1. bookVolume 15 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
26 Jun 2014
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
access type Open Access

Modelling urban mixed land-use prediction using influence parameters

Published Online: 03 Jul 2021
Page range: 66 - 78
Received: 25 Dec 2020
Accepted: 28 May 2021
Journal Details
First Published
26 Jun 2014
Publication timeframe
2 times per year

Mixed land-use is a popular concept in urban planning due to its expected role in improving environmental sustainability as well as citizen’s quality of life. Land use planning and regulations are not stringent in many cities like those in India, and policies are liberal towards mixed land uses. In these cities, mixed land-uses are a natural phenomenon manifesting under various influencing parameters. However, for studies on mixed land-uses, these cities pose data insufficiency challenges, as vital comprehensive spatial information related to land-uses is not available. Moreover, there is no standardised methodology established to assess the spatial distribution of mixed land-uses at the city level. This research has developed a GIS-based model using Weighted Overlay Analysis to predict and visualise the probability of mixed land-use at the macro or city level for the case of Pune, India. The model uses the easily available spatial data of influencing parameters of mixed land-use as input for prediction instead of comprehensive real land-use data. The model is validated by comparing the predicted mixed land-use intensities with established indicators of mixed land-use for four neighbourhoods. It is found that parameters that influence mixed land-use such as connectivity, grain pattern, population density and access to amenities can be used to predict the probability of mixed land-use. Around 35 per cent of the city area of Pune has more than 0.67 probability of mixed land-use. The model can produce the probable mixed land-use distribution across the city and can be used to compute mixed land-use intensities for neighbourhoods.

Highlights for public administration, management and planning:

• Mixed land-use probability distribution for Pune City, India is generated using Weighted Overlay Analysis in GIS.

• As vital spatial data of land-use was unavailable, the prediction model uses data of influencing parameters of mixed land-uses such as population density, connectivity, grain pattern and access to amenities.

• The mixed land-use probabilities predicted can be used to compute mixed land-use intensities of neighbourhoods. It is validated by comparing with traditional mixed land-use indicators.


Abdullahi S, Pradhan B, Mansor S, Shariff ARM (2015) GIS-based modeling for the spatial measurement and evaluation of mixed land use development for a compact city. GIScience & Remote Sensing 52(1): 18−39. Search in Google Scholar

Ahluwalia IJ (2019) Indian cities need a new planning template. Available from: <https://www.financialexpress.com/opinion/indian-cities-need-a-new-planning-template-heres-why/1661159> Search in Google Scholar

Bahadure S, Kotharkar R (2015) Assessing sustainability of mixed use neighbourhoods through residents’ travel behaviour and perception: The case of Nagpur India. Sustainability 7: 12164−12189. Search in Google Scholar

Bordoloi R, Mote A, PratimSarkar P, Mallikarjuna C (2013) Quantification of land use diversity in the context of mixed land use. s.l. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 104: 563−572. Search in Google Scholar

BusinessLine (2012) Majority of cities yet to develop master plan. Available from: <https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/majority-of-cities-yet-to-develop-masterplan/article23084739.ece> Search in Google Scholar

Carr LJ, Dunsiger SI, Marcus BH (2011) Validation of Walk Score for estimating access to walkable amenities. British Journal of Sports Medicine 45(14): 1144−1148. Search in Google Scholar

Chen L (2014) Redefining the typology of landuse in the age of big data, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. Search in Google Scholar

Diddee J, Gupta S (2013) Pune queen of the Deccan. Elephant Design Pvt. Ltd., Pune. Search in Google Scholar

DigitalGlobe & CNES Airbus (2018) Satellite image of Pune. Google Earth Pro. Search in Google Scholar

Duncan DT, Aldstadt J, Whalen J, Melly SJ, Gortmaker SL (2011) Validation of Walk Score® for estimating neighborhood walkability: An analysis of four US metropolitan areas. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8(11): 4160−4179. Search in Google Scholar

ESRI (2016a) ArcGIS for Desktop- ArcMap - How Weighted Overlay works. Available from: <https://desktop.arcgis.com/en/arcmap/10.3/tools/spatial-analyst-toolbox/how-weighted-overlay-works.htm> Search in Google Scholar

ESRI (2016b) Zonal geometry as table. Available from: <https://desktop.arcgis.com/en/arcmap/10.3/tools/spatialanalyst-toolbox/zonal-geometry-as-table.htm> Search in Google Scholar

ESRI (2018) Understanding euclidean distance analysis. Available from: <https://pro.arcgis.com/en/pro-app/tool-reference/spatial-analyst/understanding-euclidean-distance-analysis.htm> Search in Google Scholar

Gehrke SR, Clifton KJ (2016) Toward a spatial-temporal measure of land-use mix. The Journal of Transportation and Land Use 9(1): 171−186. Search in Google Scholar

Gervasoni L, Bosch M, Fenet S, Sturm P (2016) A framework for evaluating urban land use mix from crowd-sourcing data. 2nd International Workshop on Big Data for Sustainable Development, Washington DC, United States. IEEE: 2147−2156. Search in Google Scholar

Grant J (2002) Mixed use in theory and practice: Canadian experience with implementing a planning principle. Journal of the American Planning Association 68(1): 71−84. Search in Google Scholar

Herndon JD, Drummond W (2011) Mixed-Use development in theory and practice: Learning from Atlanta’s mixed experiences. Available from: <https://smartech.gatech.edu/bit-stream/handle/1853/40790/JoshuaHerndon_Mixed-Use%20Development%20in%20Theory%20and%20Practice.pdf> Search in Google Scholar

Hirt S (2007) The Mixed-use Trend: Planning attitudes and practices in Northeast Ohio. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 24(3): 224−244. Search in Google Scholar

Hoek JW van den (2008) The MXI (Mixed-use Index) an instrument for anti sprawl policy?. In: 44th ISOCARP Congress, Dalian, China. Search in Google Scholar

Hoppenbrouwer E, Louw E (2005) Mixed-use development: Theory and practice in Amsterdam’s Eastern Docklands. European Planning Studies 13(7): 967−983. Search in Google Scholar

Huang S-W, Tsai W-J (2013) The analysis of measurements and influence factors of mixed land use. International Journal of Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics 3(3): 206−210. Search in Google Scholar

Jacobs-Crisioni C, Rietveld P, Koomen E, Tranos E (2014) Evaluating the impact of land-use density and mix on spatiotemporal urban activity patterns: An exploratory study using mobile phone data. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space 46(11): 2769−2785. Search in Google Scholar

Jacobs J (1961) The death and life of great American cities. Random House, New York. Search in Google Scholar

Kajtazi B (2007) Measuring multifunctionality of urban areas, ITC, Netherlands. Available at: <https://webapps.itc.utwente.nl/librarywww/papers_2007/msc/upla/kajtazi.pdf> Search in Google Scholar

Kawabe A, Watanabe S (2018) An analysis of mixed land use towards designing the compact city. In: 23rd International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong, 2: 493−502. Search in Google Scholar

Lynch K (1984) Theory of Good City Form. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. Search in Google Scholar

Manaugh K, Kreider T (2013) What is mixed use? Presenting an interaction method for measuring land use mix. The Journal of Transport and Landuse, 6(1): 63−72. Search in Google Scholar

Mashhoodi B, Pont MB (2011) Studying land-use distribution and mixed-use patterns in relation to density accessibility and urban form. 18th International Seminar on Urban Form: Urban Morphology and the Post-Carbon City. Montreal, Canada. Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (2016) Smart city features. Available from: <http://smartcities.gov.in/content/innerpage/smart-city-features.php> Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (2017) National Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Policy, Government of India. Available from: < https://smartnet.niua.org/content/4d80e2fffab5-4434-9e3c-53f227a8b575> Search in Google Scholar

Moreri KK (2020) Using Kappa methodology to consider volunteered geographic information in official land administration systems in developing countries. Spatial Information Research 28: 299−311. Search in Google Scholar

Mott MacDonald (2014) Urban and Regional Development Plans Formulation and Implementation (URDPFI) Guidelines, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi. Search in Google Scholar

Narvaez L (2015) The morphology of mixed uses. Future of Places Conference, UN-HABITAT, Projects for Public Spaces. Stockholm, Sweden. Search in Google Scholar

Norton CA (2015) The role of fine urban grain in securing the diversity of the urban centre, University of the West of England, Bristol. Search in Google Scholar

O’Sullivan A (2012) Urban economics. McGraw Hill, New York. Search in Google Scholar

OpenStreetMap® (2018) Available from: <https://www.openstreetmap.org/copyright> Search in Google Scholar

Oyekola MA, Adewuyi GK (2018) Unsupervised classification in land cover types using remote sensing and GIS Techniques. International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations 7(72): 11−18. Search in Google Scholar

Pune Municipal Corporation (2017) Development Control and Promotion Regulations, Pune. Search in Google Scholar

Pune Municipal Corporation (2018) Development Plans. Available from: <https://pmc.gov.in/en/draft-development-plan-old-pmc-limit-2007-2027-published-us-311-mrtp-act-1966> Search in Google Scholar

Pune Municipal Corporation (2020) Census data. Available from: <https://pmc.gov.in/en/census> Search in Google Scholar

Raju P (2003) Spatial Data Analysis. In: Proceedings of workshop: Satellite remote sensing and GIS applications in agricultural meteorology, Dehra Dun, India, pp. 151−174. Search in Google Scholar

Raman R, Roy UK (2019) Taxonomy of urban mixed land use planning. Land Use Policy 88: 104102. Search in Google Scholar

Redfin (2020) Walk Score. (Data provided by Redfin Real Estate) Available from: <https://www.walkscore.com/score/> Search in Google Scholar

Rodenburg C, Nijkamp P (2004) Multifunctional land-use in the city: A typological overview. Built Environment 30(4): 274−288. Search in Google Scholar

Rowley A (1996) Mixed-use Development: Ambiguous concept, simplistic analysis and wishful thinking?. Planning Practice & Research, 11(1): 85−98. Search in Google Scholar

Shi B, Yang J (2015) Scale, distribution, and pattern of mixed land use in central districts: A case study of Nanjing, China. Habitat International 46: 166−177. Search in Google Scholar

Song Y, Merlin L, Rodriguez D (2013) Comparing measures of urban land use mix. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 42: 1−13. Search in Google Scholar

Williams K. (2004) Can urban intensification contribute to sustainable cities? An international perspective. City Matters. Available from: < https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Can-urban-intensification-contribute-to-sustainable- Search in Google Scholar

Williams/6da8a1c80cffef60e645053d3f9cc122303bf06d> Yinan Z (2009) Intensity control in mixed-used new urban area: a case study of the waterfront in Xiasha, Hangzhou. The New Urban Question – Urbanism beyond Neo-Liberalism, The 4th International Conference of the International Forum on Urbanism (IFoU), Amsterdam: 1395−1404. Search in Google Scholar

Yue Y, Zhuang Y, Yeh AG, Xie JY, Ma CL, Li QQ (2017) Measurements of POI-based mixed use and their relationships with neighbourhood vibrancy. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 31(4): 658–675. Search in Google Scholar

Zagorskas J (2016) GIS-based modelling and estimation of land use mix in urban environment. International Journal of Environmental Science 1: 284−293. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo