rss_2.0Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae 's Cover Acute Effects of Different Warm-Up Protocols on Some Performance Parameters in U11-16 Soccer Players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Purpose:</bold> The purpose of the study is to examine the acute effects of different warm-up protocols on some physical performance parameters in the Under 11-16 (U11-16) category soccer players.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> The participant group of the study consisted of seventy-two male soccer players who regularly train in the U11-16 category. Soccer players randomly and counterbalanced participated in the one of the warm-up protocols of FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, Dynamic warm-up, or Mixed warm-up on non-consecutive days. After participants performed one of the protocols, their flexibility, vertical jump, 30m sprint, and agility performances were measured. Repeated measures in the ANOVA test were used to determine intra-group differences (U11-U12-U13-U14-U15-U16) and Bonferroni test was used to decide which protocol caused a significant difference.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> In all underage categories, FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, and dynamic warm-up caused a significant difference in flexibility, vertical jump, 30 m sprint, and agility compared to Mixed warm-up (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0. 05).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> As a result of the study, it was shown that FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee, and dynamic warm-up protocols acutely caused a positive influence in flexibility, vertical jump, 30 m sprint, and agility in all underage categories. These three warm-up protocols may be used to prevent athletes from warm-up uniformity and monotony and support multidirectional development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Explosive Power of Lower Limbs of Acrobatic Rock and Roll Dancers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Acrobatic rock and roll is dynamic sport dance where explosive power is very important ability.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The aim of the thesis was to determine and compare the level of explosive power of the lower limbs of acrobatic rock and roll dancers. We assume that dancers from couple categories will reach a significantly higher level of explosive power of the lower limbs than dancers from ladies formations.</p> <p><bold>Methods.</bold> The research sample consisted of 22 acrobatic rock and roll female dancers. To determine the level of explosive power of the lower limbs, we used a 10 s test on a jump ergometer. We used the non-parametric statistical method Mann Whitney U-test for independent files.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>. The female dancers from couple categories achieved better results in all parameters than dancers from ladies formations. The first examined parameter was the power in the active phase of the take off where the dancers from couples achieved 46.08 ± 5.32<sup>−1</sup>, the dancers from ladies formations reached 38.13 ± 3.63<sup>−1</sup> (p ≤ 0.01, r = 0.64). The second examined parameter was the height of the jump, where dancers from couples achieved 28.91 ± 2.49 cm, dancers from ladies formations reached 25.92 ± 3.21 cm (p ≤ 0.05, r = 0.48). The last examined parameter was the rebound efficiency, where dancers from couples achieved 177.41 ± 25.62 cm.s<sup>−1</sup>, dancers from ladies formations reached 138.48 ± 15.96 cm.s<sup>−1</sup> (p ≤ 0.01, r = 0.65).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> In addition to differences in the explosive power of the lower limbs, the results also pointed to the importance of development in all categories. We recommend dancers to include plyometric exercises and repeated rope skipping jumps in the pre-competition and competition period, after completing strength training.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Self-Perceived Fatigue After Motor Abilities Testing in Adolescent Elite Tennis Players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The objective of the study was to determine self-perceived fatigue (S-PF) after motor abilities testing (MAT) in adolescent male and female elite tennis players. The research sample comprised of 17 male (mean age of 13.00 ± 1.54 years) and 20 female (mean age of 13.15 ± 1.42 years) adolescent elite tennis players who underwent testing of selected motor abilities in tennis. The level of fatigue in adolescent elite tennis players was measured with the Training Distress Scale (TDS). Both groups of elite tennis players declared the lowest, zero level of S-PF by TDS symptoms as inability to remember things and loose bowels or diarrhoea and significant S-PF during 48 hours after MAT was in both genders felt by lack of energy, feeling of heavy arms and legs, joint stiffness of soreness, and muscle soreness. Boys versus girls experienced significantly higher S-PF in the symptoms as difficulty falling asleep, being unusually tired during the day, joint stiffness of soreness, and ordinary tasks require extra effort. No significant differences were found in overall TDS between males and females adolescent elite tennis players.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Psychical Health and Social Relationships Among University Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>We have never faced such a global pandemic as COVID-19 in modern history. It´s important for us to find out how it can affect mental health and social relationships of students. This pandemic has brought us not only the risk of dying from a viral infection, but also brought the enormous psychological pressure on people. Purpose of this study was to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and social relationships of university students.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The research group consisted of 95 students of the Faculty of Sports of the University of Prešov in Prešov (men: n = 62, women: n = 33) with an average age of 22 +/- 6 years. As a method of data collection we used the standardized questionnaire of the World Health Organization - WHOQOL-BREF. Our modified WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire represents a selection of 9 items, six of them represent mental health: (1) Positive feeling (2) Self-esteem (3) Thinking, learning, memory and concentration (4) Bodily image and appearance, (5) Satisfy with you, (6) Negative feelings, and three represent social relationships (7) Personal relationships, (8) Sexual activity, (9) Social support. Due to the extraordinary pandemic situation an online survey was conducted to the students. Students had time to complete the questionnaire from 17.11.2021 to 19.11.2021.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Statistical significant difference between periods before and during COVID-19 pandemic was determined using the Wilcoxon paired t test. There were statistically significant differences in the psychological experience and social relationships of university students before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> We recommend monitoring the mental health of university students and raising awareness of various media platforms about psychological problems during a pandemic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Intraindividual Evaluation of Reaction Time At the Men’s World Athletics Championships 1999 - 2019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The aim of the article was the intraindividual evaluation of reaction time at the Men’s World Athletics Championships from 1999 to 2019. We generated the rating of sprinters from the age point of view with comparison of two periods with different false start rules. In the result section, we analysed the sprinters that took part at WCH at least 3 times and appeared in the final. We assessed the reaction speed from the aging point of view, or more different false start judging conditions. The results shows that the stricter start judging rules in sprint disciplines did not have a significant influence on the reaction time. We also confirmed a research that the sprinters over 30 years old sprinters can achieve very low reaction time at the start. Reaction abilities can be improved by regular and systematic training, so it is necessary to pay attention to them in the training process and focus on their monitoring and subsequent improvement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the Professional Competency Indicators of University Physical Trainer Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The main purpose of this study was to analyse the indicators of the professional Competency of University physical Trainer students, and to explore the importance of these professional indicators. By referring to the two international physical fitness education institutions and literature reviews, three important perspectives of professional Competences are: Professional knowledge, Professional skills, Professional attitude, Furthermore, the result of this research was concluded after three integration of opinions.</p> <p><bold>Method</bold> : Delphi technique was used to integrate the opinions of fifty-two experts and scholars, and the research results were obtained after three integrations. Among the 52 indicators at the three levels.</p> <p><bold>Result</bold>: experts agree that professional attitude is the most important. followed by professional skills, and then professional knowledge. the professional attitude level, “maintaining a positive and enthusiastic professional attitude” was the most important indicator. In the professional skills level, it was noted that “physical fitness training cycle plan design ability”, “physical fitness action correction ability”, “emergency intervention” Ability to adapt” and “ability to use and demonstrate sports equipment” are the most important indicators. In terms of professional knowledge, “customer sports curriculum design” is the most important.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: this research can provide references for the university in future development of physical trainer’s training program and establish regulations; fitness club hiring process; self-growth in the industry; future researches and studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00COVID-19, Public Health Strategies and Post Pandemic AAS/Androgen Use: A Commentary/Short Communication<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In this commentary/short communication we summarize many recent developments related to public health strategies for COVID-19. At this time, there are a wide range of emerging themes post various lockdown measures that have been reported, such as increased exercise, increased drug use, and various associated declines in mental health and other deleterious effects on eating behaviour patterns. Aligned to this, AAS/Androgen use has increased during and post-lockdowns and we posit, in the context of the aforementioned additional risks that have been reported, that future public health strategies need to demonstrate awareness of increased risk that they (AAS/Androgens) present at this time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Post-Pandemic Policy Priorities for Financing Sport and Physical Activity in the EU<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The most sport-relevant points in a resolution adopted by the European Parliament with regard to the use of post-Covid-19 relief funds from the general budget of the European Union (EU) are highlighted. Members of Parliament (MEPs) have indicated unambiguous preferences for part of the EU funding to be directed towards the need of youth and sport, the latter in particular at grassroots level, and the resolution represents a piece of soft law which should be drawn upon to interpret relevant legal acts such as the relevant financial instrument(s). The article goes on to discuss the implications in relation to traditional sport policies, as opposed to more participation-driven policies following the health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) paradigm.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00The Role of Recreational Sports Activities in Reducing Some Psychological Problems Caused by Covid-19 Pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This study is aimed at knowing the role of recreational sports activities in decreasing some psychological problems caused by the COVID-19 pandemic among adolescents, and done on a sample of 400 adolescents chosen from the final year of the Intermediate education stage (Hamam bouhjar Middle school - Ain Temouchent state, Sig middle school – Mascara state), the questionnaire was applied as a tool for the study and it consisted of three axes: the axis of aggressive behavior, isolation, and self-confidence, and each axis consists of a group of questions. We used Frequencies, Percentage, and Chi-square goodness of fit test to analyze and interpret the results. In the end, we concluded that recreational sports activities have a role in alleviating some psychological problems resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents, and this is based on the results that we have researched which states that recreational sports alleviate the aggressive behavior caused by the COVID-19 and its major role in reducing the weakness of self-confidence caused by COVID-19 among adolescents, as well as mitigating the weakness of self-confidence under the COVID-19 pandemic Finally, the researchers recommend the necessity of practicing recreational sports activities in spare time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:0012 Months of Balance Training Decreases Ankle-Joint Injury Frequency in Young Girl Basketball Players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Aim</bold>: Balance training can help reduce the frequency of ankle joint injuries in adults, but data on young girls is relatively scant.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold>: Out of 91 female basketball players (7-16 years), 40 players were assigned to an experimental balance training group, and 51 players were assigned to a control group. Both groups performed their typical basketball training but the experimental group performed additional balance-focused exercises during the warm-up of their basketball training sessions.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: A total of 47 girls (52 %) reported at least one ankle joint injury in their entire basketball history (52.5 % in the experimental, 50.9% in the control group). There was a positive correlation between the number of ankle joint injuries and age before the experiment (r = 0.34, p &lt; 0.001). During the 12-month study period, girls who participated in balance training suffered significantly fewer ankle joint injuries than the control group (χ<sup>2</sup> = 3.8423, df = 1, p-value &lt; 0.05). Increased risk for ankle joint injury in the future was confirmed according to logistic regression for girls with previous ankle joint injury in history (4.33 times) and girls who did not participate in the balance training program (3.97 times).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> A progressive, barefoot balance training program that is simple and short enough to be performed during normal warm-ups can reduce the likelihood of suffering an ankle joint injury in young girls basketball players, which may be useful for athletes in other sports as well.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Physiological Response of the Performance of Young Football Players During Small-Sided Games<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The main aim of the present study was to examine the cardiovascular response, time-motion characteristics, game performance and rated of perceived exertion (RPE) during small-sided games (SSGs) with different number of players. The research group consisted of elite youth male soccer players (n = 18) (aged 16.5 ±0.71 years, maximum heart rate (HR<sub>max</sub>) 196.42 ±5.31 beats.min<sup>−1</sup>) from the FC DAC 1904 Dunajská Streda U17 soccer club. Cardiovascular response measurements included heart rate (HR) expressed in minimum, mean and maximum values and time spent in different intensity zones. Total distance covered, high intensity running and the number of accelerations and decelerations were captured by GPS. Individual game performance and the number of technical-tactical actions were recorded during every SSGs. After the game time we collected the ratings of perceived exertion scores from each player. Results showed that SSG with small number of players (3 vs. 3) triggered the highest HR response with mean value 168.00 ±8.48 beats.min<sup>−1</sup>, players spent the most time in maximal intensity zone 0:09:06 minutes, of SSG duration. This format of SSG was the mostintense for the players´ cardiovascular system, but we can’t find statistically significant differences between the HR values in SSGs. External load was the most demanding in SSG1 too, like in internal load. The highest scores in individual game performance were recorded in SSG2. In RPE scores SSG1 was the most difficult from the players point of view. In conclusion, the present research demonstrates the effectiveness of SSG1 in training sessions. Therefore, the coaching staff has the possibility to choose between SSGs during training sessions according to their physical, technical, tactical and psychological objectives.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of using Weighted Balls on Performance Speed in Wheelchair Basketball Players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The researchers seek to identify the impact of weighted balls on performance speed in wheelchair basketball players. An experimental method has been used in conformity with research nature between pre-tests and post-tests sample. The sample was selected by the intended manner and divided into two equal groups (10 players experimental sample, 10 players control sample) for the 2019/2020 sports season. A speed test (5 m and 20 m without ball), speed test (5 m and 20 m with ball) were used. After statistical treatment of the results, the researchers concluded: The weighted balls are important to develop performance speed in wheelchair basketball players, and the best improvement of the experimental group based on of weighted balls is marked comparing to the control group. A regular physical training with weighted balls is very important to improve of performance speed of persons with disabilities in basketball game.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Return to Exercise After Covid-19: Which One is the Best Strategy?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Coronavirus (Covid-19), which began in China as of 2019 and spread to almost all over the world in a short time; has shown that we need to plan our life with new strategies as well as changing our current lifestyle today. While we must implement new ways to prevent against Covid-19 and maintaining our healthy lives, we must also design new strategies for returning to sports and physical activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to reveal the return strategies for professional and recreational athletes during the quarantine periods in light of evidences. In this regard, firstly we examined the existing literature regarding return strategies to sports. As a result, individual performance and personal hygiene conditions should be considered, and athletic performance should be preserved while keeping a physical distance from teammates and others. The use of masks in sports should be encouraged, but new techniques should be developed by investigating the effect on performance. Consequently, for healthy individuals, low to moderate intensity (not high-intensity) exercise may be beneficial and recommend. However, due to the risk of spreading (person-to-person or contaminated surfaces), exercise is recommended in special places with good ventilation and the use of personal types of equipment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Application of Sport and Physical Education in the Period of Pandemic Covid-19 From the Point of View of Teachers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The study aimed to identify the physical education and sports classes implementation in the light of the Corona pandemic, as seen by the teachers. To this end, the researchers used the descriptive approach based on the survey method. The sample included (60) teachers from high schools in the Wilaya of El Bayadh, chosen at random. The results of the study showed that the teachers experienced to a more than average degree, difficulties with the administrative organization, and moderate difficulties during the practice of the lesson of physical education and sports, and therefore the researchers recommended in this regard, the provision of national educational establishments with the material necessary for comprehensive prevention, as well as the need for mutual assistance between the administrative team and teachers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Selected Goal – Scoring Characteristics in the National Hockey League<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The variables impacting the efficiency of the offensive phase of the game in ice hockey may be determining factor for both the training process and game strategies. The research aimed to acquire and expand the knowledge about selected goal-scoring characteristics in the National Hockey League. A total of 511 even-strength goals were recorded in 129 randomly selected games in a regular-season 2020/2021 by indirect observation. Goals were differentiated by selected variable dimensions: location of the offensive team’s puck possession gain before scoring a goal, game situation preceding a goal, and the number of passes of the offensive team preceding a goal. Data were analyzed by performing a one–way ANOVA. Post hoc multiple comparisons were performed using the Tukey HSD test. The significance level of p ≤ 0.05 was used. Significant differences were found within all variable dimensions (p= 0.00001). In terms of the puck possession gain location, zone 1 (along the boards in the offensive zone) was the zone with the significantly highest mean score (p= 0.00305). Offensive zone play was significantly the game situation preceding most of the goals (p= 0.00000). The interval of the passes that preceded most of the recorded goals was the interval of 1 – 2 passes (p= 0.00000). Acquired results point out the dominance of particular variables and may help coaches to determine the content of the training process and game strategies. Based on the assumption of the realization of similar research in different environments in terms of the quality and age category, if the analogy would be found between the results of the present study and the results of potential studies, we can state the trends applicable to youth training.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Role of Fitness Program in a Health Improvement of Adolescents<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Since physical activities affect the quality of life and activate a complete locomotor system, sports and physical activities can be treated as a determinant for a harmonious development of all child’s characteristics and anthropological characteristics. Because, childhood and youth are the most important formative periods, and some segments of development, for example, specific motor skills can be developed only with means used in sports, this research was conducted to find out do the fitness program (aimed at improving strength) after eight weeks had a positive effect on body composition and mobility and stability of subjects. A control group consisted of 11 female subjects and experimental group were 11 female subjects aged 16 years. The effects of the program on the fitness condition of the subjects were determined by assessing the body composition parameters (data obtained using the Body composition analyser TANITA BC-418) - the total percentage of fat tissue (FAT), the percentage of fat tissue segmentally (percentage of fat tissue of the left leg (FATll), right leg (FATrl), left arm (FATla), right arm (FATra) and body (FATb)) and estimation of mobility and stability levels - based on the application of <italic>Functional movement screening</italic> (FMS) method (seven tests) before and after the program is implemented. The success of the implemented program was confirmed because the program showed a statistically significant difference between the mobility groups of the subjects in the experimental in relation to the control group (deep squat t=3,464 p=0,006, step over a hurdle t=2,390 p=0,038, active lift of a stretched leg t=2,887 p=0,016, rotatory body stability t=3,130 p=0,011 and FMS t=5,721 p=0,000), and a positive effect on the composition of the body in terms of reduction of the percentage of fatty body has been shown segmentally.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Intraindividual Evaluation of Reaction Time at the Women’s World Athletics Championships 1999 – 2019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The aim of the article was the intraindividual evaluation of reaction time at the Women’s World Athletics Championships from 1999 to 2019.We generated the rating of sprinters from the age point of view with comparison of two periods with different false start rules. In the result section, we analysed the sprinters that took part at World Championships (WCH) at least 3 times and appeared in the final. We assessed the reaction speed from the ageing point of view, or more precisely with the changing conditions when judging the false start. The results confirm that the stricter start judging rules in sprint disciplines did not have a significant influence on the reaction speed. We also confirmed a research that the sprinters older than 30 years can achieve very low reaction time at the start.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Gender Differences in Attitudes of Students Attending Non-Inclusive School Towards Inclusive Physical Education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The objective of the study was to determine and compare the attitudes of high school students of the non-inclusive school towards inclusive physical education according to gender. This study deepened the knowledge about the students’ attitudes toward the inclusion of students with physical and intellectual disabilities. The research sample comprised a total of 181 able-bodied high school students (56 boys and 125 girls) attending one non-inclusive high school in Bratislava, Slovakia. Modified Czech version of the CAIPE (Children’s Attitude toward Inclusive Physical Education) questionnaire was used as a primary research method. Girls presented higher levels of positive attitudes towards inclusive physical education (IPE) in goal achievement, motivation, and motor skills learning. Boys showed a higher level of positive attitudes in the self-confidence of students with disabilities through IPE. In the goal achievement, girls expressed a significantly higher positive attitude towards IPE in students with intellectual disabilities inclusion (U = 2817, p = 0.029, r = 0.168). The highest level of a positive attitude toward IPE declared both genders by society inclusion and the lowest level of positive attitude by motor skills acquisition. Slovak students of a non-inclusive high school showed a positive attitude toward IPE for the inclusion of pupils with physical as well as intellectual disabilities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Social Media Fitness Challenge – Risks and Benefits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Social media is part of the lives of young adults. Their influence extends to health behavior or nutrition. “Fitness challenges” often appear and they should affect the motivation to exercise, body composition changes, performance improvement. 67 healthy young adults (32 women, 20.3 years; 35 men, 20.8 years) took part in the “challenge”, where they completed 3 series of 12 – 15 push-ups every day for 30 days. After the intervention, both groups showed a statistically significant (α = 0.01) improvement, women 5.8 repetitions, men by 7 repetitions. The research was supplemented by a questionnaire, which showed a positive effect on increasing motivation for this activity. Furthermore, it has been shown that “fitness challenges” bring obvious health risks that need to be taken into account. It seems that with the optimal setting of the content of the exercise program, the “fitness challenge” can be a good instrument of increasing the physical acitivty, motivation to exercise, and positively influencing strength performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Relationship Between Reaction Time, Medal Winning and Performance in the 60 m Hurdle Indoor Event Before and After the Change of False Start Rule<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>60 m hurdles races are included in the World Indoor Athletics Championships and consist the shortest hurdle race distance. Thus, it is possible that the reaction time (RT) affects the finish time (t60mH) and the rank of the hurdlers. The aims of this research were: a) to examine the relationship between RT and t60mH, b) the possible differentiation of RT: c) between the hurdlers who won a medal in World Indoor Athletics Championships (WM) and those who did not (NMW), d) between hurdlers who competed before (BRC) and after (ARC) the change of the starting rules in 2009. Analysis included 70 performances (WM: <italic>n</italic> = 28; NMW: <italic>n</italic> = 42; BRC: <italic>n</italic> = 32; ARC, <italic>n</italic> = 38). The differences between WM and NMW and BRC and ARC were examined with independent samples T-test, while the possible relationship between RT and t60mH with Pearson’s correlation. The results showed that RT was not significantly different (<italic>p</italic> &lt; .05) between WM and NMW and between BRC and ARC. A weak, but significant, positive correlation (<italic>r</italic> = .228, <italic>p</italic> = .016) between RT and t60mH was observed. Results revealed that RT is a factor that affects t60mH. In conclusion, the essential focus on the reaction time at the starting blocks must be given during the training process.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1