1. bookVolume 55 (2022): Issue 1 (February 2022)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1581-1832
First Published
17 Oct 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Knowing When and How to Trust Superiors’ Decisions: Toward a Conceptual Model of Subordinate Managers’ Behavior

Published Online: 08 Mar 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 55 (2022) - Issue 1 (February 2022)
Page range: 50 - 63
Received: 27 Aug 2021
Accepted: 18 Dec 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1581-1832
First Published
17 Oct 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Background/Purpose: The study explores subordinate managers’ propensity to trust superiors’ decisions. Its purpose is twofold: first, to provide lower-level managers with a tool to know when and how to trust superiors’ decisions for a better organizational performance, and second, to lay the foundations for the development of a conceptual model of subordinate managers’ behavior.

Methods: The research philosophy adopts an inductive content analysis perspective. A mixed-methods research design is applied, using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data is collected through questionnaire, focus groups, interviews, and literature review. A total number of 219 managers from eight Bulgarian business organizations filled the questionnaire and 92 of them participated in group discussions and interviews.

Results: The majority of the managers surveyed tend to trust their immediate superiors. As a result of group discussions, the main advantages and disadvantages of managers with opposing attitudes toward trust are identified. A decision tree model of subordinate manager’s appropriate behaviors is proposed.

Conclusion: Inferior managers can have an active role in managing trust in their superiors’ decisions. Several situational factors, including superior’s competence and integrity, and organizational culture, determine the degree of trust that the subordinate manager should observe concerning the decisions and requests of the immediate superior.

Keywords

Agnihotri, A. (2017). Role of trust building in leadership efficiency. Journal of Advanced Management Research, 5(5), 552-565. https://www.academia.edu/35745584 Search in Google Scholar

Akkaya, B. (2020). Linking organizational commitment and organizational trust in health care organizations. Organizacija, 53 (4), 306-318. https://doi.org/10.2478/orga-2020-002010.2478/orga-2020-0020 Search in Google Scholar

Andersen, J. A. (2019). Trust in Managers Revisited: Antecedents, Mediating Factors, and Consequences. Dynamic Relationships Management Journal, 8(2), 65-73. http://doi.org/10.17708/DRMJ.2019.v08n02a05 Search in Google Scholar

Andersen, J. A. & Kovač, J. (2012). Why European subordinates trust their managers. Organizacija, 45(6), 300-309. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10051-012-0029-x10.2478/v10051-012-0029-x Search in Google Scholar

Balcerzyk, D. (2020). Trust as a Leadership Determinant. European Research Studies, 23, 486-497. http://doi.org/10.35808/ersj/193910.35808/ersj/1939 Search in Google Scholar

Balliet, D., & Van Lange, P. A. (2013). Trust, conflict, and cooperation: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 139(5), 1090. https://doi.org/10.1037/a003093910.1037/a0030939 Search in Google Scholar

Bastardoz, N., & Van Vugt, M. (2019). The nature of followership: Evolutionary analysis and review, The Leadership Quarterly, 30 (1), 81-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2018.09.00410.1016/j.leaqua.2018.09.004 Search in Google Scholar

Bencsik, A., & Juhasz, T. (2020). Impacts of informal knowledge sharing (workplace gossip) on organisational trust. Economics & Sociology, 13(1), 249-270. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2020/13-1/1610.14254/2071-789X.2020/13-1/16 Search in Google Scholar

Bieñkowska, A., Walecka-Jankowska, K., Zablocka-Kluczka, A., & Zimmer, J. (2018). Influence of intra-organizational trust on organizational outcomes. Operations Research and Decisions, 28(4), 9-30. https://doi.org/10.5277/ord180402 Search in Google Scholar

Biljsma, K.M. & Van de Bunt, G. (2003). Antecedents to trust in managers: a ‘bottom-up’ approach. Personnel Review, 32, 638-664, http://doi.org/10.1108/0048348031048838810.1108/00483480310488388 Search in Google Scholar

Bhawuk, D., G. Ferris (2000). Value-added relationship management: A key to effective manager-subordinate relations. Delhi Business Review, 1(2), 25-34. Search in Google Scholar

Bligh, M. (2011). Followership and follower-centred approaches. The Sage Handbook of Leadership, London: Sage, 425–436. Search in Google Scholar

Boccialetti, G. (1995). It Takes Two, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Search in Google Scholar

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa10.1191/1478088706qp063oa Search in Google Scholar

Bugdol, M. (2018). The role and importance of trust in the processes of human resource management. In Managing Public Trust, 73-97. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70485-2_610.1007/978-3-319-70485-2_6 Search in Google Scholar

Burke, C. S., Sims, D. E., Lazzara, E. H., & Salas, E. (2007). Trust in leadership: A multi-level review and integration. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(6), 606-632. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.09.00610.1016/j.leaqua.2007.09.006 Search in Google Scholar

Cho, Y. J., & Ringquist, E. J. (2011). Managerial trustworthiness and organizational outcomes. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 21(1), 53-86. https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/muq01510.1093/jopart/muq015 Search in Google Scholar

Chow, P. T., Cheung, S. O., & Ka Wa, Y. (2015). Impact of trust and satisfaction on the commitment-withdrawal relationship. Journal of Management in Engineering, 31(5), 04014087. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.000033110.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000331 Search in Google Scholar

Coletti, A. L., Sedatole, K. L., & Towry, K. L. (2005). The effect of control systems on trust and cooperation in collaborative environments. The Accounting Review, 80(2), 477-500. https://doi.org/10.2308/accr.2005.80.2.47710.2308/accr.2005.80.2.477 Search in Google Scholar

Colquitt, J. A., Scott, B. A., & LePine, J. A. (2007). Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: a meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 909. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.4.90910.1037/0021-9010.92.4.909 Search in Google Scholar

Darioly, A., & Schmid Mast, M. (2011). Facing an incompetent leader: The effects of a nonexpert leader on subordinates’ perception and behaviour. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(2), 239-265. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432090342957610.1080/13594320903429576 Search in Google Scholar

De Jong, B. A., Dirks, K. T., & Gillespie, N. (2016). Trust and team performance: A meta-analysis of main effects, moderators, and covariates. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(8), 1134-1150. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl000011010.1037/apl0000110 Search in Google Scholar

Dirks, K. T. (2000). Trust in leadership and team performance: Evidence from NCAA Basketball. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 1004-1012, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.6.100410.1037/0021-9010.85.6.1004 Search in Google Scholar

Dirks, K. T., Sweeney, P. J., Dimotakis, N., & Woodruff, T. (2021). Understanding the change and development of trust and the implications for new leaders. Journal of Business Ethics, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-021-04902-410.1007/s10551-021-04902-4 Search in Google Scholar

Guinot, J., Chiva, R., & Roca-Puig, V. (2014). Interpersonal trust, stress and satisfaction at work: an empirical study. Personnel Review, 43, 96-115. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-02-2012-004310.1108/PR-02-2012-0043 Search in Google Scholar

Halcomb, E. J., & Hickman, L. (2015). Mixed methods research. Nursing Standard, 29, 32, 41-47. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns.29.32.41.e885810.7748/ns.29.32.41.e8858 Search in Google Scholar

Han, S. & Harold, C. (2019). Examining why employee proactive personality influences empowering leadership: The role of cognition- and affect-based trust. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 92(2), 2019, 352-383. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.1225210.1111/joop.12252 Search in Google Scholar

Hartmann, F., & Slapničar, S. (2009). How formal performance evaluation affects trust between superior and subordinate managers. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 34(6-7), 722-737. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2008.11.00410.1016/j.aos.2008.11.004 Search in Google Scholar

Hasche, N., Höglund, L., & Mårtensson, M. (2020). Intra-organizational trust in public organizations–the study of interpersonal trust in both vertical and horizontal relationships from a bidirectional perspective. Public Management Review, 23(12), 1768-1788. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2020.176408110.1080/14719037.2020.1764081 Search in Google Scholar

Holtz, B. C., De Cremer, D., Hu, B., Kim, J., & Giacalone, R. A. (2020). How certain can we really be that our boss is trustworthy, and does it matter? A metacognitive perspective on employee evaluations of supervisor trustworthiness. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 41(7), 587-605. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.244710.1002/job.2447 Search in Google Scholar

Hurley, R. F. (2006). The decision to trust. Harvard Business Review, 84(9), 55-62. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6822603_The_Decision_to_Trust Search in Google Scholar

Hasel, M. C., & Grover, S. L. (2017). An integrative model of trust and leadership. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 38(6), 849-867. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-12-2015-029310.1108/LODJ-12-2015-0293 Search in Google Scholar

Jabeen, F., & Isakovic, A. A. (2018). Examining the impact of organizational culture on trust and career satisfaction in the UAE public sector: A competing values perspective. Employee Relations, 40(6), 1036-1053. https://doi.org/10.1108/ER-02-2017-003810.1108/ER-02-2017-0038 Search in Google Scholar

Jaser, Z., Alvehus, J., Carsten, M. K., Collinson, D., & Grant, D. S. (2016). Manager as a valued leader and a valued follower: making managerial work more meaningful. In Academy of Management Proceedings, 1, 15959. https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.2016.15959symposium10.5465/ambpp.2016.15959symposium Search in Google Scholar

Jeong, D. U., & Chun, B. J. (2019). The mediation effect of trust and communication on relationship between organizational culture and innovative behavior: focused on manufacturing business. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business, 10(1), 39-54. https://doi.org/10.32599/APJB.10.1.201903.3910.32599/apjb.10.1.201903.39 Search in Google Scholar

Khan, S. N., Abdullah, S. M., Busari, A. H., Mubushar, M., & Khan, I. U. (2020). Reversing the lens: The role of followership dimensions in shaping transformational leadership behaviour; mediating role of trust in leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 41(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-03-2019-010010.1108/LODJ-03-2019-0100 Search in Google Scholar

Klein, D. B. (2001). The demand for and supply of assurance. Economic Affairs, 21(1), 4-11. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0270.0026810.1111/1468-0270.00268 Search in Google Scholar

Kotsev, E. (2021). The dual role of managers as an object and subject of influence. International May Conference on Strategic Management – IMCSM21, 46-56. http://media.sjm06.com/2021/10/Proceedings_IMCSM21_Issue-1.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Lapierre, L.M. (2007). Supervisor trustworthiness and subordinates’ willingness to provide extra-role efforts. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37 (2), 272–97. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.0021-9029.2007.00160.x10.1111/j.0021-9029.2007.00160.x Search in Google Scholar

Le, B. P. & Tran, Q. T. (2020). Leadership practice for building trust of followers: Decisive factors of organizational performance. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 3(2), 45-57. https://doi.org/10.33215/sjom.v3i2.30810.33215/sjom.v3i2.308 Search in Google Scholar

Lester, J. N., Cho, Y., & Lochmiller, C. R. (2020). Learning to do qualitative data analysis: A starting point. Human Resource Development Review, 19(1), 94-106. https://doi.org/10.1177/153448432090389010.1177/1534484320903890 Search in Google Scholar

Lleo de Nalda, A., Guillen, M., & Gil Pechuan, I. (2016). The influence of ability, benevolence, and integrity in trust between managers and subordinates: The role of ethical reasoning. Business Ethics: A European Review, 25(4), 556-576. https://doi.org/10.1111/beer.1211710.1111/beer.12117 Search in Google Scholar

Ma, J., Schaubroeck, J. M., & LeBlanc, C. (2019). Interpersonal trust in organizations. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Business and Management. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190224851.013.16710.1093/acrefore/9780190224851.013.167 Search in Google Scholar

Maciejovsky, B., & Budescu, D. V. (2020). Too much trust in group decisions: Uncovering hidden profiles by groups and markets. Organization Science, 31(6), 1497-1514. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2020.136310.1287/orsc.2020.1363 Search in Google Scholar

Marineau, J. E. (2017). Trust and distrust network accuracy and career advancement in an organization. Group & Organization Management, 42(4), 487-520. https://doi.org/10.1177/105960111562752910.1177/1059601115627529 Search in Google Scholar

Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-734. https://doi.org/10.2307/25879210.2307/258792 Search in Google Scholar

McAllister, D. (1995), Affect- and Cognition-based Trust as Foundations for Interpersonal Cooperation in Organizations, Academy of Management Journal, 38, 24-59. http://doi.org/10.2307/25672710.2307/256727 Search in Google Scholar

McGregor, D. (1967). The professional manager, New York: McGraw-Hill. Search in Google Scholar

McKnight, D. H., & Chervany, N. L. (2006). Reflections on an initial trust-building model. Handbook of Trust Research, Northampton: Edward Elgar, 29-51. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781847202819.0000810.4337/9781847202819.00008 Search in Google Scholar

Möllering, G., & Sydow, J. (2019). Trust trap? Self-reinforcing processes in the constitution of inter-organizational trust. In M. Sasaki (Ed.), Trust in contemporary society, 141-160. Leiden: Brill. http://doi.org/10.1163/9789004390430_00910.1163/9789004390430_009 Search in Google Scholar

Mullen, J. (2016). Being a good follower: An important component of effective public health leadership, Public Health Reports, 131(6), 739-741. https://doi.org/10.1177/003335491666969910.1177/0033354916669699 Search in Google Scholar

Myers, M. S. (1970). Every employee a manager, New York: McGraw-Hill. Search in Google Scholar

Natorski, M., & Pomorska, K. (2017). Trust and Decision-making in Times of Crisis: The EU’s Response to the Events in Ukraine. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 55(1), 54-70. http://doi.org/10.1111/jcms.1244510.1111/jcms.12445 Search in Google Scholar

Poon, J. M. (2013). Effects of benevolence, integrity, and ability on trust-in-supervisor. Employee Relations, 35(4), 396-407. https://doi.org/10.1108/ER-03-2012-002510.1108/ER-03-2012-0025 Search in Google Scholar

Priede, C., & Farrall, S. (2011) Comparing results from different styles of cognitive interviewing: ‘verbal probing’ vs. ‘thinking aloud’. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 14(4), 271–287. http://doi.org/10.1080/13645579.2010.52318710.1080/13645579.2010.523187 Search in Google Scholar

Pulamolu, K. K., Bhavani, T., & Subramanian, D. V. (2017). Intra-Tenant resource sharing in yarn based on weighted arithmetic mean. In 2017 International Conference on Networks & Advances in Computational Technologies (NetACT), 262-265. http://doi.org/10.1109/NETACT.2017.807677710.1109/NETACT.2017.8076777 Search in Google Scholar

Raza-Ullah, T. & Kostis, A. (2020). Do trust and distrust in coopetition matter to performance? European Management Journal, 38(3), 367-376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2019.10.00410.1016/j.emj.2019.10.004 Search in Google Scholar

Reeskens, T. (2009). On the Nature of Generalized Trust. A Cross-National Inquiry into the Relation between Human Values and Generalized Trust [Conference presentation abstract]. APSA 2009 Toronto Meeting Paper, Canada. https://ssrn.com/abstract=1449881 Search in Google Scholar

Ruskova, S., & Ruseva, I. (2018). Empirical study on the impact of the conflicts on the motivation of the employees. Annals of „Eftimie Murgu” University Reșița. Fascicle II. Economic Studies, 25, 206-214. Search in Google Scholar

Silverman, D. (2013). Doing qualitative research: A practical handbook (4th ed.). London: Sage. Search in Google Scholar

Sitkin, S. B. & George, E. (2005). Managerial trust-building through the use of legitimating formal and informal control mechanisms. International Sociology, 29, 307-338. http://doi.org/10.1177/026858090505547910.1177/0268580905055479 Search in Google Scholar

Srinivas, V., Kumari, V. V., & Raju, K.V. (2018). Perseverance of uncertainty in cloud storage services through reputation based trust. International Journal of Network Security, 20(5), 951-959. https://doi.org/10.6633/IJNS.201809_20(5).17 Search in Google Scholar

Sterman, J. D. (1989). Modeling managerial behavior: Misperceptions of feedback in a dynamic decision making experiment. Management Science, 35(3), 321-339. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.35.3.32110.1287/mnsc.35.3.321 Search in Google Scholar

Stewart, R. (2019). A Model for Understanding Managerial Jobs and Behavior. In Managerial Work. 235-240. Routledge. http://doi.org/10.4324/9780429398599-1510.4324/9780429398599-15 Search in Google Scholar

Thomas, G. F., Zolin, R., & Hartman, J. L. (2009). The central role of communication in developing trust and its effect on employee involvement. The Journal of Business Communication (1973), 46(3), 287-310. http://doi.org/10.1177/002194360933352210.1177/0021943609333522 Search in Google Scholar

Tomaževič, N., & Aristovnik, A. (2019). Factors of trust in immediate leaders: an empirical study in police service environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(14), 2525. http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph1614252510.3390/ijerph16142525 Search in Google Scholar

Valenti, M., Celedonia, K. L., Wall-Parker, A., & Strickler, A. (2020). Trust is essential: Identifying trust building techniques from youth providers across the service array. Children and Youth Services Review, 117, 105295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.10529510.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105295 Search in Google Scholar

Van De Walle, S., & Six, F. (2014). Trust and distrust as distinct concepts: Why studying distrust in institutions is important. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 16(2), 158-174. https://doi.org/10.1080/13876988.2013.78514610.1080/13876988.2013.785146 Search in Google Scholar

Vecchiotti, R. (2018). Contemporary leadership: The perspective of a practitioner. Journal of Leadership Studies, 12(2), 40-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-35918-8_610.1007/978-3-030-35918-8_6 Search in Google Scholar

Vroom, V. H., & Yetton, P. W. (1973). Leadership and decision-making. 110, University of Pittsburgh Press.10.2307/j.ctt6wrc8r Search in Google Scholar

Whitener, E.M., Brodt, S.E., Korsgaard, M.A. & Werner, J.M. (1998). Managers as initiators of trust: An exchange relationship framework for understanding managerial trustworthy behavior. Academy of Management Review, 23, 513-530, http://doi.org/10.2307/25929210.2307/259292 Search in Google Scholar

Yin, K. Y., Chin, K. Y., Meng, C. L., & Pung, N. C. (2020). The determinants of intention to use e-voting system: The case of Generation X in Malaysia. Journal of Business Management and Accounting, 10(1), 47-64. https://doi.org/10.32890/jbma2020.10.1.310.32890/jbma2020.10.1.3 Search in Google Scholar

Zidane, Y. (2021). Building trust within virtual projects. PM World Journal, 10(7), 1-24. Available from https://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/pmwj107-Jul2021-Zidane-building-trust-within-virtual-teams.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Ziegler, R. (1998). Trust and the Reliability of Expectations. Rationality and Society, 10(4), 427-450. https://doi.org/10.1177/10434639801000400310.1177/104346398010004003 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo