rss_2.0Annals of Science and Technology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Annals of Science and Technology of Science and Technology 's Cover of Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Dimethoate on the Growth Response of Cowpea Plants and the Surrounding Soil<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Insecticides are used widely to control insect pests affecting cowpea and their residues are often deposited in the soil. This may impact the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil and the plant health. This study was designed to investigate the growth response of cowpea treated with lambda-cyhalothrin and dimethoate and the insecticides influence on the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil. Three cowpea seeds were planted per polyethylene bag containing top soil, and later thinned to two plants. The insecticides were assayed singly or combined. The insecticides were applied at the pre-flowering (30<sup>th</sup> day), flowering (50<sup>th</sup> day) and at podding (70<sup>th</sup> day) stages of cowpea growth. The physico-chemical parameters of treated soils were assayed. Treated soils with lambdacyhalothrin and dimethoate and the control were slightly acidic with pH varying from 5.78 to 6.55. Soil organic matter and soil nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and sodium had lowest values in untreated soil; they had highest values in soil treated with combined insecticides. Lambda-cyhalothrin and dimethoate treatments elicited diverse response from the cowpea plant. Generally, there were slight increase in the vegetative parameters, yield and pod dimensions of treated plants when compared with the control. These insecticides also increased the root nodules, root length and dry weight of cowpea at different concentrations. The combination of these insecticides had positive effect on cowpea without adverse influence on the yield and as well as the soil physicochemical properties.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Inhibition of Haemoglobin Glycosylation, Glucose Uptake and Antidiabetic Activities of Solvent Fractions from Seed<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder which result from either absolute or relative insulin deficiency and may lead to dysfunction in some organ systems. Pancreatic α- glucosidase and α- amylase inhibition are an effective strategy to decrease levels of postprandial hyperglycemia through starch control breakdown. The aim of the study is to assess the <italic>in vitro</italic> antidiabetic activities of fractions from <italic>Daucus carota</italic> seed extract, a plant used traditionally for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extract (AQE) of <italic>Daucus carota</italic> seed was partitioned in ethyl acetate (EAE), n – hexane (HEX) and diethyl ether (DEE) to obtain the various fractions. The AQE and EAE expressed significant α – amylase inhibitory activity with IC<sub>50</sub> values of 637.0±18.6 μg/mL and 603.0±25.8 μg/mL respectively. AQE, EAE, HEX and DEE expressed α – glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC<sub>50</sub> value of 135.85±1.21, 147.59±0.57, 132.64±1.17, and 143.56±0.49 μg/mL respective compared with acarbose (ACA) with 5.42±0.20 μg/mL. Furthermore, DEE fraction expressed inhibitory effects on % glucose uptake in yeast cell comparable with metronidazole. All <italic>Daucus carota</italic> fractions expressed various inhibitory effects on haemoglobin glycosylation at a concentration of 200 – 1000 μg/mL. The results show that fractions from the aqueous seed extract of <italic>Daucus carota</italic> possess <italic>in vitro</italic> antidiabetic potentials with EAE and HEX fractions having most promising inhibitory activities against α-amylase and α-glucosidase respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Geophysical Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability to Diesel Contamination at a Telecommunication Mast in Adebayo Area, Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An appraisal of the groundwater vulnerability to contamination risk at Adebayo in Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria, was carried out using the electrical resistivity method of geophysical prospecting. Two traverses of length 100 m each were established for both vertical electrical sounding (VES) and dipole-dipole. Six (6) Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and 2-D dipole-dipole profiling techniques of the electrical resistivity method were adopted for the geophysical investigation. The results show variations in resistivity values, depicting four to five geologic layers: the topsoil, laterite, weathered layer, fractured, and the fresh basement. It was observed from the correlation of the geoelectric section and 2-D resistivity image along traverse 1 (TR1) that the groundwater in the study area flows towards the southwestern part, and the fractured basement serves as a migration pathway to the diesel oil in the same direction as groundwater flow. The fractured basement (Well 2) with no lateritic cover has higher resistivity values compare to the fracture zone that was found directly under the mast which was overlain by the laterite. Comparing the resistivity values of Well 1 and 2, Well 2 that was drilled into the fractured basement has more traces of the contaminant than Well 1.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Interest Rate Modelling in the Presence of Discontinuities and its Sensitivities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Interest rate paths experience discontinuities in the presence of certain factors. Much of the work on interest rate modelling has no consideration for effects of such unexpected occurrences in real life. A good risk manager needs to have a better model that considers possibility of unexpected occurrences. In this paper, we discuss step by step extension of Vasicek model to both jump model and jumpdiffusion model using Itô’s formula as the major tool. We also derive the greeks ‘delta’ and ‘vega’ that measure sensitivity of the interest rate with respect to both changes in its initial interest rate and volatility in an interbank rate.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Immune Response and Bone Marker Enzyme Activities of Broiler Birds Fed Graded Level Taurine-Supplemented-Diets<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Taurine, a derived amino acid has been proven to play an important biological roles in enhancing bone strength and immune activities of broiler birds. This research investigated the effect of the different concentrations of graded level dietary taurine supplement on immune response of birds against Newcastle Disease Virus (NCDV) and Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), as well as on enzymatic markers of bone metabolism and effect on mineral composition. A total of 300 unsexed day-old arbor acre broiler birds were used for this research. The birds were randomly distributed using a completely randomized design into five dietary treatment of six replicates with 10 birds per replicate. Treatment one (T1) served as the control group with 0% taurine supplement. Treatments 2, 3, 4, and 5 contained dietary taurine supplements at 0.002, 0.004, 0.006, and 0.008%. Antibody titre against NCDV and IBDV were determined according to standard procedures. The study lasted 42 days. Birds on 0.002% taurine had the highest antibody titre (128.38) against NCDV, while birds on the 0.006% taurine-supplemented-diet also portrayed a distinct (p&lt;0.05) titre value (1029) against IBDV. Serum alkaline phosphatase and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (132.74 and 150.66) at the 42<sup>nd</sup> day were highest (p&lt;0.05) for birds on 0.004 and 0.002% dietary taurine supplement respectively. The activity of serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (44.94) was notably highest (p&lt;0.05) for birds on 0.008% taurine. Bone mineral contents showed that birds fed with 0.002% taurinesupplemented- diet had the highest percentage (p&lt;0.05) of phosphorous (9.50), calcium (32.18) and phosphate (21.77) composition. Conclusively, inclusion of taurine as dietary supplement has proven useful not only in enhancing the birds’ immunity against NCDV an IBDV, but also in boosting bone mineral composition of meat type poultry birds.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Epidemiological Surveillance of Influenza Virus Matrix Gene in Pigs, in Lagos, Nigeria, 2015-2016<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The co-infection of different influenza A virus enable viral gene re-assortments especially in pigs that serve as mixing vessel with the possibility of emergence of novel subtypes. Such re-assortants pose serious public health threat, as epitomised by the emergence of pandemic influenza in 2009. In Nigeria, there is mixture of animal species and highly populated densities that can increase the risk of influenza virus endemicity, genetic reshuffling and emergence of future pandemic influenza viruses. Thus, this study was aimed at determining influenza virus disease burden in pigs. This study was a cross sectional molecular surveillance of influenza virus. A total of 194 pig nasal samples from reported cases and randomly sampled were collected from pig farms in Ojo and Ikorodu in Lagos State between October, 2015 and April, 2016. The samples were investigated for the presence of influenza virus matrix gene by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction and detected by gel electrophoresis. P-values were calculated using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. The result showed that 25 (12.9%) samples were positive for influenza A virus, out of which, 20 (80%) were samples from Ojo while 5 (20%) were samples from Ikorodu. Epidemiological parameters for the sampled locations, methods either as reported case or randomised, and sex compared were significant at 95% confidence interval. This study determined influenza viral burden in pigs with a molecular prevalence of 12.9% to influenza A. It further confirmed the sub-clinical and clinical circulation of Influenza A virus in pigs in Ojo and Ikorodu in Lagos. Therefore, the detection of influenza A virus in commercial pigs in Nigeria accentuates the importance of continuous surveillance and monitoring of the virus in order to prevent the advent of virulent strains that may spread to Pig-handlers and the community at large.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Determinants of the Adoption of Quality Protein Maize among Farming Households in Niger State, Nigeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The study was conducted to examine the determinants of quality protein maize (QPM) adoption among farming households in Niger State, Nigeria. A twostage random sampling procedure was employed to obtain data from selected 120 maize farming households. Descriptive statistics, logistic and tobit regression models were used for the analysis. Results of the analysis show that the awareness and adoption level of QPM production in the study area were 95% and 87% respectively. Among the determinants of QPM adoption status, the coefficient of age (-0.12734) and primary occupation (-1.38295) of the respondents were negative and significant at 5% level of probability while the tenancy attribute’s coefficient (2.62533) was positively significant at 10%. The level of adoption of QPM was positively and significantly influenced by household size (0.00729) and years of schooling (0.01148) at 10% and 5% level of significant respectively. The study recommends intensification of information dissemination on the adoption of QPM in the study area.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Metalotolerance Capacity of Autochthonous Bacteria Isolated From Industrial Waste Effluent<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Microbes play significant roles in remediation of heavy metal polluted industrial effluent using the mechanisms of biosorption and bioaccumulation. In the present study, six heavy metal resistant autochthonous bacteria species namely <italic>Bacillus cereus</italic>, <italic>B. megaterium</italic>, <italic>B. subtilis</italic>, <italic>Flavobacterium aquatile, Pseudomonas flourescens and Pseudomonas putida</italic> were isolated from effluent samples collected from Paper-mill industry (PMI), Paints and Chemicals Industry (PCI), and Steel-rolling Industry (SRI). The isolates were studied for their heavy metal tolerant capacities at different aqueous salt concentrations. Elemental analysis of the industrial effluent samples collected indicated the presence of heavy metals such as Copper (Cu<sup>2+</sup>), Manganese (Mn<sup>2+</sup>), Iron (Fe<sup>2+</sup>) and Lead (Pb<sup>2+</sup>) at varying concentrations in μg/ml. Generally, there were variations in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the heavy metal salt to each of the bacteria understudy. The MIC value of each of the bacterial isolates to aqueous solution of Cu<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> showed that <italic>B. megaterium</italic>, <italic>B. subtilis, Pseudomonas flourescens</italic> and <italic>Pseudomonas putida</italic> had the same MIC value of 20 ± 1.5 μg/mL while <italic>Bacillus cereus</italic> and <italic>Flavobacterium aquatile</italic> had MIC values of 13 ± 1.3 μg/mL and 25 ± 2.1 μg/mL respectively. This variation was also noticeable in aqueous salts of Mn<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>, Fe<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> and Pb<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4.</sub>The bacteria isolates showed sensitivity to heavy metals with increasing zone of inhibition as concentration increased with each isolate showing varying degree of metalotolerance. The effectiveness of the autochthonous bacteria as a means to bio-augment the remediation of heavy metal polluted industrial effluent was further proven and recommended.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The Kinetics of the Oxidation of Lysine by μ-Peroxo-Bridged Binuclear Cobalt (III) Complex of Succinimide in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid Medium<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Kinetics of oxidation of Lysine (Lys) and mechanisms by μ-peroxo <italic>bis</italic>[<italic>bis</italic>(ethylenediamine)succinimidato-dicobalt(III)]dinitratedihydrate; [LCo(μ-O<sub>2</sub>)CoL](NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>.2H<sub>2</sub>O (L = suc(en)<sub>2</sub>), hereafter the complex, was investigated at 420 nm wavelength of maximum absorption of the complex under the conditions hydrogen ions concentration = 1.8 × 10<sup>−2</sup> mol dm<sup>−3</sup>, temperature = 24 ± 1 °C, [LCo(μ-O<sub>2</sub>)CoL<sup>2+</sup>] = 1.4 × 10<sup>−4</sup> mol dm<sup>−3</sup> and ionic strength = 0.5 mol dm<sup>−3</sup>. First order in [LCo(μ-O<sub>2</sub>)CoL<sub>2+</sub>] and [Lys] were obtained but inverse first order in [H<sup>+</sup>]. The proposed overall rate equation is as shown:<disp-formula><alternatives><graphic xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="graphic/j_ast-2018-0006_eq_001.png"/><mml:math xmlns:mml=""><mml:mrow><mml:mi>Rate</mml:mi><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mo>(</mml:mo><mml:mfrac><mml:mrow><mml:msub><mml:mi>k</mml:mi><mml:mn>1</mml:mn></mml:msub></mml:mrow><mml:mrow><mml:msub><mml:mi>k</mml:mi><mml:mn>2</mml:mn></mml:msub></mml:mrow></mml:mfrac><mml:mo>+</mml:mo><mml:mfrac><mml:mrow><mml:msub><mml:mi>K</mml:mi><mml:mn>1</mml:mn></mml:msub><mml:msub><mml:mi>k</mml:mi><mml:mn>3</mml:mn></mml:msub></mml:mrow><mml:mrow><mml:msub><mml:mi>k</mml:mi><mml:mn>4</mml:mn></mml:msub></mml:mrow></mml:mfrac><mml:mfrac><mml:mn>1</mml:mn><mml:mrow><mml:mo>[</mml:mo><mml:msup><mml:mi>H</mml:mi><mml:mo>+</mml:mo></mml:msup><mml:mo>]</mml:mo></mml:mrow></mml:mfrac><mml:mo>)</mml:mo><mml:mo>[</mml:mo><mml:mi>LCo</mml:mi><mml:mo>(</mml:mo><mml:mo>μ</mml:mo><mml:msub><mml:mi>O</mml:mi><mml:mn>2</mml:mn></mml:msub><mml:mo>)</mml:mo><mml:msup><mml:mi>CoL</mml:mi><mml:mrow><mml:mn>2</mml:mn><mml:mo>+</mml:mo></mml:mrow></mml:msup><mml:mo>]</mml:mo><mml:mo>[</mml:mo><mml:mi>Lys</mml:mi><mml:mo>]</mml:mo></mml:mrow></mml:math><tex-math>$$Rate = ({{k_1 } \over {k_2 }} + {{K_1 k_3 } \over {k_4 }}{1 \over {[H^ + ]}})[LCo(\mu O_2 )CoL^{2 + } ][Lys]$$</tex-math></alternatives></disp-formula></p><p>Rate of the reaction decreases when hydrogen ions concentration increase and exhibited converse effect with increase in concentration of ionic strength from 0.1 – 1.3 mol dm<sup>−3</sup>. Added cations and anions affected the reaction rate and the Michaelis-Menten plot passed through the origin indicating no absence of intermediate complex in the electron transfer processes. Putting all the results obtained together, the most probable reaction mechanism is in favour of outer-sphere and an appropriate rate law is established using steady state approximation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Carbonaceous Soot from Thermal Decomposition of Kerosene: A Pioneering Report for Paint Preservation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Bacterial resistance to conventional paint biocides is widely documented. However, an investigation regarding the preservative potential of carbonaceous soot as a viable alternative is novel. Fresh paint samples (SA, SB and SC) were collected in duplicates from a reputable paint manufacturing company in Lagos, Nigeria. SA was produced with conventional paint biocide, SB and SC were without biocide. All samples were inoculated with 0.032 × 10<sup>6</sup> cfu/mL of <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic> PA01 (NC 002516.2) previously isolated from spoilt paints and identified by the 16S rDNA analysis. SB was supplemented with crude soot (10 g/L of distilled water) at 200 mL v/v. The preservative efficiency of soot was investigated by monitoring the bacterial population (BP), optical density (OD<sub>600nm</sub>), viscosity (VIS), the transmittance (TR) and specific gravity (SG) of the samples bi-weekly for 14 weeks. BP increased drastically from 0.032-31.61 × 10<sup>6</sup> and from 0.032-112.93 × 10<sup>6</sup> in SA and SC respectively. In contrast, SB increased from 0.032-24.63 × 10<sup>6</sup> by week 4 but reduced from 24.63 – 10.95 × 10<sup>6</sup> by week 14. The OD of SA increased from 1.55 to 1.98 by week 8 and decreased to 1.74 by week 14. SB had a decrease from 1.60 to 1.49 by week 4 and increased to 1.63 by week 14, while SC increased from 1.59 to 2.54 by the 14th week.TR increased from 1.80 to 2.30 and 1.25 to 2.20 in SA and SC respectively. In contrast, TR decreased from 2.00 to 1.25 in SB. The viscosity and specific gravity values of all the samples decreased with time with the highest decrease observed in SC and the lowest in SB. The test crude soot showed preservative potential in paints.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Attitudinal Reactance: Another Response to Influence Attempts in Websites<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The use of behavioural change systems in providing interventions for people is common in this present era of information technology. Many people depend on these systems for many reasons like safe driving, healthy food consumption, energy conservation, etc. Some of these systems have been successful in making people change positively while a larger percentage have not been successful due to many issues that were not addressed during the development of such systems. One of them is psychological reactance, a motivational state that is aroused when a person’s freedom is threatened or eliminated. It has major focus restoring any freedom that has been threatened. This forms the motivation for this work and it starts with a brief study of the theory of psychological reactance with a new view of accessing it from perceived usability perspective. To study reactance in people, a survey was conducted. It focussed on accessing reactance through attitudes to forced compliance in a persuasive website in the context of meal-planning. Results from this study showed that participants with high freedom text had better attitude to the website in terms of anger and perceived usability than participants with low-freedom text. This work confirmed the social agency proposition that the presence of social cues in a multimedia message can stimulate the social interaction pattern in people’s learning. Once this social interaction pattern is initiated, there is a high possibility for pupils to act as if they are interacting with another individual. Therefore, to some degree, social convention of human-to-human interaction sets in as participants with high freedom message had a lower anger score than participants with high freedom plus social message.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Modifying Agents on the Dyeability of Cotton Fabric using Malachite Green Dye<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Changes in thermodynamic parameters as a result of modifying agents on dye uptake of cotton fabric using malachite green (MG) dye was investigated in this study. Five modifying agents {Acetic acid (CH<sub>3</sub>COOH), hydrated Sodium carbonate (Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>.10H<sub>2</sub>O), Sodium Chloride (NaCl), Ammonium sulphate ((NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>) and Hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>)} were used on cotton fabric. The equilibrium exhaustions (%E) were determined before and after modification of the cotton fabric at different concentrations which were 88.24%, 80%, 77.14%, 65.10% and 30.88% for CH<sub>3</sub>COOH, NaCl, (NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>, Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>.10H<sub>2</sub>O and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> respectively. The results also showed a correlation between the standard affinity(-Δμ<sup>θ</sup>) of dye on cotton fabric and the equilibrium exhaustion. The values of entropy (ΔS<sup>θ</sup>) and enthalpy (ΔH<sup>θ</sup>) change revealed the feasibility (spontaneity) and exothermic nature of the reaction. The optimum parameters were attained in acidic solution (CH<sub>3</sub>COOH) at the highest temperature (70 °C) of dyeing as it showed the highest % efficiency of 88.24%. This work established that modification of cotton fabric with modifying agents is one of the best route to improve the affinity between dye and fabric as it reduces stress, amount of dyes wasted in dyeing, time required to achieve satisfactory results leading to a cost effective environmental friendly approach in the field of cotton dyeing.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Genetic Diversity Among Strains of species (oyster mushroom) Using Morphometric Traits Under Varied Temperature and pH<p>Genetic diversity in nineteen strains of <italic>Pleurotus</italic> was studied using morphometric traits and growth factors. Ability of the isolates of these strains to tolerate different ranges of temperature and pH were evaluated. Highest mycelial growth rates were obtained at 25 °C (mutants and hybrids) and 30 °C (wild type), while LAU 90 (mutant) performed satisfactorily at all evaluated temperature ranges (15-35 °C). Highest mycelial yields (dry weight) were produced by LAU 90 at different pH regimes (4.0 - 9.0), while hybrids LN 97 and LN 98 maximally produced mycelial yield at pH 5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Analysis od Principal component (PC) revealed that components of these strains accounted for 86.1% of total variations among the strains with first PC recording 44.6%. The dendrogram discriminated nineteen <italic>Pleurotus</italic> genotypes into two major genetic groups with mutants and hybrid strains in Cluster A, separated distinctly from wild parents in Cluster B, indicating genetic diversity. The expression of heterosis can be maximized by information obtained among the hybrid strains and mutant (LAU90) strain. The hybrid (LN98) strain with superior performance may be selected for adoption in commercial mushroom production.</p>ARTICLE2018-08-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Fractions of Extract Modulate Calcium-induced Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Opening in Rat Liver<p>Mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) and impaired apoptotic pathways cause irreversible opening of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition (MPT) pore, resulting in several pathological conditions e.g. cancer, ageing and neurodegenerative diseases. Many bioactive compounds from plants have been identified as modulators of the MPT pore which makes them possible drugs for the management of MD associated diseases. <italic>Adenopus breviflorus</italic> (<italic>A.breviflorus</italic>) is a tropical medicinal plant used in folkore medicine as an abortifacient and in treating gonorrhoea. In this study, the effects of ethylacetate and methanol fractions of <italic>A.breviflorus</italic> were assessed on rat liver MPT pore and Mitochondrial ATPase (mATPase). The fruit of <italic>A.breviflorus</italic> was extracted with water to obtain the aqueous Extract (AEAB), which was fractionated using vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) to obtain ethylacetate and methanol fractions of <italic>A.breviflorus</italic> (EFAB, and MFAB). The extent of MPT pore opening and mATPase by EFAB and MFAB were assayed spectrophotometrically. The results obtained showed that EFAB and MFAB have no significant inductive effect on the MPT pore in the absence of Ca<sup>2+</sup>. However, in the presence of Ca<sup>2+</sup>, EFAB inhibited calcium-induced MPT pore opening in a non-concentration dependent manner. Maximum inhibition of MPT pore opening was 57.1% at 50 μg/ml. Interestingly, MFAB potentiated calcium ion effect by opening the pore further. Specifically, MFAB opened the MPT pore by 11, 10, 17 and 9% at 50, 150, 250 and 350 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, EFAB and MFAB inhibited mATPase activity in rat liver mitochondria at 62.5, 187.5, 312.5 and 437.5 μg/ml by 2.6, 18.8, 37.3, 52.6% and 41.8, 6.8, 24.3, 8.4%, respectively. The ethylacetate and methanol fractions of <italic>Adenopus breviflorus</italic> possess potential phytochemicals that can modulate opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and inhibit mitochondrial ATPase activity in rat liver. These fractions may find use in drug development against diseases where excessive apoptosis takes place.</p>ARTICLE2018-08-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Prevalence of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Febrile Malaria Patients using Serological and Molecular-based Evidence<p>Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic virus classified as category A priority pathogen. Rift Valley fever (RVF) has been poorly investigated in Nigeria with the infection among Nigerians last reported in 1996. Two hundred (200) febrile subjects with symptoms of malaria attending local hospitals in Ilorin, Nigeria were investigated for malaria, malaria positive subjects were investigated for the presence of RVF. Malaria screening was done using <italic>Carestart</italic><sup>TM</sup> malaria HRP2(pf), while RVF antibodies were tested for using anti-RVF IgM ELISA. Molecular identification of the viral genome was carried out using RNA extraction (QIAGEN) and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Of the 200 subjects tested for malaria infection, 93 (46.5%) were positive, while 20 (21.5%) of the 93 subjects were seropositive for RVF. RVF virus genome was found in 5 (25%) of the 20 positive subjects. The high prevalence of RVF among malaria positive subjects show that there is a risk of a RVF outbreak if its prevalence remains unchecked.</p>ARTICLE2018-08-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Haematological and Genotoxicity Evaluations of Phytochemical Compounds from n-Hexane Extract of Stem on Selected Organs in Mice<p>Phytochemical constituents of plants extracts have been well investigated as leads for drug discovery and development. However, aside their immense medicinal properties, their safety is also of paramount importance, therefore evaluating the toxicity of plants extracts and their phytochemicals is an important aspect of quality measures to meet the requirements for consumption.This study was done to identify the volatile phytochemical compounds present in n-hexane extract of <italic>Uvaria chamae</italic> stems (UCSH) with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and to evaluate the effects of this non-polar extract on DNA using diphenylamine (DPA) and agarose gel electrophoresis assays, also to investigate the haematological parameters using an auto Haematology Analyzer.The GC-MS analysis of UCSH identified some compounds which include; squalene, lupeol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and Benzyl benzoate with excellent medicinal properties. Genotoxicity assays results showed significant reductions in DNA fragmentation in liver and testis cells of mice as against the DNA biomarker and vehicle control group. Haematological results showed significant increase in white blood cells (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), platelets (PLT) and lymphocytes (LYMP) but significant reduction in mean corpuscular - volume (MCV), haemoglobin (MCH), and haemoglobin concentration (MCHC).The present study showed that the phytochemicals present in the n-Hexane extract of <italic>Uvaria chamae</italic> stems may play protective role in the genomic DNA of liver and testis tissues and also may induce hematological changes which may enhance the immune system.</p>ARTICLE2018-08-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Screening for Bioflocculant-Producing Bacteria from the Marine Environment of Sodwana Bay, South Africa<p>Flocculants are chemicals that mediate flocculation process, by aggregating colloids from suspension to form floc. Chemical flocculants are hazardous to the environment, which inform the search for safer and eco-friendly alternatives from microorganisms. Bacterial strains were isolated from water and sediment samples collected from Sodwana Bay, South Africa, and physiological properties of the bacterial strains were observed. Flocculation test using kaolin clay suspension was done on all isolates and the ones that showed flocculating activity were identified molecularly using 16 rRNA gene sequence analysis. Forty marine bacteria isolates were gotten from sediments and water samples collected from Sodwana Bay. Most of the isolates exhibited a range of colony pigmentation (pink, creamy, yellow, and white). After purification of individual isolates, they were screened for their potential to produce bioflocculant. The result revealed that isolates marked SOD3, SOD10, SOD12, SOD26, SOD27, SOD28, SOD32, SOD33 and SOD34 produced bioflocculants as shown by the flocculating activities from their crude extract. All these isolates showed good flocculation of kaolin clay suspension above 60% (flocculating activity) except SOD12. These bioflocculant producing isolates were identified as <italic>Pseudoalteromonas sp</italic>, <italic>Alcaligenes faecalis</italic>, <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic>, <italic>Bacillus cereus</italic>, <italic>Bacillus stratosphericus</italic>. The results showed Sodwana Bay, South Africa as a reservoir of bacteria with potential to produce flocculants. However, further studies on the optimisation of culture conditions for bioflocculant production, extraction, characterisation and application of isolates is on the way to underscore the biotechnological importance of these microbes as producers of substitutes to harmful chemical flocculants commonly used in water and wastewater treatment.</p>ARTICLE2018-08-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Some Salicylaldehyde-derived Baylis-Hillman Adducts and Coumarin Derivatives as Potential Antisickling Compounds<p>Some salicylaldehyde-derived Baylis-Hillman adducts and 3-(chloromethyl)coumarins have been synthesised and evaluated <italic>in vitro</italic> for their antisickling activities. The compounds were screened for inhibitory and reversal activity against mutated haemoglobin (HbSS) in red blood cells at four different concentrations (4 mg/mL, 2 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL) as a measure of their antisickling potentials. Among the synthesized compounds, 6-chloro-3-(chloromethyl)coumarin <bold>4d</bold> showed the highest inhibitory activity (83.75±1.90%), followed by 6-chlorocoumarin-3-methylsulfinic acid <bold>5d</bold> (80.90 ±0.91%) and the least was <italic>tert</italic>-butyl-3-hydroxy- 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylenepropanoate <bold>3a (</bold>33.33±1.86%). The results obtained from the reversal antisickling experiment showed that the percentage of sickle cells able to revert to the normal biconcave shape was dose dependent. Compound <bold>5d</bold> had the highest reversal activity (66.49±1.39%) followed by 6-bromo-3- (chloromethyl)coumarin <bold>4c</bold> (59.66±2.95) and <bold>4d</bold> (55.50±1.95%) at 4 mg/mL. Compound <bold>4c</bold> had higher reversal activity than the standard <italic>p</italic>-hydroxybenzoic acid at 2 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL and at 0.5 mg/mL. The 3-substituted coumarins <bold>4a-d</bold>, and <bold>5d</bold> had higher inhibitory antisickling activities than their Baylis-Hillman precursors <bold>3a-d</bold>. Effect of <bold>4a-d</bold> and <bold>5d</bold> on the rate of polymerization of sickle cell heamoglobin was further studied spectrophotomerically using hemolysate of HbSS. The considerable inhibitory and reversal activities of these compounds make them good candidates for further antisickling studies.</p>ARTICLE2018-08-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Green Nanotechnology in Nigeria: The Research Landscape, Challenges and Prospects<p>In this treatise, we examined the activities of researchers of Nigeria descent in the frontier areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology, with a focus on green nanotechnology. The exploration of literature published by scholars were reviewed and compartmentalized on the basis of applications of the nanomaterials. It can be concluded that the level of activities in this area is expanding owing to the emergence of more published works since the beginning of 2010. However, in comparison with research outputs from other developing African countries such as South Africa and Egypt, activities in green nanotechnology are still at low ebb in Nigeria. Issues that are contributory to the slow pace were identified and appropriate solutions in terms of improved funding of education, enactment of national policy on nanotechnology, curriculum development, international cooperation as well as human resource development among others were discussed.</p>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Screening for Bio-flocculant Producing Bacterial Strains from Asa River in Ilorin Kwara State<p>Synthetic flocculants in water treatment have been reported to be detrimental to both human health and the environment. Thus, there is a constant search for bio-flocculants that is safe and addresses the effects of synthetic polymers. This study was aimed at isolating bacteria with bio-flocculating potential, their molecular identification and phylogenetic relatedness, and the optimization of their flocculating abilities from an open water (Asa River) in Ilorin Kwara State. The effect of carbon source (glucose, lactose and starch), cations (FeSO<sub>4</sub>, KCl and CaCl<sub>2</sub>) and pH (2 to 12) was evaluated on the bio-flocculating activities of the isolates using kaolin clay. The seven (7) novel (new strains) isolates with their respective accession number from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) after molecular confirmation are <italic>Pseudomonas otitidis MTK01 (MK263227), Aeromonas caviea MTK02 (MK263228), Providencia alcalifaciens MTK03 (MK263229), Providencia sp. MTK05 (MK263230), Alcaligenes sp. MTK06 (MK263231), Klebsiella pneumoniae MTK07 (MK263232)</italic> and <italic>Klebsiella sp. MTK08 (MK263233)</italic> while <italic>Raoultella ornithinolytica MTK04</italic> was also identified. Phylogenetic tree of relatedness showed close kin of the isolates to established bacteria sequence deposited at the NCBI GenBank. Although the flocculating rate of each isolates varied with different parameters that was used in the study, glucose was the most supportive followed by lactose and starch, CaCl<sub>2</sub> was most supportive cation followed by KCl and FeSO<sub>4</sub> while pH 12, 6, 8, 10, 2 and 4 were the order of decreasing flocculating rate of the medium. This study has reported the presence of eight (8) bio-flocculating bacteria (out of which 7 are new strains of bacteria) in an open water which has been further optimized for effective flocculating rate and thus provides an ecofriendly and harmless flocculants source that can be employed in water treatment procedures.</p>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1