TAZs have been categorized into three groups, named as Housing-rich, Balanced, and Employment-rich, in terms of the recommended range of Job-Housing Ratio. Residents’ home-based commuting data have been calculated from 16,000 households who participated in Household Interview Survey of Revised Strategic Transport Plan 2015. Results demonstrate that Housing-rich neighbourhoods have a significantly longer commuting distance and time than both Balanced and Employment-rich neighbourhoods. Above all, both commuting time and distance show exponentially declining relation, but with a decreasing rate, in correspondence with JHR. The study output suggests that the achievement of a balance between jobs and housing in a neighborhood would be beneficial for the people to economize the commuting time and distance.

Keywords

Aslam SAB, Masoumi HE, Hussain SA (2019) Urban travel characteristics in relation with jobs-housing balance and accessibility: results of a survey in Lahore, Pakistan. GeoScape 13(1): 31–54.Search in Google Scholar

Bento AM, Cropper ML, Mobarak AM, Vinha K (2005) The effects of urban spatial structure on travel demand in the United States. Review of Economics and Statistics 87(3): 466–478.Search in Google Scholar

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (2011) Population and Housing Census, 2011: Urban Area Report. Planning Division, Ministry of Planning, Dhaka, Bangladesh.Search in Google Scholar

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. (2015) Economic Census 2013. Available at: <http://203.112.218.65:8008/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/EcoCen13/FinalReport%20Part%201.pdf>Search in Google Scholar

Cervero R (1989) Jobs-housing balancing and regional mobility. Journal of the American Planning Association 55(2): 136–150.Search in Google Scholar

Cervero R (1991) Jobs housing balance as a public policy. Urban Land 50(10): 10–14.Search in Google Scholar

Cervero R (1996) Jobs-housing balance revisited: Trends and impacts in the San Francisco Bay Area. Journal of the American Planning Association 62(4): 492–511.Search in Google Scholar

Cervero R, Duncan M (2006) Which reduces vehicle travel more: Jobs-housing balance or retail-housing mixing?. Journal of the American Planning Association 72(4): 475–490.Search in Google Scholar

Downs A (1992) Stuck in traffic: Coping with peak-hour traffic congestion. Brookings Institution Press.Search in Google Scholar

Downs A (2005) Still stuck in traffic: Coping with peak-hour traffic congestion. Brookings Institution Press.Search in Google Scholar

Dhaka population 2020 (Demographics, maps, graphs) (2020) Available at: <https://worldpopulationreview.com/worldcities/dhaka-population>Search in Google Scholar

Draft Dhaka structure plan report 2016-2035 (Full volume) (n.d.). Available at: <https://www.academia.edu/31508051/._Draft_Dhaka_Structure_Plan_Report_2016-2035_Full_Volume>Search in Google Scholar

Dhaka Transport Coordination Authority (DTCA) (2015) The Project on the Revision and Updating of the Strategic Transport Plan for Dhaka. Available at: <https://dtca.portal.gov.bd/sites_default/files/files/dtca.portal.gov.bd/page/2c9ed98b/_602a/_468b/_84bc/_6b4858449313/DFR/_UrbanTransport%20Policy%20(Edited).pdf>Search in Google Scholar

Ewing R (2019) Best development practices: Doing the right thing and making money at the same time. Routledge, London.Search in Google Scholar

Ewing R, Cervero R (2001) Travel and the built environment: A synthesis. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1780 (1): 87–114.Search in Google Scholar

Frank LD (1994) Relationships between land use and travel behavior in the Puget Sound region. Washington State Transportation Center, Seattle.Search in Google Scholar

Frank LD (1996) An analysis of relationships between urban form (density, mix, and jobs: Housing balance) and travel behavior (mode choice, trip generation, trip length, and commuting time). Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 30(1): 76–77.Search in Google Scholar

Giuliano G (1991) Is jobs-housing balance a transportation issue?. San Francisco: The University of California Transportation Center Transportation research record 1305: 305–312.Search in Google Scholar

Horner M W (2008) Optimal accessibility landscapes? Development of a new methodology for simulating and assessing jobs—Housing relationships in urban regions. Urban Studies 45(8): 1583–1602.Search in Google Scholar

Horner MW, Mefford JN (2007) Investigating urban spatial mismatch using job–housing indicators to model home–work separation. Environment and Planning A 39: 1420–1440.Search in Google Scholar

Levine J (1998) Rethinking accessibility and jobs-housing balance. Journal of the American Planning Association 64(2): 133–149.Search in Google Scholar

Loo B P, Chow A S (2011) Jobs-housing balance in an era of population decentralization: An analytical framework and a case study. Journal of Transport Geography 19(4): 552–562.Search in Google Scholar

Margolis J (1957) Municipal fiscal structure in a metropolitan region. Journal of Political Economy, 65(3): 225–236.Search in Google Scholar

Miller E J, Ibrahim Ac(1998) Urban form and vehicular travel: Some empirical findings. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1617(1): 18–27.Search in Google Scholar

Miller J S (2010) Feasibility of using jobs/housing balance in Virginia statewide planning. Virginia Transportation Research Council, Charlottesville.Search in Google Scholar

Niedzielski MA, O’Kelly ME, Boschmann EE (2015) Synthesizing spatial interaction data for social science research: Validation and an investigation of spatial mismatch in Wichita, Kansas. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 54: 204–218Search in Google Scholar

Optimized hot spot analysis—ArcGIS pro | Documentation. (2019, December 10). Available at: <https://pro.arcgis.com/en/pro-app/tool-reference/spatial-statistics/optimizedhot-spot-analysis.htm>Search in Google Scholar

Peng Z (1997) The jobs-housing balance and urban commuting. Urban Studies 34(8): 1215–1235.Search in Google Scholar

SACOG (Sacramento Area Council of Government). (2012, February). Metropolitan transportation plan sustainable communities strategy (MTP/SCS 2035). Available at: <http://www.sacog.org/2035/draft-final-mtpscs>Search in Google Scholar

SCAG (2001) the new economy and job-housing balance in Southern California.Search in Google Scholar

Southern California Association of Governments, Los Angeles, pp. 19–20.Search in Google Scholar

Rahman MH, Islam M, Neema MN (2019) Compactness of Neighborhood Spatial Structure: A Case Study of Selected Neighborhoods of DNCC and DSCC Area. Paper presented at International Conference on Sustainability in Natural and Built Environment (iCSNBE 2019), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Available at: <http://www.icsnbe.net.au/proceedings/2019/iCSNBE2019_Proceedings.pdf>Search in Google Scholar

Rahman M (2017) Study on the mode choice behavior of the commuters living in the suburban areas of Dhaka (Master’s thesis, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh). Available at: <http://lib.buet.ac.bd:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/4570>Search in Google Scholar

Sultana S (2002) Job/Housing imbalance and commuting time in the Atlanta metropolitan area: Exploration of causes of longer commuting time. Urban Geography 23(8): 728–749.Search in Google Scholar

Ta N, Chai Y, Zhang Y, Sun D (2016) Understanding job-housing relationship and commuting pattern in Chinese cities: Past, present and future. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 52: 562–573Search in Google Scholar

Wang D, Chai Y (2009) The jobs–housing relationship and commuting in Beijing, China: The legacy of Danwei. Journal of Transport Geography 17(1): 30–38.Search in Google Scholar

Wu Q, Zhang M, Yang D (2015) Jobs-housing balance: The right ratio for the right place. Recent Developments in Chinese Urban Planning: 311–333.Search in Google Scholar

Yang J, Ferreira J (2005) Evaluating measures of job-housing proximity: Boston and Atlanta, 1980–20001. Access to Destinations: 171–192.Search in Google Scholar

Zhao P, Lu B, Linden GJ (2009) The effects of transport accessibility and jobs–housing balance on commuting time: Evidence from Beijing. International Planning Studies 14(1): 65–83.Search in Google Scholar

Zhao P, Lü B, Roo GD (2011) Impact of the jobs-housing balance on urban commuting in Beijing in the transformation era. Journal of Transport Geography 19(1): 59–69.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo