1. bookVolume 28 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-7779
First Published
30 Mar 2018
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Development of a readiness for change maturity model: an energy management system implementation case study

Published Online: 12 Feb 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 28 (2022) - Issue 1 (March 2022)
Page range: 93 - 109
Received: 04 Oct 2021
Accepted: 20 Jan 2022
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-7779
First Published
30 Mar 2018
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

This paper provides a methodology to assess the maturity of an organization’s readiness for change based on the use of a Fuzzy Analytic Network Process and fuzzy linguistic evaluation maturity model. This anticipatory approach’s purpose is to evaluate the extent in which an organization is ready to implement a change initiative, in order to enhance supportive behaviors and identify improvement areas before engaging the change and thus reducing change adoption failure risks. A case study for the implementation of an Energy Management System according to the ISO 50001 Standard within a factory operating in the automotive sector is provided. Rather than the classical technical approach found in energy management maturity models, this approach offers an organizational perspective. The use of the Fuzzy Analytic Network Process allows the consideration of the interrelations between factors, while the use of fuzzy logic for the evaluation through linguistic variables helps in taking the uncertainty and imprecision of respondents into consideration. This approach serves as a decision support system for decision-makers by providing the organization’s readiness maturity level as well as the identification of improvement areas that will help ensure a successful implementation of the desired change initiative. In the conducted case study, the obtained maturity level refers to an average readiness for change for the implementation of the Energy Management System and requires the definition of an improvement roadmap, comprising the following elements: ensuring top management leadership and organizational commitment and involving employees as well as internal communication on the personal and organizational benefits of the implementation of an Energy Management System.

Keywords

JEL Classification

Antunes, P., Carreira, P., da Silva, M.M., 2014. Towards an energy management maturity model. Energy policy, 73, 803-814, DOI:10.1016/j.enpol.2014.06.01110.1016/j.enpol.2014.06.011 Search in Google Scholar

Armenakis, A.A., Fredenberger, W.B., 1997. Organizational change readiness practices of business turnaround change agents. Knowledge and Process Management, 4(3), 143-152, DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1441(199709)4:3<143::AID-KPM93>3.0.CO;2-710.1002/(SICI)1099-1441(199709)4:3<143::AID-KPM93>3.0.CO;2-7 Search in Google Scholar

Armenakis, A.A., Harris, S.G., Mossholder, K.W., 1993. Creating readiness for organizational change, Human Relations. 46(6), 681-703, DOI:10.1177/00187267930460060110.1177/001872679304600601 Search in Google Scholar

Armenakis, A.A., Stanley G.H., 2002. Crafting a change message to create transformational readiness, Journal of organizational change management. 15(2), 169-183, DOI: 10.1108/0953481021042308010.1108/09534810210423080 Search in Google Scholar

Armenakis, A., Bernerth, J., Pitts, J., Walker, H., 2007. Organizational change recipients’ beliefs scale: Development of an assessment instrument. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43(4), 481-505, DOI:10.1177/002188630730365410.1177/0021886307303654 Search in Google Scholar

Baker, T.E., 1995. Assessing and enhancing readiness for change: implications for technology transfer. NIDA Research Monograph, 155, 21-41.10.1037/e495742006-003 Search in Google Scholar

Berneth, J., 2004. Expanding our understanding of the change message, Human Resource Development Review. 3(1), 36-52, DOI: 10.1177/153448430326123010.1177/1534484303261230 Search in Google Scholar

Bouckenooghe, D., Devos, G., Broeck, H.V.D., 2009. Interdisciplinary and applied organizational change questionnaire–climate of change, processes, and readiness: development of a new instrument. The Journal of Psychology, 143(6), 559-599, DOI:10.1080/0022398090321821610.1080/00223980903218216 Search in Google Scholar

Britel, Z., Cherkaoui, A., 2020. Change readiness assessment for the implementation of building information modeling within a construction project management company. Proceedings of the 2020 International Conference on Big Data in Management, Manchester, 136-140, DOI:10.1145/3437075.343709410.1145/3437075.3437094 Search in Google Scholar

By, R.T., 2007. Ready or Not … Journal of Change Management, 7(1), 3-11, DOI:10.1080/1469701070126524910.1080/14697010701265249 Search in Google Scholar

Cagno, E., trianni, A., 2014. Evaluating the barriers to specific industrial energy efficiency measures: an exploratory study in small and mediumsized enterprises. Journal of cleaner Production, 82, 70-83, DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.06.05710.1016/j.jclepro.2014.06.057 Search in Google Scholar

Caralli, R., Knight, M., Montgomery, A., 2012. Maturity models 101: a primer for applying maturity models to smart grid security, resilience, and interoperability, Carnegie Mellon University-Software Engineering Institute.10.21236/ADA610461 Search in Google Scholar

Carbon trust, 2015. Energy management self-assessment tool. Search in Google Scholar

Chang, D., 1996. Applications of the extent analysis method on fuzzy AHP. European Journal of Operational Research, 95 (3), 649-655, DOI:10.1016/0377-2217(95)00300-210.1016/0377-2217(95)00300-2 Search in Google Scholar

Cinite, I., Duxbury, L. E., Higgins, C., 2009. Measurement of perceived organizational readiness for change in the public sector. British Journal of Management, 20(2), 265-277, DOI:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2008.00582.x10.1111/j.1467-8551.2008.00582.x Search in Google Scholar

Combe, M., 2014. Change readiness: Focusing change management where it counts. PMI White Paper, 1-28. Search in Google Scholar

Cunningham, C.E. et al., 2002. Readiness for organizational change: A longitudinal study of workplace, psychological and behavioural correlates. Journal of Occupational and Organizational psychology, 75(4), 377-392, DOI:10.1348/09631790232111963710.1348/096317902321119637 Search in Google Scholar

Dağdeviren, M., Yüksel, I., Kurt, M., 2008. A fuzzy analytic network process (ANP) model to identify faulty behavior risk (FBR) in work system. Safety science, 46(5), 771-783, DOI:10.1016/j.ssci.2007.02.00210.1016/j.ssci.2007.02.002 Search in Google Scholar

Dalkey, N.C., Helmer, O., 1963. An experimental application of the Delphi method to the user of experts. Management Science, 9(3), 458-467, DOI:10.1287/mnsc.9.3.45810.1287/mnsc.9.3.458 Search in Google Scholar

Dievernich, F.E., 2015. The rediscovery of the human being and the future of change management, Change Management and the Human Factor Advances. Challenges and Contradictions in Organizational Development, 9-18, Springer, Cham, DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-07434-4_210.1007/978-3-319-07434-4_2 Search in Google Scholar

EDF Climate corps, 2015. EDF Smart energy diagnostic survey. Search in Google Scholar

Finnerty, N., Sterling, R., Coakley, D., Keane, M.M., 2017. An energy management maturity model for multi-site industrial organisations with a global presence. Journal of Cleaner Production, 167, 1232-1250, DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.07.19210.1016/j.jclepro.2017.07.192 Search in Google Scholar

Fuchs, H., Aghajanzadeh, A., Therkelsen, P., 2020. Identification of drivers, benefits, and challenges of ISO 50001 through case study content analysis. Energy policy, 142, 111443, DOI:10.1016/j.enpol.2020.11144310.1016/j.enpol.2020.111443 Search in Google Scholar

Gagnon, M.P., Attieh, R., Ghandour, E.K., Legare, F., Ouimet, M., Estabrooks, C.A., Grimshaw, J., 2014. A systematic review of instruments to assess organizational readiness for knowledge translation in health care. PloS one, 9(12), 114338, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.011433810.1371/journal.pone.0114338425622625474622 Search in Google Scholar

Hayoun, M.B., 2021. Renewable energies in the electricity mix: Morocco is raising its ambitions for 2030 to 64.3%, [Online] Available at: https://lematin.ma/journal/2021/energies-renouvelables-mix-electriquemaroc-releve-643-ambitions-2030/366328.html [Accessed 16 12 2021]. Search in Google Scholar

Helfrich, C., Li, Y., Sharp, N., Sales, A., 2009. Organizational readiness to change assessment (ORCA): development of an instrument based on the Promoting Action on Research in Health Services (PARIHS) framework. Implementation Science, 4(1), 1-13, DOI:10.1186/1748-5908-4-3810.1186/1748-5908-4-38271629519594942 Search in Google Scholar

Holt, D. T., Armenakis, A. A., Feild, H. S., Harris, S.G., 2007. Readiness for organizational change the systematic development of a scale. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43(2), 232-255, DOI: 10.1177/002188630629529510.1177/0021886306295295 Search in Google Scholar

Holt, D.T., Helfrich, C.D., Hall, C.G., Weiner, B.J., 2010. Are you ready? How health professionals can comprehensively conceptualize readiness for Change, Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(1), 50-55, DOI: 10.1007/s11606-009-1112-810.1007/s11606-009-1112-8280696720077152 Search in Google Scholar

Holt, D.T., vardaman, J.M., 2013. Toward a comprehensive understanding of readiness for change: The case for an expanded conceptualization. Journal of Change Management, 13 (1), 9-18, DOI: 10.1080/14697017.2013.76842610.1080/14697017.2013.768426 Search in Google Scholar

International Energy Agency, 2018. Energy balance [Online] Available at: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89nergie_au_Maroc [Accessed 03 10 2021]. Search in Google Scholar

Introna, V., Cesarotti, V., Benedetti, M., Biagiotti, S., Rotunno, R., 2014. Energy management maturity model: An organizational tool to foster the continuous reduction of energy consumption in companies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 83, 108-117, DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.07.00110.1016/j.jclepro.2014.07.001 Search in Google Scholar

Jovanović, B., Filipović, J., 2016. ISO 50001 standard-based energy management maturity model – proposal and validation in industry. Journal of cleaner production, 112, 2744-2755, DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.10.02310.1016/j.jclepro.2015.10.023 Search in Google Scholar

Kahraman, C., Ertay, T., Buyukozkan, G., 2006. A fuzzy optimization model for QFD planning process using analytic network approach. European Journal of Operational Research, 171(2), 390-411, DOI: 10.1016/j.ejor.2004.09.01610.1016/j.ejor.2004.09.016 Search in Google Scholar

Karcher, P., Jochem, R., 2015. Sucess factors and organizational approaches for the implementation of energy management systems according to ISO50001. TQM journal, 27(4), 361-381, DOI:10.1108/TQM-01-2015-001610.1108/TQM-01-2015-0016 Search in Google Scholar

Kotter, J., 1995. Leading change: why transformation efforts fail. Harvard business Review, 86, 97-103. Search in Google Scholar

Kousksou, T., Allouhi, A., Belattar, M., Jamil, A., El Rhafiki, T., Arid, A., Zeraouli, Y., 2015. Renewable energy potential and national policy directions for sustainable development in Morocco. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 47, 46-57, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.02.05610.1016/j.rser.2015.02.056 Search in Google Scholar

Lehman, W.E., Greener, J.M., Simpson, D.D., 2002. Assessing organizational readiness for change. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 22(4), 197-209, DOI: 10.1016/S0740-5472(02)00233-710.1016/S0740-5472(02)00233-7 Search in Google Scholar

Madsen, S.R., Miller, D., John, C.R., 2005. Readiness for organizational change: Do organizational commitment and social relationships in the workplace make a difference?, Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16(2), 213-234, DOI: 10.1002/hrdq.113410.1002/hrdq.1134 Search in Google Scholar

Mediterranean Association of the National Agencies for Energy Management; Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, 2019. Energy efficiency and renewable energy strategies and policies. Bruxelles: Mitigation Enabling Energy Transition in the MEDiterranean region, 1-84. Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of Energy, Mines and the Environment, 2021. Nationally determined contribution - updated, Rabat: Publications of the Ministry of Energy. Mines and the Environment. Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and the Environment, 2020. National energy strategy - Horizon 2030. Rabat: Publications of the Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and the Environment. Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of Industry, Trade, Green and Digital Economy, 2021. 4th Industry meeting of the automotive edition: Morocco is shifting up a gear through structuring projects in perspective. [Online] Available at: https://www.mcinet.gov.ma/fr/actualites/4e-rdv-de-lindustrie-edition-automobile-le-maroc-passe-la-vitesse-superieure-travers-des [Accessed 03 10 2021]. Search in Google Scholar

Moroccan Agency for Energy Efficiency, 2020. Energy efficiency in the industrial sector. [Online] Available at: https://www.amee.ma/fr/expertise/industrie [Accessed 03 10 2021]. Search in Google Scholar

Ngai, E.W.T., Chau, D.C.K., Poon, J.K.L., To, C.K.M., 2013. Energy and utility management maturity model for sustainable manufacturing process. International Journal of Production Economics, 146(2), 453-464, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpe.2012.12.01810.1016/j.ijpe.2012.12.018 Search in Google Scholar

O’Sullivan, J., 2011. Energy efficiency in industry, a holistic and integrated strategy from policy to results. Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society, 2011, 745-757. Search in Google Scholar

Rafferty, A.E., Jimmieson, N.L., Armenakis, A.A., 2013. Change readiness: a multilevel review. Journal of management, 39(1), 110-135, DOI: 10.1177/014920631245741710.1177/0149206312457417 Search in Google Scholar

Saaty, T.L., 1990. How to make a decision: The Analytic Hierarchy Process. European journal of operational research, 48(1), 9-26, DOI: 10.1016/0377-2217(90)90057-I10.1016/0377-2217(90)90057-I Search in Google Scholar

Shea, C.M., Jacobs, S.R., Esserman, D.A., Bruce, K., Weiner, B.J., 2014. Organizational readiness for implementing change: a psychometric assessment of a new measure. Implementation science, 9(1), 1-15, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-9-710.1186/1748-5908-9-7390469924410955 Search in Google Scholar

Smith, I., 2005. Achieving readiness for organisational change. Library Management, 26(6/7), 408-412, DOI: 10.1108/0143512051062376410.1108/01435120510623764 Search in Google Scholar

Terrapon-Pfaff, J., Amroune, S., 2018. Implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions: Morocco country report. Dessau-Roßlau: Umwelt Bundesamt. Search in Google Scholar

Trianni, A., Cagno, E., Farné, S., 2016. Barriers, drivers and decision-making process for industrial energy efficiency: A broad study among manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises. Applied energy, 162, 1537-1551, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.02.07810.1016/j.apenergy.2015.02.078 Search in Google Scholar

Turner, A.N., 1982. Consulting is more than giving advice. Harvard business review, 60(5), 120-129. Search in Google Scholar

UNFCCC, 2016. Morocco – Nationally Determined Contribution to the UNFCCC. UNFCCC Publications. Search in Google Scholar

Weiner, B.J., 2009. A theory of organizational readiness for change. Implementation Science, 4(1), 1-9, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-4-6710.1186/1748-5908-4-67277002419840381 Search in Google Scholar

Weiner, B.J., Amick, H., Lee, S.Y.D., 2008. Review: Conceptualization and measurement of organizational readiness for change: A review of the literature in health services research and other fields. Medical care research and review, 65(4), 379-436, DOI: 10.1177/107755870831780210.1177/107755870831780218511812 Search in Google Scholar

Weiner, B.J., Clary, A.S., Klaman, S.L., Turner, K., Alishahi-Tabriz, A., 2020. Organizational Readiness for Change: What We Know, What We Think We Know, and What We Need to Know. Implementation Science, 3, 101-144, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-03874-810.1007/978-3-030-03874-8 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo