rss_2.0Agricultural Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Agricultural Engineering Engineering 's Cover Parameters and Environmental Indicators of Diesel Engines Fed with Crop-Based Fuels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A comparative analysis of performance of Diesel engines fuelled by diesel oil, methyl ester of rapeseed oil and raw rapeseed oil was performed. The analysis of external characteristics of engines powered by various fuel types was accepted for an assessment. Engine performance rates were analysed while attention was paid to power courses, moment, unit fuel consumption and hour fuel consumption, exhaust fumes temperature and exhaust smoke. Operation effectiveness of engines was assessed when they were fed with various fuel types and optimal proportions of fuel mixtures were indicated. Environmental aspects of powering the engines with traditional fuels and crop-based fuels were analysed. The total CO<sub>2</sub> emission in the entire process of manufacturing and combustion of fuels was accepted as a criterion. A simplified economic analysis was performed in the aspect of the underlying purpose of using crop-based fuels for propulsion of piston engines. Conclusions and recommendations that indicate directions of development concerning the analysed issue were prepared.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Proposals of Universal Algorithms for the Automation of the Irrigation Process of Plant Crops<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the issues of water saving, declining freshwater resources in the world, and the problems of drought in the context of proper and effective irrigation of various types of crops. The use of microprocessor irrigation management systems has a significant impact on the quality of the yield and the rational use of water. An example of the irrigation system construction scheme is presented. The system uses strain gauge soil moisture sensors, which can be used to determine the relative water demand of plants, depending on the growing substrate. Additional system security in the form of rainfall and wind speed sensors provide the necessary information for the correct operation of the irrigation system. Then, two universal algorithms were proposed to automate the irrigation process of plant crops due to the way water is supplied to the plants. The first algorithm is designed for systems using drip lines - they are widely used in various types of crops where there is a need to precisely supply water to the plant, such systems are destined especially for crops grown undercover or for nursery crops. The second algorithm for sprinkler-based systems is mainly used in field crops and in mushroom farms. The presented algorithms can be used to design and implement intelligent irrigation systems, and after adding an additional module – for plant fertilization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Estimation of the Domestic Agricultural Sector Potential for the Growth of Energy Cultures for Bioenergy Fuel Production<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents discussion on the state and prospects of bioenergy development in the context of rationalization of energy crops application as resource potential of Ukraine. Along with the development of society and increase of life intensity, the needs of mankind with regard to energy resources are increasing. The reduction rates of traditional types of energy resources are progressively growing, and their shortage is increasing. In addition, Ukraine belongs to import-dependent countries in the energy sector. At the expense of its own sources, our country provides only about half of the energy needs, while domestic national economy is one of the most energy-intensive industries in the world. In this regard, there is an urgent need to search for new, alternative sources of energy. Taking into account the potential present in Ukraine, the biomass use for energy production is the most attractive option. However, along with this, there is a problem of purposeful use of the agricultural land and a competitive struggle between agricultural products for nutrition and energy purposes. At the same time, many problems arise, which concerdevelopment of an appropriate legislative framework, methodological approaches to the economic, environmental and social efficiency of production and use of biological types of energy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Energy Consumption by Electric Agricultural Tractor Model Under Operating Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the paper is analysis of consumption of electric energy which is necessary to drive a farm tractor with an electric motor as a drive unit under the conditions of a drive with varied loading of the power transmission system. The object of the research was a tractor model where a combustion engine was replaced with a dc electric motor. During the tests, a decrease of voltage and current strength collected from supplying batteries as a function of tractor drive time and in relation to the mass of a tractor with a trailer, temperature of the surrounding and resistance to motion were reported, which enabled determination of the collected power and energy. For the used set of batteries, also the maximum range of the tractor drive on the paved road was determined.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Concept of Biohydrogen Production by Agricultural Enterprises<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Biohydrogen production in agricultural enterprises is an urgent matter. It is appropriate to utilize two methods of biohydrogen production: a thermochemical method – from crop-based biomass and anaerobic digestion (fermentation) method – from animal-based biomass.. It is appropriate to use gasifiers for the thermochemical method and biore-actors for fermentation method.</p> <p>The theoretical potential of biohydrogen was established with due regard to the amount of biomass which is necessary for utilization in livestock agriculture, for fields fertilization as well as with the consideration of the coefficients of concordance with hydrogen equivalent and loss factor under biohydrogen production. The theoretical potential of biohydrogen from crop-based biomass in Ukraine amounts to 77 billion m<sup>3</sup>, during the period of three years (on average 25.6 billion m<sup>3</sup> per year).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Hydrogen Production Analysis: Prospects for Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Over the last few years, hydrogen energy has shifted from a little-studied field to the main one with which leading western countries associate the prospects of their national economies. The reasons are the unprecedented pace of development of hydrogen technologies. It turned out that they are able to provide significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and thus bring closer the solution to the problem of global climate change. The first and foremost purpose of our investigation is to reveal that our country has ample opportunities to become the main supplier of hydrogen to the EU market, overtaking North Africa in the competition. Using the methods, authors studied the targets of the European funds towards development of energy production from biohydrogen, studied the potential for the implementation of hydrogen projects, possibilities of financing them and a potential ability of Ukraine to form internal and external markets for hydrogen energy. One of the main issues of Ukraine's possible participation in Europe's hydrogen energy program as a supplier and producer of renewable hydrogen is the possibility of its technically safe and cost-effective transportation to EU countries. As a conclusion to the authors’ research, the path of the hydrogen industry development in Ukraine will help to receive additional investments in the Ukrainian economy for creation of new capacities for "green" hydrogen production. In return, Europe will receive research and evolution of the bioenergy component of the economy, which will permit the safe transition of Europeans to an affordable, competitive, and stable energy system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Thermal Insulation of the Gastronomic Refrigeration Furniture Prototype<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An innovative method of insulation by injection to a cooling tank was investigated with consideration of a sustainable development need during production of thermo-insulation materials. An insulation material consisted of polyurethane foam. The manufacturer has chosen HFO gases for filling in the pores, since this is a product with a low environmental impact. HFO gases have a zero potential for destruction of the ozone layer and an extremely low global warming potential. Cooling tanks insulated with modern technologies of injection of polyurethane foam were investigated with regard to heat permission. They were also tested on account of occurrence of heat leakage bridges. The investigation covered also cooling furniture insulated with a conventional method of gluing ready-made polyurethane boards. The tests showed that a modern insulation technology influences reduction of the heat permission coefficient towards the presently applied technology. The investigated insulation of cooling furniture did not prove any heat leakage bridges. Therefore, it may be concluded that the technological process is correct. Cooling tanks manufactured in the present insulation technology did not show the occurrence of heat leakage bridges.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the Pine Forests Condition Using Forest Factors, Physiological Characteristics and Remote Detection Data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper evaluates the pathological condition of Belarusian forests with the use of monitoring of traditional forest factors and remote sensing data. The aim of the research was to assess the condition of pine forests to monitor forest degradation based on biochemical analyzes of needle samples and aviation monitoring with the use of monitoring data and remote detection. The remote shooting was carried out quasi-synchronously with the ground sampling of needles using an unmanned aircraft complex of an aircraft type. Based on the results of biochemical analyzes of needle samples, biochemical indicators that characterize the stability and physiological state of pine were determined: the level of peroxidation of membrane lipids; the release of water-soluble substances from plant tissues, which reflect the integrity of the cell walls; the content of photosynthetic pigments in the needles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Economic Efficiency and Internal Competitive Advantages of Grain Production in the Central Region of Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper discusses competitiveness of the agro-industrial sector, which is a multifaceted concept that characterizes its ability to compete in both domestic and foreign markets. Ukraine has significant opportunities to develop the agricultural sector and turn it into a highly efficient branch of economy. Favorable soil and climate conditions, and fertile land contribute to its further development, obtaining agricultural crops in volumes sufficient to meet domestic needs and build export potential. The production process of agricultural goods takes longer than in industry. Therefore, at the stage of determination of the production program of an agricultural enterprise, it is very difficult to respond on time to changes in consumer demand and increase the product competitiveness within the already established production schemes in the markets. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness of growing the studied crops in a typical farm in Central Ukraine and offer a roadmap for making management decisions when planning a production program. For this purpose, a method based on calculations of the gross margin, total expenses, production thresholds, profitability, and payback of production factors was chosen.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Possibilities of Using Waste after Pressing Oil from Oilseeds for Energy Purposes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Currently, many countries are establishing goals for substituting fossil fuels with biomass. This global trade in solid biofuels, which is to some extent already taking place, will have a major impact not only on other commodity markets like vegetable oils or animal fodder but also on the global land use change and on environmental impacts. It demonstrates the strong but complex link between biofuels production and the global food market, it unveils policy measures as the main drivers for production and use of biofuels and it analyzes various sustainability indicators and certification schemes for biofuels with respect to minimizing the adverse effects of biofuels. Biomass is seen as a very promising option for fulfilling the environmental goals defined by the European Commission as well as various national governments. We have measured selected physicochemical properties of several the most common oilseeds and the residue materials in the form of cakes, moisture, fat, heat of combustion, the calorific value and ash content. The results showed that the considered plants and waste derived therefrom can be a good energy source. Examples include sunflower oilcake, sesame, pumpkin and rapeseed cake, for which the calorific value amounted to respectively: 28.17; 27.77; 26.42 and 21.69 MJ·kg<sup>−1</sup>.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Coffee Grounds Addition on the Calorific Value of the Selected Biological Materials<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The objective of the paper was, inter alia, to determine the impact of coffee grounds on the heat of combustion of their combination with other biological materials. Research on the heat of combustion and calculations of the calorific value were carried out with the use of a KL-12 Mn calorimeter according to the technical specifications and standards PN-81/G–04513 i PN-ISO 1928:2002. Coffee grounds, tea grounds, pine wood and yellow wheat straw were used in the research. The heat of combustion of particular substrates was determined and then their mixtures with coffee grounds in the following proportion were prepared: 75% substrate – 25% coffee grounds, 50% substrate – 50% coffee grounds, 25% substrate – 75% coffee grounds. Calorific value of particular substrates was increasing with the amount of added coffee grounds. Their biggest flow was reported in the mixture of 50%/50% of coffee grounds and wheat straw and the smallest in case of coffee grounds and wood on account of a similar calorific value of both substrates.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste based on Moving Grate Technology<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The objective of the paper was to analyse possibilities and advantages of energy recovery from municipal solid waste during the thermal treatment in boilers with a moving grate system. The state of the art of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) boilers was investigated mainly by reviewing papers published in scientific journals and at conferences but also by taking into consideration reports from research institutes. The article shows the main aspects that determine the popularity of this type of boilers as well as new solutions which greatly improve the process of thermal treatment of waste. It proves that waste incineration boilers based on the moving grate technology prevail mainly because of its simplicity, reliability and effective energy generation to which special attention was paid. Additionally, the article mentions how WtE boilers are designed and operated to incinerate municipal waste with a great variation in composition with simultaneous notable energy recovery and low environmental impacts. Contemporary development of the Polish WtE infrastructure can be a very important factor influencing the national municipal waste management together with renewable energy and energy efficiency policies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of Utilization Possibilities of Heat Conducted by Waste Gases Exhaust Pipe of SB 1.5 Drum Drier for Drying Wood Chips<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Based on the exploitation research, the authors evaluated the possibilities of using the heat conducted through the side surface of the waste gases exhaust pipe of SB 1.5 drum drier for drying wood chips. According to the estimated calculations within one hour approximately 173 thousand of kJ of heat may be obtained from the external surface of the waste gases exhaust pipe with the height of 7 m and temperature of approximately 78°C which constitutes an equivalent of approximately 4 kilo of heating oil. In case the above mentioned heat source for drying wood chips in SPA 20 silo with a volume of 6800 kilo within 50% to 20% humidity is used, one may expect that the drying time will be approximately 100 hours.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Application of Precision Agriculture Technology in Podlaskie Voivodeship<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The objective of the paper was to evaluate the precision agriculture technology on the territory of Podlaskie Voivodeship. Research material consisted of data from the survey carried out in 100 randomly selected farms located in Podlaskie Voivodeship. The concept of “precision agriculture” is known among the surveyed farmers. Based on the research which was carried out, a relation between the surface area of the farm, education and age of respondents was reported. Precision agriculture technology is more popular among farmers who are less than 40 years old, who have higher education and big agricultural farms. Majority of farmers participating in the survey carries out regular research on the soil richness. Moreover, 46% uses in their farms modern technologies for plant production, only 10% uses the system of positioning and 8% of the investigated farms uses the system for guiding agricultural machines, 14% of the investigated farmers uses the system for parallel guiding of a tractor, less than 40% applies the system of variable dosing of fertilizers and plant protection substances. Majority of the investigated farmers claims that new technologies are necessary and they should be applied; however, they indicate too high costs and distribution of farms as the main reason for limitations.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Usefulness of the Designed Laboratory Photobioreactor for Microalgae Cultivation in Controlled Conditions<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The objective of the paper was to analyse the use of the designed photobioreactor for freshwater microalgae cultivation in the controlled laboratory conditions. The work covered the design and construction of photobioreactors (PBR) and setting up comparative cultivations of freshwater microalgae <italic>chlorelli vulgaris</italic> along with determination of the biomass growth intensity for a varied amount of supplied culture medium. It was found out that the constructed PBR may be used for microalgae cultivation in the controlled conditions. The impact of the culture medium amount on the growth of <italic>chlorelli vulgaris</italic> was proved. As a result of the increase of culture medium concentration to 30.1-120.4 ml·l<sup>−1</sup> of water, dry mass in photobioreactorsincreased respectively from 1.33 g·dm<sup>−3</sup> to 4.68 g·dm<sup>−3</sup>.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Geometrical Features of Seeds of New Pumpkin Forms<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Plant growers are looking for new crops which would make farms and processing plants more profitable. Currently, in Poland, waste-free pumpkin processing is mainly associated with pumpkin seed production, oil extraction, pulverization of pumpkin oil cake to obtain pumpkin meal, the small-scale use of flesh in food production, but mainly the utilisation of flesh as a feed additive. During technological processes applied for the processing of pumpkin seeds it is important to be familiar with their physical characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyse the geometric characteristics of the seeds of new nine forms of the pumpkin variety Olga, which were bred by researchers from the Department of Plant Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Geometrical features were measured using the Digital Image Analysis (DIA) set, consisting of a digital camera (Nikon DXM 1200), computer and lighting (KAISER RB HF). The following geometrical features were measured: length, width, diameter, perimeter, area, circularity and elongation. Additionally, thickness of the seeds was measured by a calliper. Seeds of the studied forms of hull-less pumpkins differed from the standards in the dimensions and shape, whereas significant differences were demonstrated for the Olga variety standard. The most variable geometric characteristic of the seeds under study was area, while the least variable geometric characteristics of the pumpkin seeds turned out to be the circularity and width.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The Impact of Infrasounds Generated by Wind Power Stations on a Human Being<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In some opinion-forming environments the problem of noise emitted by wind power stations is very controversial. It is even suggested that they negatively affect the quality and length of human life. Based on the review of domestic and foreign publications an analysis of the impact of the low-frequency noise on a human being was carried out. Wind power stations operating in groups (farms) constituted the source of noise. It was proved that the level of acoustic pressure with G weighting does not exceed the value of 85 dB. The value of the admissible burdensome noise (102 dB) was exceeded in the bus cabins which were driving with the speed exceeding 30 km·h<sup>−1</sup>. The opinion of the Ministry of Health confirms the findings. It proves that the present knowledge does not allow a clear indication of the relation between the wind farms and their negative impact on the human health.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Determination of Optimal Geometric Parameters of the Windshield Device Limiting the Spray Drift by Wind in Herbicides Spraying<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The objective of the paper is to determine the optimal geometric parameters of the windshield device limiting the spray drift by wind in herbicides spraying. Tests were carried out with the use of the planning methods of experiments and statistical methods of processing of the obtained results. The result of the research consisted in obtaining structural parameters of the windshield made in the shape of gratings with rectangular boards. It was found out that this device may be used at the wind speed exceeding agrotechnological sizes. The research results will be used in the work on devices protecting against wind at a precise herbicides spraying.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Clients' Preferences and Development of Organic Food Distribution Channels<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The objective of the paper was to know preferences of consumers from Małopolskie Voivodeship as a fundamental factor of growth and functioning of distribution channels of organic products. A fast development of the organic products market as well as growing requirements of the society with regard to the quality of sale and form are observed. More and more often consumers pay attention to the source of goods and the form in which the product is offered to them. Research and analyses are a precious source of information for agricultural producers on account of production orientation and the form of sale. It will also facilitate development of existing distribution channels and formation of new ones. Research results indicate that consumers are interested in the purchase of products in small packaging or loose. Sums which they spend on organic food do not exceed PLN 400 per a month.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Osmotic Dehydration on Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Pumpkin Dried with Microwave Method in Reduced Pressure Conditions<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The objective of the research was to indicate the impact of sirup type used for osmotic dehydration and the microwaves power for microwave and vacuum drying on the selected mechanical and rheological properties of dried pumpkin. Pumpkin cultivar Rugosa was osmotically dehydrated in three concentrates: apple, aronia and cherry. Initially prepared material was dried with microwave method in the reduced pressure conditions which was within 6-4 kPa at the microwave power which was 240 and 480 W. Dried material was subjected to compression tests and stresses relaxation tests. Compression work values (Pś), cutting work (Pp) and indicators describing material elasticity (a and b) were computed. An initial treatment in the form of osmotic dehydration carried out before microwave drying in the reduced pressure conditions allows obtaining dried pumpkin with a raised resistance to compression and cutting and the decreased elasticity in comparison to dried material obtained from a pumpkin which was not subjected to the initial treatment. Microwaves power influences the values of compression and cutting of dried pumpkin.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1