1. bookVolume 25 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
26 Mar 2010
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Heat Pump Use in Rural District Heating Networks in Estonia

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 786 - 802
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
26 Mar 2010
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

District heating has proven to be an efficient way of providing space heating and domestic hot water in populated areas. It has also proven to be an excellent way to integrate various renewable energy sources (RES) into the energy system. In Estonia, biomass covers most of the heat demand, but carbon-intensive fuels are still used to cover peaks and lows. Heat pumps can be a good solution for rural areas, as there is usually plenty of land available for heat pump facilities. In addition, heat pumps require low-grade heat sources such as ambient air, groundwater, lakes, rivers, sea, sewage water, and industrial waste heat. One of the downsides of heat pumps is the need for large investments compared to boilers fired by natural gas and biomass, and electric boilers. This study examines the impact of heat pump use on consumer prices for district heating in rural district heating networks in Estonia.

Keywords

[1] Sorknæs P., et al. The benefits of 4th generation district heating in a 100 % renewable energy system. Energy 2020:213:119030. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2020.119030 Search in Google Scholar

[2] Trabert U., et al. Decarbonizing building stock with renewable district heating - A case study for a rural area in Germany. Proceeding of ISES Solar World Congress 2019. IEA SHC International Conference on Solar Heating and Cooling for Building Industry 2019 2020:470–481. https://doi.org/10.18086/swc.2019.11.02 Search in Google Scholar

[3] Polikarpova I., et al. Multi-Criteria Analysis to Select Renewable Energy Solution for District Heating System. Environmental and Climate Technologies 2019:23(3):101–109. https://doi.org/10.2478/rtuect-2019-0082 Search in Google Scholar

[4] Gravelsins A., et al. Solar power in district heating. P2H flexibility concept. Energy 2019:181:1023–1035. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.05.224 Search in Google Scholar

[5] Servinski M., et al. Rahvastiku paiknemine ja rahvaarv (Population location and population). Statistikaamet 2012:9. (in Estonian) Search in Google Scholar

[6] Chervenkov H., et al. Degree-day climatology over central and southeast Europe for the period 1961-2018 - Evaluation in high resolution. Cybernetics and Information Technologies 2020:20:166–174. https://doi.org/10.2478/cait-2020-0070 Search in Google Scholar

[7] Grygierek K., et al. Energy and environmental analysis of single-family houses located in Poland. Energies 2020:13(11):2740. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112740 Search in Google Scholar

[8] Kozarcanin S., et al. Impact of climate change on the cost-optimal mix of decentralised heat pump and gas boiler technologies in Europe. Energy Policy 2020:140:111386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2020.111386 Search in Google Scholar

[9] Dorotić H., et al. Impact of wind penetration in electricity markets on optimal power-to-heat capacities in a local district heating system. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2020:132:110095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2020.110095 Search in Google Scholar

[10] Bloess A. Impacts of heat sector transformation on Germany’s power system through increased use of power-to-heat. Applied Energy 2019:239:560–580. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.01.101 Search in Google Scholar

[11] Karmellos M., Georgiou P. N., Mavrotas G. A comparison of methods for the optimal design of Distributed Energy Systems under uncertainty. Energy 2019:178:318–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.04.153 Search in Google Scholar

[12] Wang C., et al. Risk assessment of integrated electricity and heat system with independent energy operators based on Stackelberg game. Energy 2020:198:117349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2020.117349 Search in Google Scholar

[13] Lepiksaar K., et al. Improving CHP flexibility by integrating thermal energy storage and power-to-heat technologies into the energy system. Smart Energy 2021:2:100022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.segy.2021.100022 Search in Google Scholar

[14] European Commission. COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS Powering a climate-neutral economy: An EU Strategy for Energy System Integration. Brussels: European Commission, 2020. Search in Google Scholar

[15] Arabzadeh V., Pilpola S., Lund P. D. Coupling variable renewable electricity production to the heating sector through curtailment and power-to-heat strategies for accelerated emission reduction. Future Cities and Environment 2019:5(1):1–10. http://doi.org/10.5334/fce.58 Search in Google Scholar

[16] Bashir A. A., et al. Minimizing Wind Power Curtailment and Carbon Emissions by Power to Heat Sector Coupling - A Stackelberg Game Approach. IEEE Access 2020:8:211892–211911. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3039041 Search in Google Scholar

[17] Rušeljuk P., et al. Factors Affecting the Improvement of District Heating. Case Studies of Estonia and Serbia. Environmental and Climate Technologies 2021:24:521–533. https://doi.org/10.2478/rtuect-2020-0121 Search in Google Scholar

[18] Volkova A., et al. Planning of district heating regions in Estonia. International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020:27:5–15. https://doi.org/10.5278/ijsepm.3490 Search in Google Scholar

[19] Pieper H., et al. Assessment of a combination of three heat sources for heat pumps to supply district heating. Energy 2019:176:156–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.03.165 Search in Google Scholar

[20] Pieper H., et al. Modelling framework for integration of large-scale heat pumps in district heating using low-temperature heat sources: A case study of Tallinn, Estonia. International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2019:20:67–86. https://doi.org/10.5278/ijsepm.2019.20.6 Search in Google Scholar

[21] Volkova A., et al. Small low-temperature district heating network development prospects. Energy 2019:178:714–722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.04.083 Search in Google Scholar

[22] Terreros O., et al. Electricity market options for heat pumps in rural district heating networks in Austria. Energy 2020:196:116875. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.116875 Search in Google Scholar

[23] Augutis J., et al. Analysis of energy security level in the Baltic States based on indicator approach. Energy 2020:199:117427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2020.117427 Search in Google Scholar

[24] Litgrid, AST, Elering. Review of RES perspective in Baltic countries till 2030. 2015. Search in Google Scholar

[25] Rummel L. Kaarepere küla ja Luua küla soojusmajanduse arengukava aastateks 2017-2027 (Approval of the heat management development plan of Palamuse small town, Kaarepere village and Luua village for 2017–2027.). Palamuse: Palamuse Vallavolikogu, 2017. (in Estonian) Search in Google Scholar

[26] Rummel L. Mäetaguse valla Mäetaguse aleviku ja Kiikla küla soojusmajanduse arengukava aastateks 2017-2030 (Mäetaguse rural municipality Mäetaguse small town and Kiikla village heat management development plan for 2017–2030). Mäetaguse: Mäetaguse Vallavolikogu, 2017. (in Estonian) Search in Google Scholar

[27] Sweco, Port of Tallinn. Cruise Terminal of Old City Harbour. Sustainable energetic solutions for cruise terminal buildings in Northern Climate. Tallin: Sweco, 2017. Search in Google Scholar

[28] Woolley K. E., et al. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce household air pollution from solid biomass fuels and improve maternal and child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review protocol. Systematic Reviews 2021:10(33):1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-021-01590-z Search in Google Scholar

[29] Cheng W., et al. Mitigation of ultrafine particulate matter emission from agricultural biomass pellet combustion by the additive of phosphoric acid modified kaolin. Renewable Energy 2021:172:177–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2021.03.041 Search in Google Scholar

[30] Kažimírová V., Opáth R. Biomass combustion emissions. Research in Agricultural Engineering 2016:62:S61–S65. https://doi.org/10.17221/69/2015-RAE Search in Google Scholar

[31] Directive (EU) 2015/2193 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2015 on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from medium combustion plants. Official Journal of the European Union 2015:L 313/1. Search in Google Scholar

[32] European Parliament and Council. DIRECTIVE (EU) 2016/2284 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 14 December 2016 on on the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants, amending Directive 2003/35/EC and repealing Directive 2001/81/EC. Official Journal of the European Union 2016:L 344:1. Search in Google Scholar

[33] European Commission. Operational Programme for Cohesion Policy Funding 2014-2020. Estonia 2014 [Online]. [Accessed 15.03.2021]. Available: https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/atlas/programmes/2014-2020/estonia/2014ee16m3op001 Search in Google Scholar

[34] European Commission. 2050 long-term strategy [Online]. [Accessed 15.03.2021]. Availabe: https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/strategies/2050_en Search in Google Scholar

[35] Eesti Konkurentsiamet. Kooskõlastatud soojuse piirhinnad (Coordinated marginal heat prices) [Online]. [Accessed 15.03.2021]. Available: https://www.konkurentsiamet.ee/et/vesi-soojus/soojus/kooskolastatud-soojuse-piirhinnad (in Estonian) Search in Google Scholar

[36] National Weather Service. Observation data [Online]. [Accessed 14.03.2021]. Available: https://www.ilmateenistus.ee/ilm/ilmavaatlused/vaatlusandmed/ (in Estonian) Search in Google Scholar

[37] Konkurentsiamet. Soojuse piirhinna kooskõlastamise põhimõtted (03.05.2013 käskkiri nr 1.1-2/13-012) (Principles of approval of the maximum heat price (Directive No. 1.1-2 / 13-012 of 03.05.2013.). Tallin: Estonian Competiton Authority, 2020. (in Estonian) Search in Google Scholar

[38] Keskkonnaministeerium. Keskkonnatasude Raamkava Aastateks 2016-2025 (Environmental Charges Framework Plan for 2016–2025.). Tallin: Ministry of the Environment, 2014. (in Estonian) Search in Google Scholar

[39] PHS Engineers. Biomass (Wood-Pellet) Boiler VS Conventional Gas Boiler - Pros & Cons [Online]. [Accessed 15.03.2021]. Available: https://phsengineersltd.co.uk/biomass-wood-pellet-boiler/ Search in Google Scholar

[40] Danish Energy Agency. Drejebog til store varmepumpeprojekter i fjernvarmesystemet (Guide for large-scale heat pump projects in district heating systems.). Kolding: DEA, 2017. Search in Google Scholar

[41] Knobloch F., et al. A technical analysis of FTT:Heat - A simulation model for technological change in the residential heating sector. Technical Study on the Macroeconomics of Energy and Climate Policies. Brussels: European Commission, 2017. Search in Google Scholar

[42] Environmental Investment Center. Funded applications [Online]. [Accessed 08.01.2021]. Available: https://www.kik.ee/et/rahastatud-projektid (in Estonian) Search in Google Scholar

[43] Pieper H., et al. Allocation of investment costs for large-scale heat pumps supplying district heating. Energy Procedia 2018:147:358–367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2018.07.104 Search in Google Scholar

[44] Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooni Ministeerium, Vaks R. Open public discussion about European Union support on topics ‘Greener Estonia’ in ‘Energy efficient consumption’. 2020 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo