1. bookVolume 18 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2464-6601
First Published
08 Jun 2011
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Constitutions, Citizenship and the Challenge of National Integration and Nation-Building in Africa

Published Online: 25 Sep 2018
Page range: 7 - 50
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2464-6601
First Published
08 Jun 2011
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Summary

Most countries in Africa are both “multination” and “polyethnic” states. This is due partly to the forced amalgamation, by the European colonialists, of the continent’s “ethnocultural nations” into single economic and political units that were called “colonies.” These colonies eventually evolved into what are today’s independent African countries. Today, many of these ethnocultural groups want to secede and form their own independent polities in order to have more autonomy over policies that affect their well-being, including especially their cultural and traditional values. The struggle by these groups for either outright secession or so-called enhanced rights has created many challenges for governance, national integration and nation-building in many countries in Africa today. Throughout the continent, inter-ethnic conflict, for example, over the allocation of scarce resources, has produced sectarian violence that has led to civil wars (as occurred in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, and Nigeria) and significantly endangered prospects for peaceful coexistence. It has been suggested that the solution to this political quagmire is the creation of differentiated citizenship rights for each of these groups. The paper suggests that of the three types of differentiated citizenship that have been suggested as a way to accommodate diversity—self-government rights, polyethnic rights, and special representation rights—self-government rights pose the greatest threat to social, political, and economic stability in the African countries. The solution to this governance challenge may lie in inclusive and robust dialogue, which can help these groups find a way to remain citizens of their present polities, while at the same time, retaining their cultural identities.

Keywords

ACHEBE, Chinua. There was a Country: A Personal History of Biafra. London, UK: Penguin, 2013.Search in Google Scholar

AKPAN, Ntieyong U. The Struggle for Secession, 1966–1970: A Personal Account of the Nigerian Civil War. London, UK: Frank Cass, 2014.10.4324/9781315810362Search in Google Scholar

ANSAH-KOI, Kumi. The Pan-Africanist Thought of Kwame Nkrumah. Legon, Accra, Ghana: Institute of African Studies, 1985.Search in Google Scholar

ARNOT, Raymond H. The Judicial System of the British Colonies. Yale Law Journal, 1907, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 504–513.10.2307/785802Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

ATANGA, Mufor. The Anglophone Cameroon Predicament. Bamenda, Cameroon: Langaa Research & Publishing CIG, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

BAH, Abu B. Breakdown and Reconstitution: Democracy, the Nation-State, and Ethnicity in Nigeria. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2005.Search in Google Scholar

BANDA, Fareda. Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women in Africa. In EVANS, Malcolm, MURRAY, Rachel (eds.). The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights: The System in Practice, 1986–2006. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

BARTKUS, Viva Ona. The Dynamic Secession. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.10.1017/CBO9780511491214Search in Google Scholar

BAXTER, Peter. Biafra: The Nigerian Civil War, 1967–1970. West Midlands, UK: Helion & Company Limited, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

BOAHEN, A. Adu (ed.). General History of Africa VII: Africa Under Colonial Domination 1880–1935. London, UK: James Currey, 1990.Search in Google Scholar

BUTLER, Jeffrey, ROTBERG, Robert I., ADAMS, John. The Black Homelands of South Africa: The Political and Economic Development of Bophuthatswana and KwaZulu. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: The University of California, 1977.Search in Google Scholar

CARAYANNIS, Tatiana, LOMBARD, Louisa (eds.). Making Sense of the Central African Republic. London, UK: Zed Books, 2015.10.5040/9781350221246Search in Google Scholar

CROWDER, Michael. Indirect Rule: French and British Style. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 1964, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 197–205.Search in Google Scholar

CROWDER, Michael. Colonial West Africa: Collected Essays. New York City: Routledge, 1978.Search in Google Scholar

DAVIS, F. James. Who is Black? One Nation’s Definition. College Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

DECALO, Samuel. The Process, Prospects and Constraints of Democratization in Africa. African Affairs, 1992, vol. 91, no. 362, pp. 7–35.10.1093/afraf/91.362.7Search in Google Scholar

DERSSO, Solomon (ed.). Perspectives on the Rights of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples in Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Pretoria University Law Press, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

DIAMOND, Larry J. Class, Ethnicity, and Democracy in Nigeria: The Failure of the First Republic. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1988.Search in Google Scholar

DORMAN, Sara, HAMMETT, Daniel, NUGENT, Paul (eds.). Making Nations, Creating Strangers: States and Citizenship in Africa. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2007.Search in Google Scholar

DOXEY, George V. The Industrial Color Bar. New York City: Greenwood Press, 1961.Search in Google Scholar

DUBOW, Saul. Scientific Racism in Modern South Africa. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.Search in Google Scholar

EBIEM, Osita. Nigeria, Biafra & Boko Haram: Ending Genocide Through Multi-State Solution. New York: Page Publishing, Inc., 2014.Search in Google Scholar

FREDRICKSON, George M. White Supremacy: A Comparative Study in American & South African History. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1981.Search in Google Scholar

FRINDÉTHIÉ, K. Martial. From Lumumba to Ghagbo: Africa in the Eddy of the Euro-American Quest for Exceptionalism. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

GARDNER, John. Politicians and Apartheid: Trailing in the People’s Wake. Pretoria, South Africa: Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), 1997.Search in Google Scholar

GBERIE, Lansana. A Dirty War in West Africa: The RUF and the Destruction of Sierra Leone. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2005.Search in Google Scholar

GINGYERA-PINYCWA, A.G. G. Uganda and the Problem of Refugees. Kampala, Uganda: Makerere University Press, 1998.Search in Google Scholar

GOCKING, Roger. British Justice and the Native Tribunals of the Southern Gold Coast Colony. The Journal of African History, 1993, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 93–113.10.1017/S0021853700033016Search in Google Scholar

GUELKE, Adrian. Rethinking the Rise and Fall of Apartheid: South Africa and World Politics. New York City, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

HARRIS, Gordon. The Organization of African Unity. Oxford, UK: CLIO Press, 1994.Search in Google Scholar

HELLWEG, Joseph. Hunting the Ethical State: The Benkadi Movement of Côte d’Ivoire. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press, 2011.10.7208/chicago/9780226326559.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

HOLLENBACK, S. J. (ed.). Refugee Rights: Ethics, Advocacy, and Africa. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2008.Search in Google Scholar

HUBAND, Mark. The Liberian Civil War. London, UK: Frank Cass, 2013.10.4324/9781315037875Search in Google Scholar

HUTT, William H. The Economics of the Color Bar. London, UK: The Institute of Economic Affairs, 1964.Search in Google Scholar

ISIN, Engin F., NYERS, Peter (eds.). Routledge Handbook of Global Citizenship Studies. New York City: Routledge, 2014.10.4324/9780203102015Search in Google Scholar

JERÓNIMO, Miguel Bandeira, PINTO, António Costa (eds.). The Ends of European Colonial Empires: Cases and Comparisons. New York City: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

JOHNSON, Hilde E. South Sudan: The Untold Story from Independence to Civil War. New York City, New York: I. B. Tauris, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

JOWETT, Philip S. Modern African Wars (5): The Nigerian Biafran War 1967–70. New York City: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

KELLER, Edmond J. Identity, Citizenship, and Political Conflict in Africa. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

KISANGANI, Emizet F. Civil Wars in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 1960–2010. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, 2012.Search in Google Scholar

KLEIN, Martin. Slavery and Colonial Rule in French West Africa. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.10.1017/CBO9780511584138Search in Google Scholar

KONINGS, Piet, NYAMNJOH, Francis B. Negotiating an Anglophone Identity: A Study of the Politics of Recognition and Representation in Cameroon. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2003.10.1163/9789047402640Search in Google Scholar

KYMLICKA, Will. Three Forms of Group-Differentiated Citizenship. In BENHABIB, Seyla (ed.). Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1996, pp. 153–170.Search in Google Scholar

LEE, Margaret Mikyung, CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE. Birthright Citizenship Under the 14 Amendment of Persons Born in the United States to Alien Parents. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

LEWIN, Julius. Native Courts and British Justice in Africa. Journal of the International African Institute, 1944, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 448–453.10.2307/1156303Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

LOUCKY, James, AMSTRONG, Jeanne, ESTRADA, Lawrence J. (eds.). Immigration in America Today: Encyclopedia. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

MacDONALD, Michael. Why Race Matters in South Africa. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

MAILLU, David G. Kwame Nkrumah: Passionate Pan-Africanist. Nairobi, Kenya: Sasa Sema Publications, 2007.Search in Google Scholar

MANBY, Bronwen. Citizenship Law in Africa: A Comparative Study. New York City, New York: Open Society Foundations/African Minds, 2016.10.47622/9781928331087Search in Google Scholar

MANDELA, Nelson. Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela. New York City: Little, Brown and Company, 2008.Search in Google Scholar

MANNING, Patrick. Francophone sub-Saharan Africa 1880–1985. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988.Search in Google Scholar

MAYLAM, Paul. South Africa’s Racial Past: The History and Historiography of Racism, Segregation and Apartheid. New York City: Routledge, 2001.Search in Google Scholar

MBAKU, John M. Corruption in Africa: Causes, Consequences, and Cleanups. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

MNGOMEZULU, B. Richard (eds.). The President for Life Pandemic in Africa: Kenya, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Zambia and Malawi. London, UK: Adonis & Abbey Publishers, Limited, 2013.Search in Google Scholar

MORSE, Alexander Porter. A Treatise on Citizenship: With Reference to the Law of Nations, Roman Civil Law, Law of the United States of America, and the Law of France. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown, and Company, 1881.Search in Google Scholar

MUSHEMEZA, Elijah Dicens. The Politics and Empowerment of Banyarwanda Refugees in Uganda, 1959–2001. Kampala, Uganda: Fountain Publishers, 2007.Search in Google Scholar

MWAKIKAGILE, Godfrey. Ethnic Politics in Kenya and Nigeria. Huntington, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2001.Search in Google Scholar

NFOR, N. Nfor. In Chains for My Country: Crusading for the British Southern Cameroons. Bamanda, Cameroon: Langaa Research & Publishing CIG, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

NKWI, Paul Nchoji, NYAMNJOH, Francis B. (eds.). Regional Balance and National Integration in Cameroon: Lessons Learned and the Uncertain Future. Bamenda, Cameroon: Langaa Research & Publishing CIG, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

NWAFOR-EJLINMA, Ndubisi. Ndi-Igbo of Nigeria: Identity Showcase. Bloomington, Indiana: Trafford, 2012.Search in Google Scholar

NYERERE, Julius K. Freedom and Unity: Uhuru Na Umoja. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Oxford University Press, 1966.Search in Google Scholar

OFFODILE, Chudi. The Politics of Biafra and the Future of Nigeria. Morrisville, North Carolina: Lulu Publishing, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

OTUNNU, Ogenga. Crisis of Legitimacy and Political Violence in Uganda, 1890–1979. New York City: Springer, 2016.10.1007/978-3-319-33156-0Search in Google Scholar

OTUNNU, Ogenga. Crisis of Legitimacy and Political Violence in Uganda, 1979 to 2016, New York City: Springer, 2016.10.1007/978-3-319-56047-2Search in Google Scholar

PARSONS, Timothy H. Race, Resistance, and the Boy Scout Movement in British Colonial Africa. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

PAVKOVIC, Aleksandar, RADAN, Peter (eds.). The Ashgate Research Companion to Secession. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

POE, Daryl Ziwe. Kwame Nkrumah’s Contribution to Pan-Africanism: An Afrocentric Analysis. London, UK: Routledge, 2004.10.4324/9780203505373Search in Google Scholar

QUIST-ADADE, Charles, DODOO, Vincent. Africa’s Many Divides and Africa’s Future: Pursuing Nkrumah’s Vision of Pan-Africanism in an Era of Globalization. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015.Search in Google Scholar

RUDIN, Harry Rudolph. Germans in the Cameroons: A Case Study in Modern Imperialism. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1938.Search in Google Scholar

SELLSTRÖM, Tor. Sweden and National Liberation in Southern Africa, Volume I: Formation of a Popular Opinion 1950–1970. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikaninstituet, 1999.Search in Google Scholar

SOUTH AFRICA DEMOCRACY EDUCATION TRUST. The Road to Democracy in South Africa: 1970–1980. Pretoria, South Africa: Unisa Press, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

SPALDING, Frank. Genocide in Rwanda. New York City, New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2009.Search in Google Scholar

STEELE, Murray. Algeria: Government and Administration, 1830–1914. In SHILLINGTON, Kevin (ed.). Encyclopedia of African History, Vol. 2. New York City: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2005.Search in Google Scholar

SUBERU, R. T. Ethnic Minority Conflicts and Governance in Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria: Institut français de Rercherche en Afrique, 1996.10.4000/books.ifra.748Search in Google Scholar

SURET-CANAL, Jean. French Colonialism in Tropical Africa, 1900–1945. New York City: Pica Press, 1971.Search in Google Scholar

TAIWO, Olufemi. Of Citizens and Citizenship. In AKIBÁ, Okon. (ed.). Constitutionalism and Society in Africa. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004, pp. 55–78.Search in Google Scholar

THOMPSON, Virginia, ADLOFF, Richard. French West Africa. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1958.Search in Google Scholar

UNITED NATIONS. Bantustan Policy: A Fantasy and a Fraud. New York City: United Nations, 1971.Search in Google Scholar

VAN DER WALT, Gerrit (ed.). Municipal Management: Serving the People. Cape Town, South Africa: Juta & Company, 2007.Search in Google Scholar

WILKINSON, Michael (ed.). Global Pentecostal Movements: Migration, Mission, and Public Religion. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2012.10.1163/9789004235564Search in Google Scholar

WRIGHT, Julian. The Regionalist Movement in France, 1890–1914: Jean Charles-Brun and French Political Thought. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199264889.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo