1. bookVolume 14 (2021): Issue 1 (May 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
20 Jun 2008
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
access type Open Access

Rapid Decreasing of a Selected Plant Species Distribution Within Recent Decades as an Illustration of Gradual Local Extinction of Low-Productive Wet Meadow Species in Central Europe

Published Online: 26 May 2021
Page range: 92 - 105
Received: 26 Jan 2021
Accepted: 07 Apr 2021
Journal Details
First Published
20 Jun 2008
Publication timeframe
3 times per year

This study provides an illustration of the contemporary extinction trend of a selected wet grassland species, Pedicularis sylvatica, within a region of the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, Czech Republic. Historically, it was a relatively common species in the study region, but it has been severely reduced in recent decades due to the abandonment of the traditional management of the grasslands, or inappropriate management practices, including extensive drainage, fertilisation, and liming. Low precipitation in recent years, a depleted soil seed bank, inbreeding in small, isolated populations, the inability to germinate, and the emergence of seedlings can also play an important role. After personal resurvey, P. sylvatica was not confirmed on 28 % of the localities where it was documented between two and 20 years ago. In a selected south-eastern subregion, only one of 19 localities persist nowadays. A steep decrease of local subpopulations of P. sylvatica points to the holistic problem of both the low-productive wet meadow species’ extinctions and their habitat collapses in central Europe. Without proper protection and management, it is likely that low-productive wet meadows will continue to decline and, in the next few decades, only a fraction of today’s already faint frequency will remain within a few higher-elevated subregions.


AOPK ČR. (2020). Nature Conservancy Species Occurrence Finding Data Database [Online]. Retrieved June 5, 2020, from: http://portal.nature.cz. Search in Google Scholar

Bergamini, A., Peintinger, M., Fakheran, S., Moradi, H., Schmid, B., Joshi, J. (2009). Loss of habitat specialists despite conservation management in fen remnants 1995–2006. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and System 11, 65–79.10.1016/j.ppees.2008.10.001 Search in Google Scholar

Bragg, O., Lindsay, R. (2003). Strategy and action plan for mire conservation in Central Europe. Wetlands International Publication 18. Wetlands International, Wageningen, NL. Search in Google Scholar

Čech, L., Ekrt, L., Ekrtová, E., Jelínková, J., Juřička, J. (2017). Pedicularis sylvatica L. - všivec lesní v Kraji Vysočina [Pedicularis sylvatica in the Vysočina Region]. [Online]. Retrieved June 2, 2020, from: http://prirodavysociny.cz/cs/druhy/911/vsivec-lesni [2-6-2020]. Search in Google Scholar

Chytrý, M. (2007). Vegetation of the Czech Republic. Volume 1. Grassland and Heathland Vegetation. Academia, Praha. Search in Google Scholar

Chytrý, M. (2011). Vegetation of the Czech Republic. Volume 3. Aquatic and wetland vegetation. Academia, Praha. Search in Google Scholar

Chytrý, M., Hájek, M., Kočí, M., Pešout, P., Roleček, J., Sádlo, J., Šumberová, K.,Sychra, J., Boublík, K., Douda, J., Grulich, V., Härtel, H., Hédl, R., Lustyk, P.,Navrátilová, J., Novák, P., Peterka, T., Vydrová, A., Chobot, K., (2019). Red list of habitats of the Czech Republic. Ecological Indicators 106, 105446.10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105446 Search in Google Scholar

van Diggelen, R., Middleton, B., Bakker, J., Grootjans, A., Wassen, M. (2009). Fens and floodplains of the temperature zone: Present status, threats, conservation and restoration. Applied Vegetation Science 9(2), 157–162.10.1111/j.1654-109X.2006.tb00664.x Search in Google Scholar

van Diggelen, R., Sijtsma, J. F., Strijker, D., van den Burg, J. (2005). Relating land-use intensity and biodiversity at the regional scale. Basic and Applied Ecology 6, 145–159.10.1016/j.baae.2005.01.004 Search in Google Scholar

Ebermannová, P. (2015). Vybrané aspekty ekologie Pedicularis sylvatica [Selected aspects of the ecology of Pedicularis sylvatica]. Diploma thesis (in Czech), University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice Search in Google Scholar

Eliáš, P., Dítě, D., Kliment, J., Hrivnák, R., Feráková, V. (2015). Red List of Ferns and Flowering Plants of Slovakia. Biologia 70(2): 218–228. Search in Google Scholar

Gibson, C.C., Watkinson, A.R. (1989). The host range and selectivity of a parasitic plant: Rhinanthus minor L. Oecologia 78, 401–406.10.1007/BF0037911628312588 Search in Google Scholar

Gibson, C.C., Watkinson, A.R. (1992). The role of the hemiparasitic annual Rhinanthus minor in determining grassland community structure. Oecologia 89, 62–68.10.1007/BF0031901628313396 Search in Google Scholar

Grootjans, A. P., Hunneman, H., Verkiel, H., van Andel, J. (2005). Long-term effects of drainage on species richness of a fen meadow at different spatial scales. Basic and Applied Ecology 6(2), 185–193.10.1016/j.baae.2005.01.008 Search in Google Scholar

Grulich, V. (2017). Red List of vascular plants of the Czech Republic. In Grulich, V., Chobot, K. Red List of threatened species of the Czech Republic, vascular plants (pp. 75 – 132). Příroda 35. Search in Google Scholar

Hejduk, S., Svobodová, A., Krahulec, F. (2017). Mowing of grasslands. Standards of care for nature and landscape. Care of selected terrestrial habitats. Series D. SPPK D02 004: 2017. [Online]. Retrieved Marc 12, 2020, from: https://standardy.nature.cz/res/archive/414/068346.pdf?seek=1552472871. [12-03-2021]. Search in Google Scholar

Horsák, M., Hájek, M., Horsáková, V., Hlaváč, J., Hájková, P., Dítě, D., Peterka, T., Divíšek, J., Potúčková, A., Preece, R.C. (2017). Refugial occurrence and ecology of the land snail Vertigo lilljeborgi in fen habitats in temperate mainland Europe. Journal of Molluscan Studies 83, 451–460.10.1093/mollus/eyx028 Search in Google Scholar

Hrouda, L. (2000). Pedicularis L. - všivec. In Slavík, B. Květena České republiky 6 (pp. 455 – 461). Academia, Praha. Search in Google Scholar

Kaplan, K. (2012). Flora and phytogeography of the Czech Republic. Preslia 84: 505–573. Search in Google Scholar

Keith, D.A., Rodríguez, J.P., Rodríguez-Clark, K.M., Nicholson, E., Aapala, K., Alonso, A., Asmussen, M., Bachman, S., Basset, A., Barrow, E.G., Benson, J.S., Bishop, M.J., Bonifacio, R., Brooks, T.M., Burgman, M.A., Comer, P., Comín, F.A., Essl, F., Faber-Langendoen, D., Fairweather, P.G., Holdaway, R.J., Jennings, M., Kingsford, R.T., Lester, R.E., Nally, R.M., McCarthy, M.A., Moat, J., Oliveira-Miranda, M.A., Pisanu, P., Poulin, B., Regan, T.J., Riecken, U., Spalding, M.D., Zambrano-Martínez, S. (2013). Scientific Foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems. PLOS ONE 8(5), e62111.10.1371/journal.pone.0062111364853423667454 Search in Google Scholar

Koch, M., Jurasinski, G. (2014). Four decades of vegetation development in a percolation mire complex following intensive drainage and abandonment. Plant Ecology and Diversity 8, 49–60.10.1080/17550874.2013.862752 Search in Google Scholar

Kuussaari, M., Bommarco, R., Heikkinen, R.K., Helm, A., Krauss, J., Lindborg, R., Öckinger, E., Pärtel, ¨ M., Pino, J., Rodà, F., Stefanescu, C., Teder, T., Zobel, M., Steffan-Dewenter, I. (2009). Extinction debt: a challenge for biodiversity conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24(10), 564-71.10.1016/j.tree.2009.04.01119665254 Search in Google Scholar

Lamers, L.P.M., Vile, M.A., Grootjans, A.P., Acreman, M.C., van Diggelen, R., Evans, M.G., Richardson, C.J., Rochefort, L., Kooijman, A.M., Roelofs, J.G.M., Smolders, A.J.P. (2015). Ecological restoration of rich fens in Europe and North America: from trial and error to an evidence-based approach. Biological reviews 90, 182–203.10.1111/brv.1210224698312 Search in Google Scholar

Lienert J., Fischer, M., Diemer, M. (2002). Local extinctions of the wetland specialist Swertia perennis L. (Gentianaceae) in Switzerland: a revisitation study based on herbarium records. Biological conservations 103 (1), 65-76. Search in Google Scholar

Lysák, F. (2000). Ohrožená mokřadní květena Velkomeziříčska a její ochrana [Endangered wetland flora of the Velkomeziríčsko region and its protection]. Diploma thesis (in Czech), Palacký Univerzity Olomouc. Search in Google Scholar

Niklfeld, H., Schratt-Ehrendorfer, L. (1999). Rote Liste gefährdeter Farn- und Blütenpflanzen (Pteridophyta und Spermatophyta) Österreichs. 2. Fassung. In: Niklfeld, H. Rote Listen gefährdeter Pflanzen Österreichs. (pp. 33 – 152), 2. Auflage. Grüne Reihe des Bundesministeriums für Umwelt, Jugend und Familie, Band 10. Austria medien service, Graz. Search in Google Scholar

Oulehla, J., Lysák, F., Jiroušek, M. (2018). Local extinctions of threatened species of Pedicularis L. in agriculture landscape of southeastern Bohemian-Moravian Highlands. In Proceedings of International PhD Students Conference MendelNet 2018 (pp. 205 – 210), Mendel University in Brno. Search in Google Scholar

Oulehla, J., Jiroušek, M. (2019). Degradation of fens and wet meadows of southeastern Bohemian-Moravian Highlands after 20 years. In Proceedings of International PhD Students Conference MendelNet 2019 (pp. 315 – 320). Mendel University in Brno. Search in Google Scholar

Peterka, T., Dítě, D., Hájková, P., Hájek, M. (2016). Ověření výskytu suchopýru štíhlého (Eriophorum gracile) ve Žďárských vrších [Verification of the occurrence of Eriophorum gracile in Žďárské vrchy Hills]. Východočeský sborník přírodovědný. Práce a studie 23, 47–56. Search in Google Scholar

Petrů, M., Lepš, J. (2000). Regeneration dynamics in populations of two hemiparasitic species in wet grasslands. In Proceedings IAVS Symposium (pp. 329 – 333). Uppsala, January 1999. Opulus Press Uppsala, Uppsala. Search in Google Scholar

PLADIAS. (2018). Database of the Czech flora and vegetation. [Online]. Retrieved December 8, 2020, from: http://www.pladias.cz/. Search in Google Scholar

Roleček, J., Svitavská Svobodová, H., Jamrichová, E., Dudová, L., Hájková, P., Kletetschka, G., Kuneš, P., Abraham, V. (2020). Conservation targets from the perspective of a palaeoecological reconstruction: the case study of Dářko peat bog in the Czech Republic. Preslia 92, 87–114.10.23855/preslia.2020.087 Search in Google Scholar

Růžička, I. (1989). Výsledky záchranného výzkumu ohrožené květeny mizejících rašelinišť a rašelinných luk na Jihlavsku [The results of rescue research of endangered flora of disappearing mires and miremeadows in the Jihlavsko region]. Vlastivědný Sborník Vysočiny 9, 135–176. Search in Google Scholar

Růžička, I. (1987). Výsledky záchranného výzkumu ohrožené květeny mizejících rašelinišť a rašelinných luk v okolí Telče na Českomoravské vrchovině. [The results of rescue research of endangered flora of disappearing mires and miremeadows in the Telč region]. Vlastivědný Sborník Vysočiny 8, 153–192. Search in Google Scholar

Rybníček, K. (1966). Glacial relicts in the bryoflora of the highlands Českomoravská vrchovina (Bohemian-Moravian Highlands); their habitat and cenotaxonomic value. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 1, 101–119.10.1007/BF02989087 Search in Google Scholar

Sádlo J., Chytrý M., Pyšek P. (2007). Regional species pools of vascular plants in habitats of the Czech Republic. Preslia 79: 303–321. Search in Google Scholar

Schelfhout, S. (2019). Restoration of species-rich Nardus grasslands via phosphorus-mining. Doctor (PhD) thesis. Ghent University. Search in Google Scholar

Sommers, H., Karssenberg, D., Verhoeven, J.T.A., Verweij, P.A., Wassenm M.J. (2013). The effect of habitat fragmentation and abiotic factors on fen plant occurrence. Biodiversity and Conservation 22(2), 405–424.10.1007/s10531-012-0420-1 Search in Google Scholar

Sotek Z, Stasińska M, Malinowski R, Meller E, Grzejszczak G, Kurnicki B. (2016). Distribution and habitat properties of Carex pulicaris and Pedicularis sylvatica at their range margin in NW Poland. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 85(3),3507.10.5586/asbp.3507 Search in Google Scholar

Štechová, T., Štech, M., Kučera, J. (2012). The distribution of Hamatocaulis vernicosus (Mitt.) Hedenas (Calliergonaceae) in the Czech Republic. Bryonora 49, 5. Search in Google Scholar

Štípková Z., Kindlmann, P. (2015). Extent and reasons for meadows in south bohemia becoming unsuitable for orchids. European Journal of Environmental Sciences 5(2), 142–147.10.14712/23361964.2015.87 Search in Google Scholar

Těšitel, J., Fibich, P., de Bello, F., Chytrý, M., Lepš, J. (2015). Habitats and ecological niches of root-hemiparasitic plants: an assessment based on a large database of vegetation plots. Preslia 87, 87–108. Search in Google Scholar

Venterink, H.O., van der Vliet, R.E., Wassen, M.J. (2001). Nutrient limitation along a productivity gradient in wet meadows. Plant and Soil 234, 171–179.10.1023/A:1017922715903 Search in Google Scholar

Wild, J., Kaplan, Z., Danihelka, J., Petřík, P., Chytrý, M., Novotný, P., Rohn, M., Šulc, V., Brůna, J., Chobot, K., Ekrt, L., Holubová, D., Knollová, I., Kocán, P., Štech, M., Štěpánek, J., Zouhar, V. (2019). Plant distribution data for the Czech Republic integrated in the Pladias database. Preslia 91, 1–24.10.23855/preslia.2019.001 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo