1. bookVolume 24 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1647-659X
First Published
01 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Lying, computers and self-awareness

Published Online: 11 Oct 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 24 (2020) - Issue 1 (December 2020)
Page range: 10 - 34
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1647-659X
First Published
01 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

From the initial analysis of John Morris in 1976 about if computers can lie, I have presented my own treatment of the problem using what can be called a computational lying procedure. One that uses two Turing Machines. From there, I have argued that such a procedure cannot be implemented in a Turing Machine alone. A fundamental difficulty arises, concerning the computational representation of the self-knowledge a machine should have about the fact that it is lying. Contrary to Morris’ claim, I have thus suggested that computers – as far as they are Turing Machines – cannot lie. Consequently, I have claimed that moral agency attribution to a robot or any other automated AI system, cannot be made, strictly grounded on imitating behaviors. Self-awareness as an ontological grounding for moral attribution must be evoked. This can pose a recognition problem from our part, should the sentient system be the only agent capable of acknowledging its own sentience.

Keywords

Baars, B. J. (2001). In the Theater of Consciousness: The Workspace of the Mind (New Ed edition). Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Blum, M. (2018, August 31). Towards a Conscious AI: A Computer Architecture Inspired by Neuroscience [Text]. EECS at UC Berkeley. https://eecs.berkeley.edu/turing-colloquium/schedule/blum Search in Google Scholar

Blum, L., & Blum, M. (1975). Toward a Mathematical Theory of Inductive Inference. Inf. Control., 28, 125-155.10.1016/S0019-9958(75)90261-2 Search in Google Scholar

Boolos, G., &. Jeffrey, R. (1989). Computability and Logic. 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Burgin M (1983) Inductive Turing machines. Not Acad Sci USSR 270(6):1289–1293. translated from Russian, v. 27, No. 3 Search in Google Scholar

Burgin, M. (2017) Inductive Turing Machines. In R. A. Meyers (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science (pp. 1–14). Springer.10.1007/978-3-642-27737-5_682-1 Search in Google Scholar

Castro P. (2017). «Computing Machinery, Intelligence and Undecidability». Journal of Theoretical & Computational Science 4, 160.10.4172/2376-130X.1000160 Search in Google Scholar

Chaitin, G. (1997). The Limits of Mathematics: A Course on Information Theory and the Limits of Formal Reasoning. National University of Singapore,Singapore. Search in Google Scholar

Chisholm, R., & Feehan, T. (1977). «The Intent to Deceive». The Journal of Philosophy, 74(3), 43-159.10.2307/2025605 Search in Google Scholar

Clarke, A. C. (1998). HAL’s Legacy: 2001’s Computer as Dream and Reality (D. G. Stork, Ed.; Reprint edition). The MIT Press. Search in Google Scholar

Costa, J. F. (2017) Unity of Science as Seen Through the Universal Computer, International Journal of Unconventional Computing, issue 13.1, p. 59-81, Search in Google Scholar

Dreyfus, H., Dreyfus, S. (1988). «Making a Mind Versus Modeling a Brain: Artificial Intelligence Back at a Branchpoint». In The Artificial Debate: False Starts, Real Foundations, 15-43. MIT Press. Search in Google Scholar

Glymour C. (1985) Inductive Inference in the Limit. In: Essler W.K., Putnam H., Stegmüller W. (eds) Epistemology, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science. Springer, Dordrecht10.1007/978-94-017-1456-3_2 Search in Google Scholar

Gold, E. Mark, Language identification in the limit. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1964. Search in Google Scholar

Gold, E. (1965). Limiting recursion. Journal of Symbolic Logic, 30(1), 28-48.10.2307/2270580 Search in Google Scholar

Gunkel, D. J. (2017). The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives on AI, Robots, and Ethics. The MIT Press. Search in Google Scholar

H.T. Siegelmann and E.D. Sontag. (1995). “Computational Power of Neural Networks,” Journal of Computer System Sciences, 50(1): 132-15010.1006/jcss.1995.1013 Search in Google Scholar

Meibauer, J., & Mahon, J. (2018-11-15). «Contemporary Approaches to the Philosophy of Lying». In The Oxford Handbook of Lying: Oxford University Press. Jan. 202010.1093/oxfordhb/9780198736578.001.0001 Search in Google Scholar

Morris, John. (1976) «Can computers ever lie?» World Futures, 14 (4): 389-40110.1080/02604027.1976.9971875 Search in Google Scholar

Putnam, H. (1965). Trial and error predicates and the solution to a problem of Mostowski. Journal of Symbolic Logic, 30(1), 49-57.10.2307/2270581 Search in Google Scholar

Shapiro, D. (1996). «On the Psychology of Self-Deception». Social Research, 63(3), 785-800. Search in Google Scholar

Singer, P. (2001). Writings on an Ethical Life. Harper Perennial. Search in Google Scholar

Syropoulos, A. (2010). Hypercomputation: Computing Beyond the Church-Turing Barrier. Springer. Search in Google Scholar

Turing, A. (1936). «On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem». Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. Second Series, 1936. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo