1. bookVolume 54 (2021): Issue 3 (August 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
17 Oct 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Effect of Implicit Voice Theories on Employee Constructive Voice and Defensive Silence: A Study in Education and Health Sector

Published Online: 06 Sep 2021
Page range: 210 - 226
Received: 30 Apr 2020
Accepted: 30 Jul 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
17 Oct 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Background and Purpose: Implicit voice theories are the beliefs that are related to employee silence. This study aims to examine the implicit voice theories (don’t embarrass the boss in public, negative career consequences of voice) as predictors of employee defensive silence and employee constructive voice.

Methodology: This study is a cross-sectional and an analytical study. The sample of this study consisted of 494 participants working in the healthcare sector (n = 277) and education sector (n = 217) in Turkey. We performed linear regression analyses to test our hypotheses.

Results: We found that power distance and negative career consequences of voice predicted employee defensive silence while proactive personality and the belief of “don’t embarrass the boss in public” predicted employee constructive voice. These results confirm the effect of implicit voice theories on employee silence and voice.

Conclusions: Employees holding the belief of “don’t embarrass the boss in public” and “negative career consequences of voice” tend to remain silent or prefer to speak with their managers privately, which prevent sharing ideas in group interactions in organization. Therefore, managers must combat the belief that speaking up is risky. In order to change these beliefs in a positive way, they should make their subordinates feel that speaking up is a valuable behavior in organization.

Keywords

Ajay K. J., (2015). An interpersonal perspective to study silence in Indian organizations, Personnel Review, 44(6), 1010 – 1036, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/PR-12-2013-0220 Search in Google Scholar

Akın, A. & Arıcı, N. (2015). Turkish Version of Proactive Scale: A study of validity and reliability. Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE), 5(1), 165-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.13054/mije.14.12.5.1 Search in Google Scholar

Alparslan, A. M., Can, A., & Erdem, R. (2015). Reasons for employee silence behavior: Developing and validating a scale for nurses. Hacettepe Sağlık İdaresi Dergisi, 18(2), 183-204. Search in Google Scholar

Amah, O. E., & Oyetuunde, K. (2020). The effect of servant leadership on employee turnover in SMEs in Nigeria: the role of career growth potential and employee voice. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. 27(6), 885-904. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSBED-01-2019-0009 Search in Google Scholar

Antonakis, J., Bendahan, S., Jacquart, P., & Lalive, R. (2010). On making causal claims: A review and recommendations. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(6), 1086-1120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.10.010 Search in Google Scholar

Arıkan, S. (2011). İşyerinde kullanılan politik taktiklere yönelik olası bireysel önceller üzerine bir araştırma [A Study on Probable Individual Antecedents of Workplace Political Tactics]. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 26(68), 52-71. Retrieved from: https://www.psikolog.org.tr/tr/yayinlar/dergiler/1031828/tpd1300443320110000m000089.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Bacon, D. R., Sauer, P. L., & Young, M. (1995). Composite reliability in structural equations modeling. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55(3), 394-406. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164495055003003 Search in Google Scholar

Bakker, A. B., M. Tims, & D. Derks. (2012). Proactive Personality and Job Performance: The Role of Job Crafting and Work Engagement. Human Relations, 65(10), 1359-1378. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726712453471 Search in Google Scholar

Bateman, T. S., & Crant, J. M. (1993). The proactive component of organizational behavior: A measure and correlates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 103-118. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140202 Search in Google Scholar

Bayramoglu, D., & Cetinkanat, C. A. (2020). Examining the Relationship between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Silence of Teachers. Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala, 71, 25-40. https://doi.org/10.33788/rcis.71.2 Search in Google Scholar

Bilgetürk, M., & Baykal, E. (2021). How does perceived organizational support affect psychological capital? The mediating role of authentic leadership. Organizacija, 54(1), 82-95. https://doi.org/10.2478/orga-2021-0006 Search in Google Scholar

Bolino, M., Valcea, S., & Harvey, J. (2010). Employee, manage thyself: The potentially negative implications of expecting employees to behave proactively. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(2), 325-345. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317910X493134 Search in Google Scholar

Bowen, F., & Blackmon, K. (2003). Spirals of silence: The dynamic effects of diversity on organizational voice. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1393-1417. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00385 Search in Google Scholar

Breevaart, K., Bohle, S. L., Pletzer, J. L., & Medina, F. M. (2020). Voice and silence as immediate consequences of job insecurity. Career Development International. 25(2), 204-220, https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-09-2018-0226 Search in Google Scholar

Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 185-216. http://doi.org/10.1177/135910457000100301 Search in Google Scholar

Çankır, B. (2016). Çalışanlarda pozitif ses çıkartma davranışı nasıl oluşur? Örgütsel güven, psikolojik sözleşme ihlali, lider-üye etkileşimi ile pozitif ses çıkartma davranışı arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi [How Do Voice Behavior On Employees? An Application to Correlations Between Organizational Trust, Psychological Contract Violation, Leader-Member Exchange and Positive Voice Behavior]. Kırklareli Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 5(2), 1-12. Retrieved from: https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/klujfeas/issue/26889/283218. Search in Google Scholar

Chamberlin, M., Newton, D. W., & Lepine, J. A. (2017). A meta-analysis of voice and its promotive and prohibitive forms: Identification of key associations, distinctions, and future research directions. Personnel Psychology, 70(1), 11-71. https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12185 Search in Google Scholar

Cheng, Y., Nudelman, G., Otto, K., & Ma, J. (2020). Belief in a Just World and Employee Voice Behavior: The Mediating Roles of Perceived Efficacy and Risk. The Journal of Psychology, 154(2), 129-143. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2019.1670126 Search in Google Scholar

Chou, S. Y., & Chang, T. (2020). Employee silence and silence antecedents: A theoretical classification. International Journal of Business Communication, 57(3), 401-426. https://doi.org/10.1177/2329488417703301 Search in Google Scholar

Cooper, C. A. (2018). Encouraging civil servants to be frank and fearless: Merit recruitment and employee voice. Public Administration, 96(4), 721-735. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2020.1733979. Search in Google Scholar

Crant, J. M. (2000). Proactive behavior in organizations. Journal of Management, 26(3), 435-462. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630002600304 Search in Google Scholar

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02310555 Search in Google Scholar

Detert, J. R., & Burris, E. R. (2007). Leadership behavior and employee voice: Is the door really open?. Academy of Management Journal, 50(4), 869-884. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2007.26279183 Search in Google Scholar

Detert, J. R., & Edmondson, A. C. (2011). Implicit voice theories: Taken-for-granted rules of self-censorship at work. Academy of Management Journal, 54(3), 461-488. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2011.61967925 Search in Google Scholar

Dyne, L. V., Ang, S., & Botero, I. C. (2003). Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1359-1392. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00384 Search in Google Scholar

Engle, E. M., & Lord, R. G. (1997). Implicit theories, self-schemas, and leader-member exchange. Academy of Management Journal, 40(4), 988-1010. https://doi.org/10.2307/256956 Search in Google Scholar

Erdoğan, E. (2011). Örgütsel Sessizlik ve Performans İlişkisi [Organizational Silence and Its Relation with Performance]. Unpublished Master Thesis. Gebze İleri Teknoloji Enstitüsü Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. Search in Google Scholar

Ergül, S., & Söyük, S. (2020). The effect of leadership behaviors on organizational silence: The case of two public hospitals. Nobel Medicus, 16(1): 47-55. Retrieved from: https://www.nobelmedicus.com/Content/1/46/47-55.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312 Search in Google Scholar

Glassenberg, A. N. (2012). Exploring implicit voice theories at work (Order No. 3514405). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1027935436). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/exploring-implicit-voice-theories-at-work/docview/1027935436/se-2?accountid=146364. Search in Google Scholar

Hair Jr., J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J. and Anderson, R.E. (2010) Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective. 7th Edition, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River. London: Pearson. Search in Google Scholar

Harmanci Seren, A. K., Topcu, İ., Eskin Bacaksiz, F., Unaldi Baydin, N., Tokgoz Ekici, E., & Yildirim, A. (2018). Organisational silence among nurses and physicians in public hospitals. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 27(7-8), 1440-1451. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.14294 Search in Google Scholar

Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of international business studies, 14(2), 75-89. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490867 Search in Google Scholar

Huang, X., Van de Vliert, E., & Van der Vegt, G. (2005). Breaking the silence culture: Stimulation of participation and employee opinion withholding cross-nationally. Management and Organization Review, 1(3), 459-482. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2005.00023.x Search in Google Scholar

Isaakyan, S. (2018). Public versus Private Voice: The Role of Social Setting in Explaining Managerial Reactions to Employee Voice. Datawyse / Universitaire Pers Maastricht. https://doi.org/10.26481/dis.20180601si Search in Google Scholar

Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modelling, 4th edn. New York: Guilford Press. https://www.guilford.com/books/Principles-and-Practice-ofStructural-Equation-Modeling/Rex-Kline/9781462523344. Search in Google Scholar

Knoll, M., Neves, P., Schyns, B., & Meyer, B. (2020). A multi-level approach to direct and indirect relationships between organizational voice climate, team manager openness, implicit voice theories, and silence. Applied Psychology: An International Review, https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12242 Search in Google Scholar

Lee, G. L., Diefendorff, J. M., Kim, T. Y., & Bian, L. (2014). Personality and participative climate: Antecedents of distinct voice behaviors. Human Performance, 27(1), 25-43. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959285.2013.854363 Search in Google Scholar

LePine, J. A., & Dyne, L. (2001). Voice and cooperative behavior as contrasting forms of contextual performance: Evidence of differential relationships with Big Five personality characteristics and cognitive ability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(2), 326–336. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.2.326 Search in Google Scholar

Liang, J., Farh, C. I., & Farh, J. L. (2012). Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave examination. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 71-92. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.0176 Search in Google Scholar

Maynes, T. D., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2014). Speaking more broadly: An examination of the nature, antecedents, and consequences of an expanded set of employee voice behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(1), 87-12. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034284 Search in Google Scholar

Milliken, F. J., Morrison, E. W., & Hewlin, P. F. (2003). An exploratory study of employee silence: Issues that employees don’t communicate upward and why. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1453-1476. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00387 Search in Google Scholar

Morrison E. W. & Rothman N. B. (2009). Silence and the dynamics of power. In Greenberg J, Edwards MJ (Eds.), Voice and Silence in Organizations (pp. 111–134). Bingley, UK: Emerald. Search in Google Scholar

Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). Organizational silence: A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 706-725. https://doi.org/10.2307/259200 Search in Google Scholar

Morrison, E.W. (2014). Employee voice and silence. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1, pp. 173–197. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091328 Search in Google Scholar

Pierce, J. L., & Gardner, D. G. (2004). Self-esteem within the work and organizational context: A review of the organization-based self-esteem literature. Journal of Management, 30(5), 591-622. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jm.2003.10.001 Search in Google Scholar

Pinder, C., & Harlos, K. (2001). Employee silence: Quiescence and acquiescence as responses to perceived injustice. In G. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (Vol. 20, pp. 331–369). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Search in Google Scholar

Pirzada, Z. A., Mirani, S. H., Phulpoto, N. H., Dogar, H., & Mahar, S. A. (2020). Study of Employee silence, Organizational Justice and Work Engagement: Mediation Analysis. IJCSNS, 20(1), 9-14. Retrieved from: http://paper.ijcsns.org/07_book/202001/20200102.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879 Search in Google Scholar

Sadeghi, M., & Razavi, M. R. (2020). Organizational silence, organizational commitment and creativity: The case of directors of Islamic Azad University of Khorasan Razavi. European Review of Applied Psychology, 70(5), 100557. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2020.100557 Search in Google Scholar

Seibert, S. E., Crant, J. M., & Kraimer, M. L. (1999). Proactive personality and career success. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(3), 416-427. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.84.3.416 Search in Google Scholar

Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Crant, J. M. (2001). What do proactive people do? A longitudinal model linking proactive personality and career success. Personnel Psychology, 54(4), 845-874. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2001.tb00234.x Search in Google Scholar

Sherf, E. N., Parke, M. R., & Isaakyan, S. (2020). Distinguishing voice and silence at work: unique relationships with perceived impact, psychological safety, and burnout. Academy of Management Journal, https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.1428. Search in Google Scholar

Singh, K., Singh, J., Ahmad, N. B., Singh, S., & Kaur, D. (2020). Dimensions of Organizational Silence and Intention to Leave. A Quantitative Study among Generation Y Employees in the Private Sector in Jakarta, Indonesia. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(2), 952-967. https://doi.org/10.37200/IJPR/V24I2/PR200403 Search in Google Scholar

Starbuck, C. R. (2016). Managing insidious barriers to upward communication in organizations: An empirical investigation of relationships among implicit voice theories, power distance orientation, self-efficacy, and leader-directed voice (Order No. 10017974). Available from ProQuest Central; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1767788721). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/managing-insidious-barriers-upward-communication/docview/1767788721/se-2?accountid=146364. Search in Google Scholar

Takhsha, M., Barahimi, N., Adelpanah, A., & Salehzadeh, R. (2020). The effect of workplace ostracism on knowledge sharing: the mediating role of organization-based self-esteem and organizational silence. Journal of Workplace Learning. 32(6), 417-435. https://doi.org/10.1108/JWL-07-2019-0088 Search in Google Scholar

Tedone, A. M., & Bruk-Lee, V. (2021). Speaking up at work: personality’s influence on employee voice behavior. International Journal of Organizational Analysis. Ahead of print, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOA-09-2020-2417 Search in Google Scholar

Under, I., & Gerede, E. (2021). Silence in Aviation: Development and Validation of a Tool to Measure Reasons for Aircraft Maintenance Staff not Reporting. Organizacija, 54(1), 3-16. https://doi.org/10.2478/orga-2021-0001 Search in Google Scholar

Wijaya, N. H. S. (2019). Proactive personality, LMX, and voice behavior: employee–supervisor sex (Dis) similarity as a moderator. Management Communication Quarterly, 33(1), 86-100. https://doi.org/10.1177/0893318918804890 Search in Google Scholar

Willemsma, T. A. (2014). Encouraging work group voice: exploring how interventions can contribute to developments in work group voice (Master’s thesis, University of Twente). Retrieved from: http://purl.utwente.nl/essays/65796. Search in Google Scholar

Xu, Q., Zhao, Y., Xi, M., & Li, F. (2020). Abusive supervision, high-performance work systems, and subordinate silence. Personnel Review, 49(8), 1637-1653. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-01-2019-0029 Search in Google Scholar

Yeager, D. S., & Dweck, C. S. (2012). Mindsets that promote resilience: When students believe that personal characteristics can be developed. Educational Psychologist, 47(4), 302-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2012.722805 Search in Google Scholar

Yoo, W., Mayberry, R., Bae, S., Singh, K., He, Q., & Lillard Jr., J. (2014). A study of effects of multicollinearity in the multivariable analysis. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 4(5), 9-19. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4318006/#__ffn_sectitle Search in Google Scholar

Zhan, M. (2020). When to speak up at work: a review of employee voice and silence behavior using a prospect approach. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 28(5), 273-288. https://doi.org/10.1080/15456870.2020.1720682 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo