1. bookVolume 11 (2021): Issue 1 (May 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
30 Jun 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
access type Open Access

Calcinated Bentonite as Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Cement-Based Mortar

Published Online: 26 May 2021
Page range: 23 - 32
Received: 05 Jan 2021
Accepted: 27 Jan 2021
Journal Details
First Published
30 Jun 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year

The construction industry consumes a large quantity of cement, which therefore leads to a high CO2 emission due to the cement manufacture. The partial replacement of cement by supplementary cementations materials (SCMs) is considered as the most promising alternative to reduce the environmental impact of this industry. This investigation aims to evaluate the performance of calcinated clay (calcined bentonite at 850 °C) used as partial replacement of cement in cement-based mortar. The evaluated performances include the physico-chemical and mechanical properties, as well as microstructural characteristics.. Various characterization tests, including laser granulometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) have been investigated. In addition, the hardened properties of different mortar mixtures were also investigated. Mortar mixtures incorporating different calcinated clay percentages corresponding to 8, 10, 12, and 14%, by mass of total binder content, were proportioned. Termogravimetric analysis (TGA) and its derivative (DTG), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and microstructural (Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) analysis were carried out on samples of mortar mixtures. Furthermore, the 28-d hardened properties were assessed to assess the pozzolanic activity of the investigated mixtures. Strength activity index (SAI), DSC, and TGA analyzes are presented. The obtained results showed that all the mixtures exhibited adequate pozzolanic activity conforming to the ASTM C618 specifications.


Heede, P.V.d. and N.D. Belie, 2012. Environmental impact and life cycle assessment (LCA) of traditional and green concretes: literature review and theoretical calculations Cem. Concr. Comp, 34(431). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2012.01.004. Search in Google Scholar

Monteiro P, 2012. Portland Cement. Powerpoint Presentation. University of California - Berkley, p. 1-38. Search in Google Scholar

Boukhelkhal, A., et al., 2016. Effects of marble powder as a partial replacement of cement on some engineering properties of selfcompacting concrete. J. Adhes. Sci. Technol,30(22):p.2405-2419. https://doi.org/10.1080/01694243.2016.1184402. Search in Google Scholar

Schneider, M., et al., 2011. Sustainable cement production-present and future. Cem. Concr. Res, 41(642). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2011.03.019. Search in Google Scholar

Kosmatka, S.H. and M.L.,2011. Wilson, Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures. Port. Cem. Assoc., Skokie, III. Search in Google Scholar

Penson Curtis Robert, 2019. Calcined calcium bentonite clay as a partial replacement of Portland cement in mortar. University of British Columbia, https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0376847. Search in Google Scholar

Rackel S N, 2011. Approche performantielle des bétons avec Métakaolins obtenus par calcination flash. Thèse de doctorat, Université de Toulouse. Search in Google Scholar

Pelisser, F., A. Vieira, and A M Bernardin,2018. Efficient self-compacting concrete with low cement consumption. J. Clean. Prod, 175: p. 324-332. http://doi:10.1590/s1678-86212020000200387. Search in Google Scholar

Taher A, 2003. Effect of Heat on The Behaviour of Montmorillonite Clay In The Presence of Lime. Role of Cement Science In Sustainable Development, Dundee:Thomas Telford.: p. 311-318. doi: 10.1680/rocsisd.32460.0031. Search in Google Scholar

R Sharma and R A Khan,2018. Influence of copper slag and metakaolin on the durability of self-compacting concrete. J. Clean. Prod, (171): p. 1171–1186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.10.029. Search in Google Scholar

Memon, S.A., et al., 2011. Utilization of Pakistani bentonite as partial replacement of cement in concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 30(0): p. 237-242. http://doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.11.021. Search in Google Scholar

Rajczyk, J. and B. Langier, 2012. Concrete Composite Properties with Modified Sodium Bentonite in Material Application Engineering. Advanced Materials Research, Trans Tech Pub, p. 154-157; https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.583.154. Search in Google Scholar

Mirza, J., et al., 2009. Pakistani bentonite in mortars and concrete as low cost construction material. Applied Clay Science, 45(4): p. 220-226. http://doi:10.1016/j.clay.2009.06.011. Search in Google Scholar

Ahmad, S., et al., 2011. Effect of Pakistani bentonite on properties of mortar and concrete. Clay Minerals, 2011. 46(1): p. 85-92. http://doi:10.1180/claymin.2011.046.1.85. Search in Google Scholar

Khushnood, R.A., et al., 2014. Experimental Investigation on Use of Wheat Straw Ash and Bentonite in Self-Compacting Cementitious System. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2014: p. 11. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/832508. Search in Google Scholar

Taylor-Lange, S.C., et al., 2015. Calcined kaolinite–bentonite clay blends as supplementary cementitious materials. Applied Clay Science, 108: p. 84-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2015.01.025. Search in Google Scholar

Zine El-Abidine, L. and al, 2020. Experimental investigation on effects of calcined bentonite on fresh,strength and durability properties of sustainable self-compactingconcrete. Construction and Building Materials (230): p. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117062. Search in Google Scholar

NF EN 196-1,2006. Méthodes d’essais des ciments - Partie 1 : détermination des résistances mécaniques. Search in Google Scholar

ASTM C150 M, 2011. Standard Specification for Portland Cement” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. Search in Google Scholar

NF EN 197-1, 2012. ciment - Partie 1: composition, spécifications et critères de conformité des ciments courants. Search in Google Scholar

NF EN 933-1, 2012. Essais pour déterminer les caractéristiques géométriques des granulats - Partie 1 : détermination de la granularité - Analyse granulométrique par tamisage. Search in Google Scholar

NF P15-403, 1963. Liants hydrauliques. Technique des essais. Sable normal et mortier normal. Search in Google Scholar

NF P 15-467, 1985. Liants hydrauliques - Méthode pratique instrumentale d’analyse des ciments par spectrométrie de fluorescence des rayons X. Search in Google Scholar

Hluchy M M, 1999. The value of teaching X-ray techniques and clay mineralogy to undergraduates. journal. Geoscience education, (47): p. 236-240. https://doi.org/10.5408/1089-9995-47.3.236. Search in Google Scholar

Brady, et al., 1995. New uses for powder X-ray diffractio expriments in the undergraduate curriculum. Journal. Geol education, 43(5): p. 466-470. Search in Google Scholar

Hollecher and Kurt (2012), a long-term mineralogy practical exam, in:brady, J Mogk,D and Perkins (eds) Teaching Mineralogy, Mineragical Society of America p. 43-46. Search in Google Scholar

Perkins, Dester, and Sorensen (2021), Mineral Synthesis and X-ray Diffraction Experiments in: Brady, J Mogk, D. and Perkins (eds.) Teaching Mineralogy, Mineragical. Society of America p. 81-90. Search in Google Scholar

NF P 18-582 (2017), Analyse thermogravimétrique (ATD_TG). Search in Google Scholar

Garg, N. and J. Skibsted, 2014. Hermal activation of a pure montmorillonite clay and its reactivity in cementations systems. J. Phys. Chem, (118): p. 11464–11477. http://doi:10.1021/jp502529d. Search in Google Scholar

Abali, Y., S.U. Bayca, and S. Targan, 2006. Evaluation of blends tincal waste, volcanic tuff, bentonite and fly ash for use as a cement admixture. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 131(1–3): p. 126-130. http://doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.09.031. Search in Google Scholar

Sonebi, M., et al., 2012. Characterisation of the performance of sustainable groucontaining bentonite for geotechnical applications, in The international conference on Sustainable Built Environment for Now and the Future, Hanoi, Vietnam p. 1-10. Search in Google Scholar

ASTM C618 a, 2008. Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete. ASTM International. Search in Google Scholar

Khelifa Mohammed Rissel, 2009. Effet de l’attaque sulfatique externe sur la durabilité des bétons autoplaçants, 2009, Université d’Orléans. Search in Google Scholar

Hu, Y., Diao, L., Lai, Z.Y., He, Yan, T., He, X., Wu, J., Lu, Z.Y., Lv, S.Z. (2019). Effects of bentonite on pore structure and permeability of cement mortar. Construction and building materials, vol. 224, 276-283, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuldmat.2019.08.037. Search in Google Scholar

Man, X.Y., Haque, M.A., Chen, B (2019). Engineering propreties and microstructure analyses of magnesium phosphate cement mortar containing bentonite clay. Construction and building materials, Vol. 227, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuldmat.2019.08.037. Search in Google Scholar

Noureddine, M., Khaled, B., Abdelbaki, B., (2018). Study of the impact of bentonite on the physico-mechanical and flow properties of cement grout. Cogent engineering, 5: 1446252, DOI.org/10.1080/23311916.2018.1446252. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo