1. bookVolume 12 (2018): Issue 1 (May 2018)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

A Comparative Study of Form-Focused and Communicative Methods of Language Teaching in ESP Courses

Published Online: 07 Jun 2018
Page range: 152 - 165
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the use of communicative methods and form-focused methods as implemented in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) courses. To accomplish this, two groups of management students were selected for the study. Each group consisted of 30 participants. Their level of proficiency in English and their subject matter knowledge were tested through a sample of IELTS and a pre-test. The two groups were at the same level of proficiency in both general English and English for Students of Management before receiving treatment in 20 sessions within a period of 75 days. Participants in Group A received a form-focused method with some occasional uses of their L1. In Group B, however, the participants were exposed to a communicative ESP course which exclusively relied on English the L2. After the period of treatment, the two groups were examined via a post-test. Results showed that Group B was more successful in the post-test. Moreover, the learners who were proficient in English and the subject matter achieved more from the communicative methods of language teaching in the ESP course. Findings imply that the nature of the subject matter, or whether it is theoretical or applied, could be a factor in deciding a method of language teaching for ESP courses.

Keywords

Afzal, S. (2013). Using of the first language in English classroom as a way of scaffolding for both the students and teachers to learn and teach English. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 4(7), 1846–1854.Search in Google Scholar

Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a second or foreign Language. Thomson Learning Inc.Search in Google Scholar

Cook, V. (2001). Using the first language in the classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review, 57(3), 402–423.10.3138/cmlr.57.3.402Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Davila, S. L. (2005). Tips and Techniques for the English Only Classroom. Retrieved from http://www.saradavila.com/english/english.doc.Search in Google Scholar

Davoudi-Mobarakeh, S., Eslami-Rasekh, A., & Barati, H. (2014). Observation and feedback of content specialists versus general English teachers: suggestions to make optimal English for specific purpose courses. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 13.Search in Google Scholar

Dujmovic, M. (2007). The use of Croatian in the EFL classroom. Metodicki Obzori, 2(1), 91–100. Retrieved from http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/19437.Search in Google Scholar

Ellis, N. C. (2005). At the interface: Dynamic interactions of explicit and implicit language knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 305–352.Search in Google Scholar

Ellis, R. (2006). Current issues in the teaching of grammar: An SLA perspective. TESOL Quarterly, 40, 83–107.Search in Google Scholar

Ghanbari, B., & Eslami Rasekh, A. (2012). ESP practitioner professionalization through apprenticeship of practice: the case of two Iranian ESP practitioners. English Language Teaching, 5, 112–122.Search in Google Scholar

Jafari, S. M., & Shokrpour, N. (2013). The role of L1 in ESP classrooms: A triangulated approach. International Journal of English and Education, 2(3), 90–104.Search in Google Scholar

Jamshidi, A., & Navehebrahim, M. (2013). Learners use of code switching in the English as a foreign language classroom. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(1), 186–190.Search in Google Scholar

Karbalaei, A, Pourzargham, A., & Kazemi, M. (2013). The impact of focus on form instruction on second language vocabulary and grammar learning. Journal of Advances in English Language Teaching, 1(1), 31–38.Search in Google Scholar

Karimnia, A., & Izadparast, M. (2007). On Communicative and linguistic competence. International Journal of Communication, 17(1), 101–112.Search in Google Scholar

Khati, A. (2011). When and why of mother tongue use in English classrooms. Journal of NELTA, 16(1–2), 42–51.Search in Google Scholar

Khoshsima, H., & Khosravani, M. (2014). ESP textbooks criteria: A case study of Iranian Universities. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature, 2347–3134.Search in Google Scholar

Khoshsima, H., Saed, A., & Ghassemi, P. (2014). The application of ESP principles on course design: the case of English for students of Management and Fisheries. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 2289–2737.Search in Google Scholar

Khresheh, A. (2012). Exploring when and why to use Arabic in the Saudi Arabian EFL classroom: Viewing L1 use as eclectic technique. English Language Teaching, 5(6), 78–88.Search in Google Scholar

Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (1990). Focus-on-form and corrective feedback in communicative language teaching: Effects on second language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 429–448.10.1017/S0272263100009517Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Long, M. H. (1991). Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology. In K. de Bot, R. Ginsberg & C. Kramsch (Eds.), Foreign language research in crosscultural perspective (pp. 39–52). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Search in Google Scholar

Long, M. H., & Robinson, P. (1998). Focus on form: Theory, research, and practice. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition, (pp. 15–41). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Lyster, R. (1998). Negotiation of form, recasts, and explicit correction in relation to error types and learner repair in immersion classrooms. Language Learning, 48,183–218.10.1111/1467-9922.00039Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Macaro, E. (2009). Teacher Use of Code-switching in the Second Language Classroom: Exploring “Optimal” Use. In: Turnbull, M., Dailey-O’Cain, J. (Eds.), First Language Use in Second and Foreign Language Learning, Bristol, (pp. 35-49). Great Britain: MPG Books Group.Search in Google Scholar

Maleki, A. (2006). ESP teaching: A matter of controversy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Mart, C. T. (2013). The facilitating role of L1 in ESL classes. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(1), 9–14. Retrieved from www.hrmars.com/journals.Search in Google Scholar

Mattioli, G. (2004). On native language intrusions and making do with words: Linguistically homogeneous classrooms and native language use. English Teaching Forum, 42(4), 20–25.Search in Google Scholar

McMillan, B. A., & Rivers, D. J. (2011). The practice of policy: Teacher attitudes toward “English only”. System, 39, 251–263.Search in Google Scholar

Nation, I. S. P. (2005). Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. In: Hinkel, E. (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning, (pp. 581–595). Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J.Search in Google Scholar

Rivers, D. J. (2011a). Politics without pedagogy: Questioning linguistic exclusion. ELT Journal, 65(2), 103–113.Search in Google Scholar

Rivers, D. J. (2011b). Strategies and struggles in the ELT classroom: Language policy, learner autonomy and innovative practice. Language Awareness, 20(1), 31–43.10.1080/09658416.2010.537343Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Spada, N. (2006). Communicative language teaching: Current status and future prospects. In J. Cummins & C. Davis (Eds.), The international handbook of English language teaching. Norwell, MA: Springer.Search in Google Scholar

Spahiu, I. (2013). Using native language in ESL classroom. IJ-ELTS: International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies, 1(2), 243–248. Retrieved from www.eltsjournal.org.Search in Google Scholar

Tang, J. (2002). Using L1 in the English classroom. English Teaching Forum, 40(1), 36–43.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo