rss_2.0Artes. Journal of Musicology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Artes. Journal of Musicology Journal of Musicology 's Cover manuscript inventory number 27 Anthology – An Account of the activity of the copyist Chiril Monahul from Bisericani Monastery (Neamt County)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is a fraction of an ampler project aimed at classifying and studying the entire collection of musical manuscripts from the “Dumitru Stăniloae” Ecumenical Library of the Metropolitan Church of Moldavia and Bukovina of Iasi. This documentary collection consists of a number of 32 musical manuscripts, in Chrysantine notation mainly originating from the 19<sup>th</sup> century. Manuscript 27 was created in 1846 by Cyril the Monk from the Bisericani Monastery (Neamt county) – he was a psalter, composer and copyist of great talent. He wrote other two manuscripts, ms. inventory numbers 23 and 31/49, which are in the “Dumitru Stăniloae” Ecumenical Library of the Metropolitan Church of Moldavia and Bukovina of Iasi. His own creation (with the mention “by the writer”) in Ms. 27 contains the first psalm, <italic>Blessed is the man</italic> in the plagal of the 4<sup>th</sup> mode, the troparia <italic>God is with us</italic> in the plagal of the 4th mode, the polyeleos <italic>Good word</italic> in the 4<sup>th</sup> mode legetos, the doxastikon of the Easter, <italic>The day of Ressurection</italic>, the plagal of the 1<sup>st</sup> mode and two heirmoi of the Holy Week. These are chants that are remarkable through their fluidity and expressiveness, as they retain the specific psaltic melodic formulas and reveal a balanced analytical musical writing. The liturgical music in Manuscript 27 consists of various chants, from those performed during the Vespers to the Matin and the Liturgy. Following analysis of the manuscript’s repertoire, I discovered that the main source of Ms. 27 is the first three volumes of the Anthology by Nektarios Frimu, published in Neamț (3<sup>rd</sup> volume, 1840) and Iași (1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> volume, 1846). Cyril the Monk, the copyist of Ms. 27, selected works from these sources, and introduced along the self-authored chants mentioned earlier, chants by other lesser-known authors, such as Nechifor (<italic>The Blessings of the Ressurection</italic>, the plagal of 1st mode in Greek) and Calinic (troparia from the chant <italic>Lord is with us</italic>, the plagal of the 4th mode in Romanian and the polyeleos <italic>The Lord’s servants</italic>, the plagal of the 2nd mode, in Greek). Besides, among the chants in Romanian, the manuscript records chants in Greek (by established Greek authors), which are proof of the continuous practice of the Greek chanting in Moldavia, long with that in Romanian, in the period before the Reforms (1863-1864) introduced by Alexandru Ioan Cuza, the ruler of the Romanian Principalities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Impressions after reading a fascinating book: [Bayreuth – City of Festivals. Romanian presences]<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Published in 2019 by <italic>Ecou Transilvan</italic> Publishing House, the volume <italic><bold>Bayreuth – Oraș al Festivalurilor. Prezențe românești [Bayreuth – City of Festivals. Romanian Presences]</bold></italic>, signed by the musicologist Gheorghe Mușat has an immeasurable documentary value. From the challenge launched by the title, which is accentuated with the discovery of the differentiated perspectives for approaching the complex issue – <italic><bold>Bayreuther-Festspiele</bold></italic> and <italic><bold>Internationales Jugend Festspieltreffen</bold></italic> – to the precious details regarding the sessions, courses, seminars, concerts, conferences of artists from East and West, who had the extraordinary chance to collaborate in the last decades of the last century. In essence, the book focuses on the generation of musicians confident in the nobility of ideals to perfect themselves in the performing arts, to sing unique pieces from various stylistic repertoires and, especially, to listen, to learn from each other, to communicate at a high level about the multiple manifestation hypostases of the sound phenomenon.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Interdisciplinary aspects in organizing the Music Education lessons<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The 21<sup>st</sup> century brings many changes in the education system regarding the teaching-learning-assessment process. Moving the importance from knowledge to the skills gained by the student requires the rethinking of the didactic strategies, and interdisciplinarity wins more and more in front of the monodisciplinary activities. On the other hand, the presence of technology in the traditional space dedicated to learning has led to the creation of new contexts in which the students can acquire new knowledge, develop skills trained in different subjects. The special circumstances in which school has been in 2020 put the importance of technology on a high level in the teaching-learning-assessment process. Online education has brought new challenges, which have added personal concerns for interactive and interdisciplinary activities. Therefore, our paper presents several ways of approaching interdisciplinarity in Music Education lessons, providing solutions validated by the results obtained in activities with students.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Aspects related to the interconnection between music and the human brain. Scientific discoveries and contemporary challenges<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A new scientific discipline, neuromusicology, connects the scientific research of music and that of the nervous system, in particular of the brain. It studies the effects of music on the brain; the present paper relates to this particular field. Initially, the right hemisphere was associated with the process of music reception and it was considered that the activation of the left hemisphere was the responsibility of language. Neuroimaging, however, demonstrates that the elements of musical language activate various brain areas in both hemispheres, simultaneously generating the perception of music and emotions. Research in the field of psychoacoustics has revealed that listening to music triggers the production of neurotransmitters in the body that relieve pain, reduce stress and anxiety. Another effect determined by listening and studying music is the structural changes that occur at brain level due to brain neuroplasticity. Pathological changes at brain level have consequences in perception and influence all human activities. Disease alters the artistic creativity of people suffering from various pathologies, biographies of many artists proving that neurological diseases influenced their artistic activity. Decoding the functioning of the brain in the presence of music and its effects on brain activity make it possible to use music therapy as a complementary method to medical treatment. The harmful effects of the current Covid-19 pandemic on the brain are obvious and are already reported in completed or ongoing research studies. The adoption of music as a therapeutic tool in the current global epidemiological crisis highlights its undeniable qualities in multiple pathologies and updates its mental and somatic benefits, complementary to medicine. All this provides an important drive in the reassessment and reconfiguration of the need to amplify the interference strategies between the field of music and that of medicine, implicitly that of neurology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Tradition and Characteristics in the Approach to Psaltic Music Theory in Romania – the 20 Century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Throughout the 20<sup>th</sup> century, Byzantine music theory was a constant preoccupation of chanters, teachers and musicians, who contributed to the development of this field and to the publication of a significant number of books in the Romanian language. The paper addresses these theoretical contributions based on several key elements: conception, structure, content, vocabulary, musical exercises and examples, extension, graphic aspect, relevance in the era –, but also in the context of the development of a specialized literature in Romanian. The analysis of these books reveals that everything that was published in Romania in the 20<sup>th</sup> century in the field of psaltic theory remains within the confines of the Byzantine tradition, faithfully passed down to the modern era. At the same time, the changes that the Romanian society went through in the second half of the century influenced the manner of approach to the theoretical notions, which were treated in the light of staff notation and Western music theory. However, over the course of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, successive authors managed to develop a specialized terminology in Romanian and to transmit the notional content specific to the Byzantine tradition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Emotional and spiritual intelligence, aesthetical and semantic implications<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Musical art is built on its semantics, in the absence of semantics – which is the main reason why a composer writes music, why a singer interprets it, but also the most important reason for the music listener as the receiver – music loses its meaning. Musical compositions can be problematic for interpreters and listeners at various levels of human sensitivity, intelligence and semantic ability, which are all fundamentally connected to conveying and receiving a message transmitted through music. These creations have emotional (psychological) implications, but also more profound ones, spiritual (religious), of which we are more aware and which are emphasized if we take into consideration the concepts of EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE and SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00 or the Contemporary Realism in the Pedagogy of the Future Opera Singer<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Romanian opera and operetta repertoire is a constant objective in the Opera Class of the Faculty of Performing, Composition, and Musical Theoretical Studies in “George Enescu” National University of Arts from Iași. The stylistic diversity and the richness of the drama make not only an important instrument for the study out of it, but also a moral debt for the knowledge and transmission of a music whose beauty – once (re)discovered – is a source of enchantment for the artists, as well as for the public. If in the beginning of the professional route singing in the mother tongue facilitates the work and the study of the opera singer, over time this option may enter an ethic of the performer, happily completing his repertoire. Although one of our main goals is to guide the students, future opera singers, to gain and to develop their acting skills so as to be natural and convincing on stage, contemporary realism does not exclude experiments. Having this in mind and in order to make studentsʼ work visible, we made an experimental video document, based on a first selection from our recitals, which is aimed to let the audience take a glance into the intimacy of our class study on Romanian opera and operetta, both from the musical and drama perspective. By changing the original objective – the entire presentation in semester exams of studentsʼ classroom work – the fragmentary nature of the processing gives a certain dynamism to our work. Changing the purpose brings things to a new light, the artistic overbearing the pedagogical, and last but not least, the Romanian music proving that it supports an experimental treatment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00 [New histories of Romanian types of music] – The most important editorial publication in the Romanian musicology of recent years<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The vast work <italic>Noi istorii ale muzicilor românești</italic> [New histories of Romanian types of music]<sup>1</sup> (816 pages), published by Editura Muzicală in 2020 was a project of the Romanian Composers and Musicologists’ Union, represented by composer and university professor Adrian Iorgulescu, a project meant to mark the celebration of a century of activity of the organisation. The two volumes of the <italic>New histories</italic>, coordinated by Valentina Sandu-Dediu and Nicolae Gheorghiță, reflect the fulfilment of a long research project, begun in the 1990s, with a view to reassessing the musical past of Romania, expressing ideas verified in time through repeated analyses. The coordinators’ vision is edified through the following directions: 1. the joining of all musical genres – Byzantine, folkloric, military, academic, jazz, entertainment – and creating a modern perspective on the types of Romanian music; 2. using the tools of modern musicology – interdisciplinary relating, archival and recent bibliography, an objective, critical, accessible style, efficient and orderly elaboration; 3. removing all influences of the communist ideology reflected by the writings about music in the second half of the 20<sup>th</sup> century by assimilating the ideas formulated by historians after 1990; 4. capitalising on foreign authors’ writings about Romania and about Romanian music, but also on last-minute research on international music for the synchronisation with the contemporary manner of historical research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00“Style” or “yphos” in Psaltic Art?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The term style is used in the philosophy of culture, in aesthetics, art theory and art criticism, in literary languages, in the plastic and monumental arts, in the way of life and behavior of people to characterize cultures, eras, creative individuals or works, so as we learn from philosophy dictionaries. If in Greek there is this duality of the terms style and yphos, the Romanian language uses only the former, while yphos appears to be used with completely different meanings, over time. Unlike the meanings in Greek, in the current dictionaries of the Romanian language the word yphos has a more pejorative meaning, suffering over time semantic changes. However, it seems that the old meaning of the term yphos reveals much deeper and richer valences than the term style and helps us to understand in a better way the conditions of an authentic musical-spiritual interpretation, in the “right spirit”.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Syntaxes and metro-rhythmic categories in Viorel Munteanu’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>the piece by composer Viorel Munteanu reveals the symbiosis between past musical ages and modernity, between established compositional techniques (of the string orchestra) and contemporary sound emission processes (the solo flute). The syntaxes of past trends in music, polyphony and homophony, as well as modern treatments of rhythm, such as polyrhythm, coexist felicitously and result in a type of musical thought that, although anchored in the past, looks forward to the future. Rhythm can be considered from various metric perspectives, especially in the faster parts of the concerto. Rhythmic layers are present both vertically (polyrhythms) and horizontally (polyphons of rhythms); the cross of the two variants is of particular interest. The <italic>aksak</italic> rhythm, characteristic of the Balkan area, may come as a surprise as it briefly occurs in Part III; this unexpected element brings an inspired change of horizon, followed by a return to the previous <italic>giusto</italic> expression. The form of the last part, <italic>Rondo</italic>, can also be discussed from a modern perspective, rooted in the past; it could actually be placed within in the Rondo-Sonata pattern; however, its sound contour does not belong to the tonal sphere, but rather to a form of extended modalism. The soloist instrument merges with the string orchestra and emerges from it, in a discourse that clearly bears the mark of the composer’s creative personality. The most successful element of the work is its expressiveness, the way in which the compositional and technical means are subordinated to the aesthetic message that Viorel Munteanu intends to transmit to the public.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00History – Culture – Music in the Romanian Eighteenth Century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recently, I made a few forays in the history of the society, culture and music of the people in the Carpathian-Danubian space, without the intention and claim of unlocking doors thrown widely open before me by established researchers such as Lucian Boia, Theodor T. Burada, Gheorghe Ciobanu, Octavian Lazăr Cosma, Neagu Djuvara, Costin Moisil and many others. I did it especially in order to try to tear myself away from the old spread-eagle patterns, from prejudice. Thus, I ascertained that, in the flow of time, of events, of facts, the European eighteenth century constitutes a page about which I do not know enough yet; I felt at the same time that it represents a stage that can bring (to me) additional understanding of the following two hundred years (the 19<sup>th</sup> and 20<sup>th</sup> centuries). Therefore, I let myself be overcome by curiosity, beginning by undertaking a reconnaissance survey “over” the 18th century of European history. I continued by approaching the European socio-political and cultural configuration and dynamics of the same period. Finally, I tried to understand – keeping, at the same time, a comprehensive perspective – the Romanian socio-cultural and musical phenomenon of the 18<sup>th</sup> century, with the intention of integrating it with the logic of historical progress and with that of territorial connections.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Childhood as a musical theme – affectivity and instrumental expressiveness in the works of Schumann, Debussy and Enescu<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Childhood is a theme that music does not avoid, and through works such as <italic>Kinderszenen</italic> by Robert Schumann, <italic>Children’s Corner</italic> by Claude Debussy or <italic>Impressions d’enfance</italic> (<italic>Childhood Impressions</italic>) by George Enescu, is illustrated by various compositional means, determined by epochs or trends with which the creators identify, but also by their personal experiences and their expressive intentions. The affectivity of childhood is the key to decipher the musical message, pursuing the connection between the universe and the way in which the composers chose to lead the sound discourse through instruments, exploring so diversily the possibilities presented by them. The image, the symbol or the instrumental timbre, understood as processes of transmitting the expression, are the elements that the study seeks to define in correlation with the programmatism and the musical specificity of each previously mentioned work. This analytical incursion belongs to the contemporary performer, who, in order to understand and render this theme, uses not only the knowledge in the field, but also the extra-musical insight, belonging to literature or psychology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00German Musical Baroque, a mini European Union : the bassoon concerto<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The German musical Baroque represents a sum of stylistic diversities, in which the European cultural values were merged with the national ones, resulting in a strongly individualized, but malleable style. The works dedicated to the bassoon by German composers are living evidence of aesthetic unity in the Baroque stylistic diversity, emphasizing the universality of music and its cohesive force. The analyzed concertos approach the aesthetics of each composer, through his relationship with Italian and French music, personalized in an expressive form of the German type: robust, in a clear, dynamic solid structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00 – a fundamental concept in the works of the Romanian composer Tudor Chiriac<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Originally from the Republic of Moldova, the composer Tudor Chiriac built his entire work of art on several key concepts such as <italic>ancestrality, identity, “music from notes”</italic> (a concept that belongs to him), <italic>ethos, modernity, tradition</italic>, etc., which we find both in his music and in his reflections, musical principles and beliefs assumed over time. Tudor Chiriac achieved in his creation what he set out to do, regardless of the public’s preferences or other opinions, an aspect that emphasizes once again his compositional “belief”, from which he did not abdicate. In this study we aim to highlight the technical and expressive means by which the author capitalises on the concept of <italic>ancestrality</italic> in the work <italic>Doinatoriu – Opus Sacrum Dacicum</italic>: from generating a new musical genre to exploring matrix symbols of Romanian culture. Connected to the universal ancestral inheritances, but especially to those belonging to the Romanian geographical space, the composer stands out by the originality of the musical construction, of the particular timbre associations, as well as through a unique ideational conception. Concerned especially with the meaning of the music he writes, the author explores sounds particularly “alive” and fresh in the context of Romanian musical culture, meant to complete his compositional vision, as well as to strengthen the perspective of the musical aesthetics he has adopted over time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00 Calls for Salvation – an Oratorio by Viorel Munteanu<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>After the glorious reception of <italic>Voices of Putna</italic> – a key contribution to the genre – Viorel Munteanu makes now a new “offering of sound and letter”, a “different” sort of eulogy for the Orthodox Byzantine monody, meaning to encourage us to embark on the difficult journey of salvation together with the endless train of “pilgrims to Saint Parascheva”. It is, thus, a daring compositional effort that will be spiritually experienced by both its creator and its public, from the first contact with the graceful resonance of the title to the last shimmer of sound at the end of the final scene. If one considers the Orthodox art and its spirit, Viorel Munteanu’s Oratorio for <italic>Saint Parascheva</italic> is more than a creative act; it is an <bold>act of faith</bold>, of hope and of love, “a prayer to”, and “joy in”, Jesus Christ; it is living tradition and self-giving truth, by which we partake to one of the most memorable unions of Christian experiences and symbols.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Verdian lyric theatre. Hermeneutics of the performance and contemporary challenges<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Engaging the viewer in a dialogue with the opera of Giuseppe Verdi is an approach that involves him spiritually, culturally, morally. You can enter this universe of opera music through several gates. The wide path of science will walk through the portal of stylistics, aesthetics, philosophy or art history. On another road comes the profane, motivated by the love for the beautiful. The opera <italic>Nabucco</italic> was the first step in the evolution of Italian lyrical theatre – from melodrama to realistic drama – characterised by the unity and strength of artistic conception, the energy and simplicity of musical language. Verdi’s dramatic sense and affinity for realism propelled him over time into the role of composer- playwright, his name being closely linked to titles such as: <italic>Ernani, Luisa Miller, Macbeth, Othello, Falstaff</italic>. However, we can note in recent decades the lack or low presence of important titles among Verdian operas in the repertoire of lyrical theatres. Can the contemporary public still receive this composer’s authentic message? Can current performers wear the clothes of truthful characters and meet the composer’s requirements for the vocal approach? The mission of hermeneutics – this interdisciplinary science – is to discover, as far as possible, the mechanisms of the interpretation of a social phenomenon (as the opera of Giuseppe Verdi has been repeatedly perceived), and its reminiscences in contemporary society.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00A Subjective Approach of the Performance of Edvard Grieg’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Starting from a stylistic analysis based on musical language elements, this study offers a personal standpoint with respect to the interpretation and performance of Edvard Grieg’s Piano Concerto in A minor, op. 16. The author accounts for all the technical and interpretive observations starting from a structural analysis of the opus. The reflections on various melodic, harmonic, rhythmic, dynamic or agogic characteristics come to reinforce the rationale for the subjective choices of how to perform this piece. The article is not by far an exhaustive study on the topic; it merely offers a personal viewpoint and understanding of this Concerto based on several musical excerpts that have been deemed particularly relevant by the author, who is a pianist as well as a piano teacher. Given that the literature on the stylistic and performative analysis of major piano repertoire is sadly scarce, the author wishes to provide pianists and researchers alike with a paper that may serve them in their artistic or academic enquiries. As this Concerto is very well-known and enthusiastically approached by most pianists due to its beautiful, impressive themes and brilliant virtuosic passages, the author has considered it opportune to present her own point of view as a performing pianist for other pianists who may be strictly interested in various versions to resolve technical-performative issues or, perhaps, who may wish to merely contemplate this opus from a different angle.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Discovering music cryptograms in the works of Viorel Munteanu through computer aided methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This analytical approach aims to demonstrate the connection between music and technology in the creation of composer Viorel Munteanu. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyse the music cryptograms in <italic>Symphony No. 1 “Glossa”</italic> using digital analysis tools. Viorel Munteanu is a modern composer characterised by avangardist tendencies, but with a desire to revive the past. In his creations, the composer uses folkloric themes and byzantine chant, while evoking important personalities of Romanian culture. In <italic>Symphony No. 1 “Glossa”</italic>, Munteanu uses the music cryptogram of poet Mihai Eminescu and composer George Enescu, these structures being used as thematic material and cyclic motifs. For graphical illustration of the music cryptograms we used the digital library <italic>LibRosa</italic> and for the identification process we use a musical software which identifies these structures in a MIDI score. Also, we would be analysing the cryptograms’ functions, rhetorics and aspects influencing the form and genre of the symphony.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Ion Baciu – a musician who needs to be rediscovered<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ion Baciu is remembered in the history of Romanian music as the organiser of a musical institution, orchestra trainer and a performer of great depth of George Enescu’s works. His exceptional achievements were the foundation and training of the new symphonic ensemble of the Iași Philharmonic, equal to the few high-performing collectives of the country, which had reached a level of European quality, the assertion of superior conceptual-aesthetic standards in deciphering the particular features of Enescu’s music. The encomiastic chronicles of the most important musical critics, the audio-video recordings, the evocations of those who knew him intimately remain precious, incontestable documents regarding the value of an artist who deserves to be brought back to public consciousness. The micro-study reproduced in what follows sketches a few defining trajectories of Ion Baciu’s personality on the basis of archival samples, from bibliographic testimonies, some of them unresearched until nowadays, to patrimony recordings, unfortunately ignored. In the year of the celebration of nine decades from his birth, of four decades from the historic version of the opera <italic>Oedipe</italic>, on the commemoration of 120 years from George Enescu’s birth, one should emphasise the merits of the Conservatoire professor, philharmonic manager and conductor who contributed essentially to the inscription of Iași among the important musical centres of the country.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Polystylism in the context of Postmodern Music. Alfred Schnittke’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the multiple orientations of the musical postmodernism is <italic>polystylism</italic> – a concept used and theorized by the Russian composer and musicologist Alfred Schnittke. He identified its specific techniques in previous academic tradition and organized its principles by writing many essays, papers and by applying these compositional methods in his own work. The approach of polystylism offers the opportunity to observe artistic phenomena in a synthetic perspective and to understand the compositional methods by which tradition is still revalued in some directions of the postmodern period. This paper deals with the problems encountered in the research on this subject, the lack of this term in the dictionaries, the political and cultural context when polystylism was introduced, the tendency to consider unorganized and unoriginal those works based on quotes, previous writing techniques and musical languages, traditional genres or structures and therefore, the perception of some musicians to underestimate Schnittke’s talent and mastery as a composer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1