1. bookVolume 27 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2199-6202
First Published
30 Jul 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

How distance influences dislike: Responses to proposed fracking in Fermanagh, Northern Ireland

Published Online: 09 Jul 2019
Page range: 92 - 107
Received: 20 May 2019
Accepted: 25 Jun 2019
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2199-6202
First Published
30 Jul 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Despite extensive social science research into public perceptions and social responses to fracking, scholars have only begun to examine the relationship between distance to development and support or opposition for it. Importantly, the emerging studies are exclusively from the United States, and focus on communities and regions in which fracking already exists – in contrast to areas where it is proposed and still going through planning approvals. This paper reports public responses to proposed fracking in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. A total of 120 people participated in an in-person survey with a qualitative follow-up in four locations: the village right next to the development site, two other villages just inside and just outside the wider fracking concession area, and in the capital city of Belfast, 150 km away. A clear spatial pattern of opinion was found, from almost universal opposition to fracking next to the site, to an even three-way split between proponents, opponents and ‘neutrals’ to fracking in general, in Belfast. Results show that some risks are perceived to be more local than others, whilst perceived (economic) benefits are recognised mainly at the national level. Content analysis of local and national newspapers revealed a very clear and similar pattern. Connections to Fermanagh, through visits or long-term residence, were also clear predictors of opposition to fracking. The spatial pattern of support for fracking in Northern Ireland differs substantially from each of the contrasting patterns observed in the United States. We discuss likely reasons for this and implications for both research and policy.

Keywords

AITKEN, M. (2010): Power and community benefits: Challenges and opportunities. Energy Policy 38: 6066–6075.10.1016/j.enpol.2010.05.062Search in Google Scholar

ALCORN, J., RUPP, J., GRAHAM, J. D. (2017): Attitudes toward “fracking”: Perceived and actual geographic proximity. Review of Policy Research, 34(4): 504–536.10.1111/ropr.12234Search in Google Scholar

ALTMAN, I., LOW, S. M. (1992): ‘Place Attachment’. New York, Plenum Press.10.1007/978-1-4684-8753-4Search in Google Scholar

ASHMOORE, O., EVENSEN, D., CLARKE, C., KRAKOWER, J., SIMON, J. (2016): Regional newspaper coverage of shale gas development across Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania: Similarities, differences, and lessons. Energy Research & Social Science, 11: 119–132.10.1016/j.erss.2015.09.005Search in Google Scholar

BARR, S. (2007): Factors influencing environmental attitudes and behaviors – A UK case study of household waste management. Environment and Behaviour, 39: 435–473.10.1177/0013916505283421Search in Google Scholar

BBC (2019): ‘Fracking: Tamboran in new licence bid in Fermanagh’ [online]. [cit. 19.06.2019]. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-48191165Search in Google Scholar

BELL, D., GRAY, T., HAGGETT, C. (2005): Policy, Participation and the social gap in wind farm siting decisions. Environmental Politics, 14: 460–477.10.1080/09644010500175833Search in Google Scholar

BIO Intelligence Service (2013): Analysis and presentation of the results of the public consultation “Unconventional Fossil Fuels (e.g. Shale Gas) in Europe” Final Report prepared for European Commision. DG Environment [online]. [cit. 16.01.2015]. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/energy/pdf/Shale%20gas%20consultation_report.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

BOUDET, H., BUGDEN, D., ZANOCCO, C., MAIBACH, E. (2016): The effect of industry activities on public support for ‘fracking’. Environmental Politics, 25(4): 593–612.10.1080/09644016.2016.1153771Search in Google Scholar

BOUDET, H., CLARKE, C., BUGDEN, D., MAIBACH, E., ROSER-RENOUF, C., LEISEROWITZ, A. (2014): “Fracking” controversy and communication: Using national survey data to understand public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing. Energy Policy, 65: 57–67.10.1016/j.enpol.2013.10.017Search in Google Scholar

BOUDET, H. S., ZANOCCO, C. M., HOWE, P. D., CLARKE, C. E. (2018): The effect of geographic proximity to unconventional oil and gas development on public support for hydraulic fracturing. Risk Analysis, 38(9): 1871–1890.10.1111/risa.1298929637576Search in Google Scholar

BREAKWELL, G. M. (1992): Processes of self-evaluation: efficacy and estrangement. In: Breakwell, G. M. [ed.]: Social Psychology of Identity and the Self-concept. Surrey, Surrey University Press.Search in Google Scholar

BROWN, B. B., PERKINS, D. D. (1992): Disruptions in Place Attachment. In: Altman, I., Low, S. [eds.]: Place Attachment (pp. 279–304). New York, Plenum Press.10.1007/978-1-4684-8753-4_13Search in Google Scholar

CLARK, A., WILFORD, R. (2011): Political Institutions, Engagement and Outreach: The case of the Northern Ireland Assembly. Parliamentary Affairs, 1–24.Search in Google Scholar

CLARKE, C. E., BUGDEN, D., HART, P. S., STEDMAN, R. C., JACQUET, J. B., EVENSEN, D. T., BOUDET, H. S. (2016): How geographic distance and political ideology interact to influence public perception of unconventional oil/natural gas development. Energy Policy, 97: 301–309.10.1016/j.enpol.2016.07.032Search in Google Scholar

CLARKE, C. E., EVENSEN, D. T., JACQUET, J., STEDMAN, R. C. (2012): Emerging risk communication challenges associated with shale gas development. European Journal of Risk Regulation, 3(3): 424–430.10.1017/S1867299X00002348Search in Google Scholar

CLIFFORD, C. N., VALENTINE, G. (2003): Getting started in geographical research. In: Clifford, C. N., Valentine, G. [eds.]: Key Methods in Geography (pp. 3–16). London, Sage.Search in Google Scholar

COHN, V. (1989): News and Numbers: A guide to reporting statistical claims and controversies in health and other fields. Ames, IA, Iowa State University Press.Search in Google Scholar

COPE, M. (2003): Coding Transcripts and Diaries. In: Clifford, N. J. Valentine, G. [eds.]: Key Methods in Geography (pp. 445–459). London, Sage.Search in Google Scholar

CORTINI, M., TRIA, S. (2014): ‘Triangulating Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches for the Analysis of Textual Materials: An Introduction to T-Lab’, Social science computer review, 32(4): 561–568.10.1177/0894439313510108Search in Google Scholar

COTTON, M. (2013): Shale Gas-Community Relations: NIMBY or Not? Integrating Social Factors into Shale Gas Community Engagements, Natural Gas & Electricity, (9): 8–12.10.1002/gas.21678Search in Google Scholar

COX, R. (2013): Environmental Communication and the Public Sphere. 3rd ed. California, Sage.Search in Google Scholar

CRANG, M., COOK, I. (2007): Doing Ethnographies. (pp. 60–69). London, Sage.10.4135/9781849208949Search in Google Scholar

DALBY, S., MACKENZIE, F. (1997): Reconceptualising local community: environment, identity and threat. Area, 29: 99–108.10.1111/j.1475-4762.1997.tb00012.xSearch in Google Scholar

DAVIS, C., FISK, J. M. (2014): Energy Abundance or Environmental Worries? Analyzing Public Support for Fracking in the United States. Review of Policy Research, 31(1): 1–16.10.1111/ropr.12048Search in Google Scholar

DEAR, M. (1992): Understanding and overcoming the NIMBY syndrome. Journal of the American Planning Association, 58(3): 288.10.1080/01944369208975808Search in Google Scholar

Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (2013) Statistical Review of Northern Ireland Agriculture 2013 [online]. [cit. 07.12.2014]. Availabale at: http://www.dardni.gov.uk/stats-review-2013.pdf.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

Department of Energy and Climate Change (2011): Planning our electric future: a white paper for secure, affordable and low-carbon electricity. Crown Copyright [online]. [cit. 18.01.2015]. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/attachment_data/file/48129/2176-emr-white-paper.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

Department of Energy and Climate Change (2013): About shale gas and hydraulic fracturing [online]. [cit. 02.06.2014]. London, Crown Copyright. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/oil-and-gas-onshore-exploration-andproductionedSearch in Google Scholar

Department of Energy and Climate Change (2014): DECC Public Attitudes Tracker – Wave 10. Summary of Key Findings. Crown Copyright [online]. [cit. 16.01.2015]. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/public-attitudes-tracking-survey-wave-10Search in Google Scholar

Department of Enterprise Trade and Investment (2011) Petroleum Licence, Tamboran Resources PTY LTD, Lough Allen Basin-North [online]. [cit. 07.12.2014]. Available at: http://www.detini.gov.uk/pl2-10_tamboran_original_licence_document.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

DEVINE-WRIGHT, P. (2005) Beyond NIMBYism: towards an integrated framework for understanding public perceptions of wind energy. Wind Energy, 8(2): 125–139.10.1002/we.124Search in Google Scholar

DEVINE-WRIGHT, P. (2009): Rethinking NIMBYism: The Role of Place Attachment and Place Identity in Explaining Place-protective Action (English). Journal of community & applied social psychology, 19(6): 426–441.10.1002/casp.1004Search in Google Scholar

DEVINE-WRIGHT, P., HOWES, Y. (2010): Disruption to place attachment and the protection of restorative environments: A wind energy case study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(3): 271–280.10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.01.008Search in Google Scholar

DIXON, J., DURRHEIM, K. (2000): Displacing place-identity: a discursive approach to locating self and other. British Journal of Social Psychology, 39(1): 27–44.10.1348/01446660016431810774526Search in Google Scholar

DRIEDGER, S. M. (2007): Risk and the media: a comparison of print and televised news stories of a Canadian drinking water risk event. Risk Analysis. 27: 775–786.10.1111/j.1539-6924.2007.00922.x17640222Search in Google Scholar

ELLIS, G., COWELL, R., SHERRY-BRENNAN, F., STRACHAN, P. A., TOKE, D. (2013): Planning, energy and devolution in the UK, TPR. Town Planning Review, 84(3): 397–410.10.3828/tpr.2013.16Search in Google Scholar

ERWIN, A. (2014): Fracking Firm Tamboran to sue Stormont departments over thwarted Fermanagh drilling plans. Belfast Telegraph [online]. [cit.19.11.2014]. Available at: http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/northern-ireland/fracking-firm-tamboran-to-sue-stormont-departments-over-thwarted-fermanagh-drilling-plans-30757856.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

EVENSEN, D. T., CLARKE, C. E., STEDMAN, R. C (2014): A New York or Pennsylvania state of mind: social representations in newspaper coverage of gas development in the Marcellus Shale. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 4(1): 65–77.10.1007/s13412-013-0153-9Search in Google Scholar

EVENSEN, D., STEDMAN, R. (2018): Fracking´: Promoter and destroyer of ‘the good life. Journal of Rural Studies, 59: 142–152.10.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.02.020Search in Google Scholar

EVENSEN, D., STEDMAN, R. (2016): Scale matters: Variation in perceptions of shale gas development across national, state, and local levels. Energy research & social science, 20: 14–21.10.1016/j.erss.2016.06.010Search in Google Scholar

FLYNN, R., BELLABY, P. (2007): Risk and the public acceptance of new technologies [online]. [cit. 12.03.2015]. Available at: http://www.palgraveconnect.com/pc/doifinder/10.1057/9780230591288Search in Google Scholar

FREUDENBERG, W. R., PASTOR, S. K. (1992): NIMBYS and LULUs: Stalking the syndromes. Journal of Social Issues 48: 39–61.10.1111/j.1540-4560.1992.tb01944.xSearch in Google Scholar

Geological Survey of Northern Ireland (2012): Regulation of shale gas exploration in County Fermanagh. Report to the Committee of Enterprise, Trade and Investment, 21st June 2012.Search in Google Scholar

GRAVELLE, T. B., LACHAPELLE, E. (2015): Politics, proximity and the pipeline: Mapping public attitudes toward Keystone XL. Energy Policy, 83: 99–108.10.1016/j.enpol.2015.04.004Search in Google Scholar

GROSS, C. (2007): Community perspectives of wind energy in Australia; the application of a justice and fairness framework to increase social acceptance. Energy Policy, 35: 2727–2736.10.1016/j.enpol.2006.12.013Search in Google Scholar

HAGGERTY, J. H., KROEPSCH, A. C., WALSH, K. B., SMITH, K. K., BOWEN, D. W. (2018): Geographies of impact and the impacts of geography: unconventional oil and gas in the American West. The Extractive Industries and Society, 5(4): 619–633.10.1016/j.exis.2018.07.002Search in Google Scholar

HAGGETT, C., TOKE, D. (2006): Crossing the Great Divide - Using Multi-method Analysis to Understand Opposition to Windfarms. Public Administration, 84(1): 103–120.10.1111/j.0033-3298.2006.00495.xSearch in Google Scholar

HANNIGAN, J. A. (1995): Environmental Sociology : a social constructionist perspective. London, Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

HAY, I. (2003): Ethical Practice in Geographical Research. In: Clifford, N. J. Valentine, G. [eds.]: Key Methods in Geography (pp. 37–53). London, Sage.Search in Google Scholar

HEDDING, K. J. (2017): Sources and framing of fracking: A content analysis of newspaper coverage in North Carolina, New York, and Pennsylvania. Environmental Communication, 11(3): 370–385.10.1080/17524032.2016.1269819Search in Google Scholar

HENDERSON, J. A., DUGGAN-HAAS, D. (2014): Drilling into controversy: the educational complexity of shale gas development. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 4(1): 87–96.10.1007/s13412-013-0161-9Search in Google Scholar

HEWITT, N. J. (2012): The fracking debate – a local viewpoint. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 33(3): 107.10.1080/01430750.2012.713191Search in Google Scholar

HOLLOWAY, M. D., RUDD, O. (2013): Fracking: The Operations and Environmental Consequences of Hydraulic Fracturing. Beverly MA, Scrivener Publishing.10.1002/9781118747926Search in Google Scholar

HUTH, N. I., COCKS, B., DALGLIESH, N., POULTON, P. I., MARINONI, O., GARCIA, J. N. (2018): Farmers’ perceptions of coexistence between agriculture and a large-scale coal seam gas development. Agriculture and Human Values, 35: 11–115.10.1007/s10460-017-9801-0Search in Google Scholar

JACQUET, J. B. (2014): Review of risks to communities from shale energy development. Environmental science & technology, 48(15): 8321–8333.10.1021/es404647x24624971Search in Google Scholar

JACQUET, J. B. (2012): Landowner attitudes toward natural gas and wind farm development in northern Pennsylvania, Energy Policy, 50: 677–688.10.1016/j.enpol.2012.08.011Search in Google Scholar

JACQUET, J. B., JUNOD, A. N., BUGDEN, D., WILDERMUTH, G., FERGEN, J. T., JALBERT, K., GLENNA, L. (2018): A decade of Marcellus Shale: Impacts to people, policy, and culture from 2008 to 2018 in the Greater Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The Extractive Industries and Society, 5(4): 596–609.10.1016/j.exis.2018.06.006Search in Google Scholar

JACQUET, J. B., STEDMAN, R. C. (2014): The risk of social-psychological disruption as an impact of energy development and environmental change. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 57(9): 1285–1304.10.1080/09640568.2013.820174Search in Google Scholar

JASPAL, R., NERLICH, B. (2014): Fracking in the UK press: Threat dynamics in an unfolding debate. Public Understanding of Science, 23(3): 348–363.10.1177/0963662513498835Search in Google Scholar

JASPAL, R., NERLICH, B., LEMAŃCYZK, S. (2014a): Fracking in the Polish press: Geopolitics and national identity. Energy Policy, 74: 253–261.10.1016/j.enpol.2014.09.007Search in Google Scholar

JASPAL, R., TURNER, A., NERLICH, B. (2014b) Fracking on YouTube: Exploring Risks, Benefits and Human Values. Environmental Values, 23(5): 501–527.10.3197/096327114X13947900181473Search in Google Scholar

JAY, A. (2005): Not in our Backyard: How to Run a Protest Campaign and Save the Neighbourhood. Devon, White Ladder Press.Search in Google Scholar

JONES, P., HILLIER, D., COMFORT, D. (2013): Fracking and public relations: rehearsing the arguments and making the case. Journal of Public Affairs, 13(4): 384–390.10.1002/pa.1490Search in Google Scholar

JUNOD, A. N., JACQUET, J. B. (2019): Shale gas in coal country: Testing the Goldilocks Zone of energy impacts in the western Appalachian range. Energy Research & Social Science, 55: 155–167.10.1016/j.erss.2019.04.017Search in Google Scholar

JUNOD, A. N., JACQUET, J. B., FERNANDO, F., FLAGE, L. (2018): Life in the goldilocks zone: perceptions of place disruption on the periphery of the Bakken Shale. Society & natural resources, 31(2): 200–217.10.1080/08941920.2017.1376138Search in Google Scholar

KITCHIN, R., TATE, N. J. (2000): Conducting Research in Human Geography: Theory, Methodology and Practice. Harlow, Prentice Hall.Search in Google Scholar

KORPELA, K. M. (1989): Place-identity as a product of environmental self-regulation. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 9(3): 241–256.10.1016/S0272-4944(89)80038-6Search in Google Scholar

KRIMSKY, S. (2007): Risk communication in the internet age: The rise of disorganised skepticism. Environmental Hazards, 7: 157–164.10.1016/j.envhaz.2007.05.006Search in Google Scholar

KROHN, S., DAMBORG, S. (1999): On public attitudes towards wind power, Renewable Energy, 16: 954–960.10.1016/S0960-1481(98)00339-5Search in Google Scholar

KYLE, G., BRICKER, K., GRAEFE, A., WICKHAM, T. (2004): An examination of recreationist’s’ relationships with activities and settings. Leisure Sciences, 26: 123–142.10.1080/01490400490432019Search in Google Scholar

LACHAPELLE, E., KISS, S., MONTPETIT, É. (2018): Public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing (Fracking) in Canada: Economic nationalism, issue familiarity, and cultural bias. The Extractive Industries and Society, 5(4): 634–647.10.1016/j.exis.2018.07.003Search in Google Scholar

LAI, P. H., LYONS, K. D., GUDERGAN, S. P., GRIMSTAD, S. (2017): Understanding the psychological impact of unconventional gas developments in affected communities. Energy Policy, 101: 492–501.10.1016/j.enpol.2016.11.001Search in Google Scholar

LEONARD, M. (2003): Interviews. In: Miller, R. L., Brewer, J. D. [eds.]: The A-Z of Social Research. London, Sage.Search in Google Scholar

LEWICKA, M. (2010): ‘What makes neighbourhood different from home and city? Effects of place scale on place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30: 35–51.10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.05.004Search in Google Scholar

LEWICKA, M. (2011): Place Attachment: How far have we come in the last 40 years. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31: 207–230.10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.10.001Search in Google Scholar

LONGHURST, R. (2003): Semi-structured interviews and focus groups. In: Clifford, N. J. Valentine, G. [eds.]: Key Methods in Geography (pp. 117–132). London, Sage.Search in Google Scholar

LUKE, H., BRUECKNER, M., EMMANOUIL, N. (2018a). Unconventional gas development in Australia: A critical review of its social license. The Extractive Industries and Society, 5(4):648–662.10.1016/j.exis.2018.10.006Search in Google Scholar

LUKE, H., RASCH, E. D., EVENSEN, D., KÖHNE, M. (2018b): Is ‘activist’ a dirty word? Place identity, activism and unconventional gas development across three continents. The Extractive Industries and Society, 5(4): 524–534.10.1016/j.exis.2018.09.014Search in Google Scholar

MACDONALD, K. (2001): Using Documents. In: Gilbert, G. [ed.]: Researching Social Life (pp. 196–211). London, Sage.Search in Google Scholar

MANZO, L. C., DEVINE-WRIGHT, P. (2014): Place attachment: advances in theory, methods and applications. London, Routledge.10.4324/9780203757765Search in Google Scholar

MANZO, L. C., PERKINS, D. D. (2006): Finding common ground: The importance of place attachment to community participation and planning. Journal of Planning Literature, 20(4): 335–350.10.1177/0885412205286160Search in Google Scholar

MAYER, A. (2016): Risk and benefits in a fracking boom: Evidence from Colorado. The Extractive Industries and Society, 3(3): 744–753.10.1016/j.exis.2016.04.006Search in Google Scholar

MCLAFFERTY, S. L. (2003): Conducting Questionnaire Surveys. In: Clifford, N. J., Valentine, G. [eds.]: Key Methods in Geography (pp. 77–89). London, Sage.Search in Google Scholar

MCNAUGHT, C., KAY, D., HILL, N., JOHNSON, M., HAYDOCK, H., DORAN, M. (2013): Envisioning the Future-Considering Energy in Northern Ireland to 2050. Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment (DETI) and Ricardo-AEA.Search in Google Scholar

MENG, Q. (2015): Spatial analysis of environment and population at risk of natural gas fracking in the state of Pennsylvania, USA. Science of the Total Environment, 515: 198–206.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.030Search in Google Scholar

MENG, Q., ASHBY, S. (2014): Distance: A critical aspect for environmental impact assessment of hydraulic fracking. The Extractive Industries and Society, 1(2): 124–126.10.1016/j.exis.2014.07.004Search in Google Scholar

MORGAN, D. L. (1997): Focus Groups as Qualitative Research. 2nd ed. London, Sage.10.4135/9781412984287Search in Google Scholar

MORROW, D. (2001): The elusiveness of trust. Peace Review 13: 13–19.10.1080/10402650120038099Search in Google Scholar

MUMFORD, J., GRAY, D. (2010): Consumer engagement in alternative energy—Can the regulators and suppliers be trusted?. Energy Policy, 38(6): 2664–2671.10.1016/j.enpol.2009.05.054Search in Google Scholar

NERB, J., SPADA, H., LAY, K. (2001): Environmental Risk in the Media: modelling the reactions of the audience. Research in Social Problems and Public Policy, 9: 57–85.10.1016/S0196-1152(01)80024-7Search in Google Scholar

Northern Ireland Statistical Research Agency (2014): Local Government District Tourism Statistics 2013 [Online]. [cit. 07.12.2014]. Available at: http://www.detini.gov.uk/lgd_publication_2011–2013.pdf?rev=0Search in Google Scholar

ODAGIU, A., OROIAN, I. G., MIHĂIESCU, T., PAULETTE, L., MIHĂIESCU, R., FLESERIU, A. (2013): Is Hydraulic Fracturing a Threat for Drinking Water Resources?. ProEnvironment Promediu, 6(13): 89–92.Search in Google Scholar

OWENS, S. (2004): Siting, sustainable development and social priorities. Journal of Risk Research, 7(2): 101–114.10.1080/1366987042000158686Search in Google Scholar

O’BRIEN, G., HOPE, A. (2010): Localism and energy: Negotiating approaches to embedding resilience in energy systems. Energy Policy, 38(12): 7550–7558.10.1016/j.enpol.2010.03.033Search in Google Scholar

O’HARA, S., HUMPHREY, M., JASPAL, R., NERLICH, B., KNIGHT, W. (2014): Public Perception of Shale Gas Extraction in the UK: Has Balcombe bottomed out? Nottingham University Shale Gas Survey [online]. [cit. 23.01.2015]. Available at: Nottingham University Shale Gas Survey Available at: https://www.scribd.com/doc/131787519/public-perceptions-of-shale-gas-in-the-UK-September-2014-pdfSearch in Google Scholar

O'LEARY, R. (2003): Correlation and regression. In: Miller, R. L., Brewer, J. D. [eds.]: The A-Z of Social Research. London, Sage.Search in Google Scholar

OLIVE, A. (2016): What is the fracking story in Canada?. The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien, 60(1): 32–45.10.1111/cag.12257Search in Google Scholar

PEREIRA, A. (2011): Shale Gas a UK Energy Miracle? Kegworth, Institute of Gas Engineers and Managers.Search in Google Scholar

PERRY, S. L. (2012): Development, Land Use, and Collective Trauma: The Marcellus Shale Gas Boom in Rural Pennsylvania. Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment, 34(1): 81–92.10.1111/j.2153-9561.2012.01066.xSearch in Google Scholar

PIJAWKA, K. D., MUSHKATEL, A. H. (1991): Public opposition to the siting of the high-level nuclear waste repository: The importance of trust. Policy Studies Review, 10(4): 180–194.10.1111/j.1541-1338.1991.tb00289.xSearch in Google Scholar

PROSHANSKY, H. M. (1978): The city and self-identity. Environment & Behaviour, 10(2): 147.10.1177/0013916578102002Search in Google Scholar

PUTNAM, R. D. (1993): Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, Princeton University Press.10.1515/9781400820740Search in Google Scholar

RABE, B. G., BORICK, C. (2011): Fracking for natural gas: Public opinion on state policy options. The Center for Local, State, and Urban Policy, Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy at the University of Michigan.Search in Google Scholar

RAYMOND, C. M., BROWN, G., WEBER, D. (2010): The measurement of place attachment: Personal, community, and environmental connections. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(4): 422–434.10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.08.002Search in Google Scholar

RAYNER, S. (2010): Trust and the transformation of energy systems. Energy Policy, 38(6): 2617–2623.10.1016/j.enpol.2009.05.035Search in Google Scholar

RITCHIE, H., LLOYD, G., GRIFFITHS, P. (2014): A fracking good time? A planned approach to energy resilience in the UK and Ireland. Paper presented to the Association of European Schools of Planning Annual Congress 2014. University of Utrecht and University of Delft.Search in Google Scholar

ROSENBERG, A. A., PHARTIYAL, P., GOLDMAN, G., BRANSCOMB, L. M. (2014): Exposing fracking to sunlight. Issues in Science and Technology (pp. 74–79). Dallas, University of Texas.Search in Google Scholar

Royal Society (2012): Shale gas extraction in the UK: a review of hydraulic fracturing. London, The Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering [online]. [cit. 02.06.2014]. Available at: royalsociety.org/policy/projects/shale-gas-extractionSearch in Google Scholar

SANGARAMOORTHY, T., JAMISON, A. M., BOYLE, M. D., PAYNE-STURGES, D. C., SAPKOTA, A., MILTON, D. K., WILSON, S. M. (2016): Place-based perceptions of the impacts of fracking along the Marcellus Shale. Social Science & Medicine, 151: 27–37.10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.01.00226773295Search in Google Scholar

SCHAFFER BOUDET, H. (2011): From NIMBY to NIABY: regional mobilization against liquefied natural gas in the United States. Environmental Politics, 20(6): 786–806.10.1080/09644016.2011.617166Search in Google Scholar

SCHAFFT, K. A., BIDDLE, C. (2015): Opportunity, ambivalence, and youth perspectives on community change in Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale region. Human Organization, 74(1): 74.10.17730/humo.74.1.6543u2613xx23678Search in Google Scholar

SLACK, B. (2013): Environmental fracturing vs. fracking: while‘fracking’ is the subject of much contention in political and social arenas, environmental fracturing continues to make quiet headway. Pollution Engineering, 45(9): 18–24.Search in Google Scholar

SMITH, F. M., FERGUSON, D. P. (2013): Fracking Democracy: issue of management and locus of policy decision making in the Marcellus Shale gas drilling debate. Public relations Review, 39: 377–386.10.1016/j.pubrev.2013.08.003Search in Google Scholar

SMITH, T. (2012): Environmental Considerations of Shale Gas Development. Chemical Engineering Progress, 108(8): 53.Search in Google Scholar

STAMFORD, L., AZAPAGIC, A. (2014): Life cycle environmental impacts of UK shale gas. Applied Energy, 134: 506–518.10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.08.063Search in Google Scholar

STEDMAN, R. (2002): Toward a social psychology of place: Predicting behaviour from place–based cognitions, attitude, and identity. Environment and Behaviour, 34: 561–581.10.1177/0013916502034005001Search in Google Scholar

STEVENS, P. (2010): The ‘shale gas revolution’: hype and reality. London, Chatham House [online]. [cit. 20.06.2019]. Available at: http://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/public/Research/Energy,%20Environment%20and%20Development/r_0910stevens.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

TAMBORAN (2012): £6bn Gas Investment Could Create 600 Full Time Jobs and Deliver Security of Supply in Northern Ireland for up to 50 years. Press Release, 31 January 2012.Search in Google Scholar

TAN, H., XU, J., WONG-PARODI, G. (2019): The politics of Asian fracking: Public risk perceptions towards shale gas development in China. Energy Research & Social Science, 54: 46–55.10.1016/j.erss.2019.03.007Search in Google Scholar

TAYLOR, R. W. (2014): Taking sides: clashing views on sustainability. 2nd Ed. New York, McGraw-Hill.Search in Google Scholar

THEODORI, G. L. (2018): Shale energy development in the Southern United States: a review of perceived and objective social impacts. The Extractive Industries and Society, 5(4): 610–618.10.1016/j.exis.2018.05.006Search in Google Scholar

UPRETI, B. R., VAN DER HORST, D. (2004): National renewable energy policy and local opposition in the UK: the failed development of a biomass electricity plant. Biomass and Bioenergy, 26(1): 61–69.10.1016/S0961-9534(03)00099-0Search in Google Scholar

VAN DER HORST, D. (2007): NIMBY or not? Exploring the relevance of location and the politics of voiced opinions in renewable energy siting controversies. Energy Policy, 35(5): 2705–2714.10.1016/j.enpol.2006.12.012Search in Google Scholar

VAN DER HORST, D., TOKE, D. (2010): Exploring the landscape of wind farm developments; local area characteristics and planning process outcomes in rural England. Land Use Policy 27: 214–221.10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.05.006Search in Google Scholar

VAN DER HORST, D., VERMEYLEN, S. (2012): Ownership claims, valuation practices, and the unpacking of energy-landscape conflicts. International Review of Sociology, 22(3): 429–445.10.1080/03906701.2012.730822Search in Google Scholar

WALKER, G., DEVINE-WRIGHT, P., HUNTER, S., HIGH, H., EVANS, B. (2010): Trust and community: Exploring the meanings, contexts and dynamics of community renewable energy. Energy Policy, 38(6): 2655–2663.10.1016/j.enpol.2009.05.055Search in Google Scholar

WARREN, C. R., MCFADYEN, M. (2010): Does community ownership affect public attitudes to wind energy? A case study from south-west Scotland. Land Use Policy, 27: 204–213.10.1016/j.landusepol.2008.12.010Search in Google Scholar

WARREN, C. R., LUMSDEN, C., O'DOWD, S., BIRNIE, R. V. (2005): Green on Green: Public perceptions of wind power in Scotland and Ireland. Journal of Environmental Planning & Management, 48(6): 853–875.10.1080/09640560500294376Search in Google Scholar

WESTER-HERBER, M. (2004): Underlying concerns in land-use conflicts - the role of place-identity in risk perception. Environmental Science & Policy, 7(2): 109–116.10.1016/j.envsci.2003.12.001Search in Google Scholar

WHITE, E., FELL, M., SMITH, L., KEEP, M. (2015): Shale gas and fracking. House of Commons Library Research Paper. 5th February 2015 [online]. [cit. 08.02.2014]. Available at: www.parliament.uk/briefing-papers/sn06073.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

WHITMARSH, L., NASH, N., UPHAM, P., LLOYD, A., VERDON, J. P., KENDALL, J. M. (2015): UK public perceptions of shale gas hydraulic fracturing: The role of audience, message and contextual factors on risk perceptions and policy support. Applied Energy, 160: 419–430.10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.09.004Search in Google Scholar

WILLOW, A. J. (2014): The new politics of environmental degradation: un/expected landscapes of disempowerment and vulnerability. Journal of Political Ecology, 21(1): 237–257.10.2458/v21i1.21135Search in Google Scholar

WILLOW, A. J., ZAK, R., VILAPLANA, D., SHEELEY, D. (2014): The contested landscape of unconventional energy development: a report from Ohio's shale gas country. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 4(1): 56–64.10.1007/s13412-013-0159-3Search in Google Scholar

WOODS, M. (2003): Deconstructing rural protest: the emergence of a new social movement. Journal of Rural Studies, 19(3): 309–325.10.1016/S0743-0167(03)00008-1Search in Google Scholar

WYNNE, B. (2006): Public engagement as a means of restoring public trust in science – hitting the notes, but missing the music?. Community Genetics, 9(3): 211–220.10.1159/00009265916741352Search in Google Scholar

YUAN, J-L., DENG, J-G., TAN, Q., YU, B-H., JIN, X-C. (2013): Borehole Stability Analysis of Horizontal Drilling in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 46(5): 1157–1164.10.1007/s00603-012-0341-zSearch in Google Scholar

ZANOCCO, C., BOUDET, H., CLARKE, C. E., HOWE, P. D. (2019): Spatial Discontinuities in Support for Hydraulic Fracturing: Searching for a “Goldilocks Zone”. Society & Natural Reso.10.1080/08941920.2019.1616864Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo