rss_2.0Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology 's Cover on Phytochemical Content and Microbial Contamination of Actinidia Fruit after Shock Cooling and Storage<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mini kiwi fruits are tasty and contain valuable nutrients - vitamin, micro end macroelements and polyphenols. The tested cultivars (Sientiabrskaja, Geneva, Issai, Ken’s Red) belong to two species of Actinidia (A. arguta and A. kolomikta), which tolerate well the conditions of a temperate climate with negative temperatures in winter. The effect of postharvest shock cooling on fruit quality was investigated after 6 weeks of storage in CA and then after 5 days of shelf life. Shock cooling of fruit after harvest reduced adverse changes in fruit quality after storage in CA cold storage and shelf life. They were firmer, more puncture resistant, and retained more L-ascorbic acid and polyphenols. After 6 weeks of cold storage in CA, eight types of fungi and molds were found that caused the mycotoxins patulin, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone were found in the fruit of all cultivars. Fruits of the Ken’s Red cultivar were the most firm and puncture resistant, the darkest, and contained the most anthocyanins and the least L-ascorbic acid. In contrast, fruits of the cultivar Sientaibrskaja were the least suitable for storage and transport.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Essential Oil of Grown in Umuahia: A Viable Candidate for Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Therapy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The essential oils of <italic>Cymbopogon citratus</italic> (EOCC) has found use in medicine, food and chemical industry. This study attempts to provide evidence of its suitability for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapy. Total phenol and total flavonoid of EOCC was 49.83±0.39mg GAE/g of extract and 352.82±3.45 µg QEC/g of extract respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of its essential oil (EOCC) showed 25 peaks with myrcenyl acetate (9.703%), caryophyllene (8.997%), citronella (6.383%) been the most abundant. The <italic>in vitro</italic> anti-inflammatory assay using human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization shows that at 200µg/mL, the percentage inhibition of EOCC was significantly higher compared to diclofenac both for heat-induced and hypotonic induced haemolysis. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays showed a comparable and dose-dependent increase from 50 to 400 μg/mL in relation to vitamin C. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of EOCC (73.16±12.89 μg/mL and 656.01±0.01 μmol Fe (II)/L) was remarkably higher compared to that of vitamin C (69.09±4.52 μg/mL and 246.79±0.01 μmol Fe (II)/L) both for DPPH and FRAP assays respectively. In conclusion, results from this study establish preliminary evidence on the therapeutic potential of EOCC in managing inflammation and oxidative stress caused by free radicals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Flour Addition on the Physicochemical Properties of Whole Millet Flour and the Sensory Attributes of its Gluten-Free Bread<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study evaluated the effect of addition of <italic>Brachystegia eurycoma</italic> flour (BEF), a natural source of hydrocolloids, on the physicochemical properties of whole millet flour (WMF) and the sensory attributes of its gluten-free bread. BEF and sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose (a reference hydrocolloid) were added to WMF at 1.5 and 3% proportions, and breads were baked from the blends. Wheat flour (100%CWF) bread served as the control. Amylose level decreased significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), while water absorption capacity, peak and final viscosities of the blends increased with increasing proportion of BEF. The 100%CWF bread had better sensory qualities than WMF-BEF breads. Hence, BEF improved the physicochemical properties of WMF-BEF blend, but did not alter the sensory qualities of its gluten-free bread.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Chemical Characteristics of Limousine Beef Depending on Finishing Diets and Muscle Type of Meat<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The goal of this study was to compare the chemical properties of three muscle types of beef cattle fed using different finishing diets compositions. Four finishing feeding models for bulls based on different proportions of concentrates, maise silage, grass silage and hay were evaluated. Muscles chemical composition was evaluated in <italic>m. infraspinatus</italic> (ISB), <italic>m. longissimus thoracis</italic> (LTC) and <italic>m. longissimus lumborum</italic> (LLS). The chemical composition of meat was influenced by muscle type. ISB was characterised by higher moisture, collagen content, lower protein and ash content, and net energy concentration than LTC and LLS. The differences between diets in dry matter and fat content in each of the muscle groups studied were stated. Furthermore, a difference in the collagen content in LLS and protein content in ISB was noted. High correlations (P ≤ 0.05) were found between the concentrate content in the finishing diet and protein content (r = 0.59) in ISB, and dry matter both in LLS (r = 0.69) and LTC (r = 0.58). The lowest fat content of beef was noted for all muscles obtained from animals fed with a diet composed of grass silage, hay, and concentrates (D1).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Flours from Ancient Varieties of Wheat (Einkorn, Emmer, Spelt) used in Production of Bread<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study investigates rheological properties of dough and baking process made from flour obtained by milling grains from ancient varieties of wheat (einkorn, emmer and spelt), compared to common wheat flour dough (<italic>Arkadia</italic> variety). The findings show that einkorn flour dough and emmer flour dough present poor tolerance to mechanical processing and prolonged fermentation. These types of dough should be mixed through relatively short, and fermentation time should not exceed 80 minutes for einkorn dough and 45 minutes in the case of emmer dough. In the case of spelt flour dough, the optimum duration of mechanical processing and fermentation amounted to 10 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively. In terms of technological and baking parameters, spelt flour was most similar to the flour obtained by milling conventional wheat, and the superiority of the former was in fact identified in the case of selected factors. A one-stage method was used in the baking process and the bread was then subjected to organoleptic and physicochemical assessments and to texture profile analysis (TPA). Measurements were also performed to determine the indicators reflecting the quality of the baking processes, including dough yield, baking loss and bread yield. The physical parameters of the bread produced were significantly related to the wheat variety. The loaves made from einkorn and spelt flour were of good quality, comparable to the bread made from the conventional wheat, while their baking quality indicators were satisfying. Bread dough made from emmer flour did not meet the required parameters mainly related to the organoleptic assessment and selected physical properties of the bread crumb. However, the one-stage production method should not be applied to doughs made from emmer flour. Given the specific characteristics of the breads produced from the ancient wheat varieties, including their pleasant taste and aroma, as well as attractive colour in the case of einkorn bread, these baked products may be an interesting addition to the assortment of breads on offer from bakeries, restaurants and agritourist farms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Crystalline Cellulose of Corn Straw through Different Pretreatments Via X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Infrared Spectroscopy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Waste recycling is beneficial not only for the environment but also for the economy and the society at large. Corn stalks, the most abundant crop waste, are processed with oven drying, steaming, complex enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase and pectinase), and fermentation (by <italic>Candida utilis</italic> and <italic>Pachysolen tannophilus</italic>), were analyzed via X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR). The results indicated that thermophilic digestion destroyed glycosidic bonds and fibrous crystal have a significant effect on the degradation of the corn stalks, while complex enzyme hydrolysis only slightly degraded fibrous crystal. Fermentation did not significantly reduce fibrous crystal. Therefore, our research suggested that thermophilic digestion is the appropriate way to increase the saccharification rate and feed yield of corn stalks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Cell Envelope Proteinase Produced by<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cell-envelope proteinases (CEPs) can hydrolyze casein into functional peptides, which is beneficial to the health of the host. The single factor experiment screened out that the optimal conditions for CEP production by <italic>Lactobacillus plantarum LP69</italic> were 37°C, 20h, initial pH of 7, and optimal inoculation amount of 5%. The best conditions for this experiment were obtained by orthogonal experiment: time 22h, temperature 39°C, initial pH value of 6, and inoculation amount of 5%. Under this culture condition, the target protease activity of <italic>Lactobacillus plantarum</italic> LP69 reached 22.31±0.82U/mL, the protein content was 19.07±0.36mg/mL, and the specific activity was 1.17±0.06U/mg. The specific activity significantly increased by 15.8% compared with the control (<italic>p</italic>&lt;0.05).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Ethanolic Extracts from Agro-Industrial Co-Products Enhance Oxidative Stability of Candelilla Wax or Celluloses Derivatives Oleogels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ethanol oleoresins obtained from orange peel, pea pod, or pomegranate peel were employed to enrich soybean oil before elaborating two types of oleogels, one made with candelilla wax, another made with a mixture of celluloses derivatives, in order to determine their effect on oleogel oxidative stability. Orange peel oleoresin obtained a higher amount of polyphenols as catechol acid equivalent (9.09 meq/g), as compared to pea pod oleoresin or pomegranate peel (8.80 and 8.55, respectively), although pomegranate peel presented the higher TEAC (1.67, twice than the other samples). Oleogels elaborated with celluloses were presented better oxidative stability (oxidative rancidity and peroxide index) as compared to samples elaborated with candelilla wax, since waxes minor constituents employed as oleogelators could promote prooxidant activity. Samples with pomegranate oleoresin presented enhanced oxidative stability. Candelilla wax has a more marked effect on the oleogels thermal properties of due to their influence on fatty acids crystallization, because in celluloses oleogels the mechanism of gelation does not imply the formation of a highly ordered secondary structure. This finding opens the possibility to, on one hand, use oleoresins to enhance the oxidative stability of oleogels; and on the other hand, to select the oleogelator, waxes, or celluloses, based on thermal properties and other aspects, depending on the further application of oleogel thinking in oleogel thermoreversible capacity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00A Comparative Analysis of Different Varietal of Fresh and Dried Figs by Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Varietal and sun-drying effects on phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity were investigated during the <italic>in vitro</italic> gastrointestinal digestion of fresh and dried figs. The total phenolic compounds (phenolic, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidin) and their antioxidant activity (ferric reducing power; free radical scavenging activity DPPH, and phosphomolybdenum test) were evaluated before and after digestion. The total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacities of fresh and dried figs obtained before digestion were significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) higher than those obtained after digestion. A significant decrease (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity was observed during different digestion phases (oral phase &gt; gastric phase &gt; intestinal phase). A positive correlation was found between the total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity tested for both fresh and dried figs. Furthermore, the results showed that the digestion has no effect on the total phenolic compounds; however, a negative influence of the pH and the enzymes was observed on these compounds and their antioxidant activity. During <italic>in vitro</italic> gastrointestinal digestion, the varietal and the sun-drying has no significant effect on the phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. Likewise, the fresh or dry variety kept a high content before and after the digestion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Preparation of Vitamin K2 Mk-7 in a Process of Fermentation of Different Seeds and Cereals by Bacteria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, 10 different plant materials (seeds/beans) were fermented by <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic> var. natto. The influence of the process on vitamin K2 MK-7 content during different fermentation periods was assessed. Fermented plant samples were analyzed by the procedure using HPLC UV/DAD. The fermented sunflower seeds, mung beans and peas appeared to be the most promising plants, reaching values of K2 of 1080.18±55.11 µg/100g, 806.45±60.95 µg/100g and 636.92±59.86 µg/100g, respectively. The experiments showed that extending of the fermentation time to 5–6 days was favorable for the menaquinone-7 yield. The results show that almost all fermented seeds/beans, apart from soybean, can be good source of vitamin K2 MK-7 and represent a new perspective, especially in terms of lower the phytoestrogen content.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Alcalase on Antioxidant and Antihypertensive activities of Goat Milk Fermented by L60 and LR22<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Effect of alcalase addition, inoculum size, bacterial ratio, fermentation time and temperature on antioxidant and antihypertensive activities of goat milk fermented by <italic>Lactobacillus plantarum</italic> L60 and <italic>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</italic> LR22 was studied by using DPPH free radical scavenging rate, ACE inhibition rate, pH, and titer acidity as responses through single factor experiments. The results showed that the optimal alcalase addition, inoculum size, bacterial ratio, fermentation time and temperature was 0.15%, 5%, 1:1, 12h and 37°C, respectively, the probiotic goat milk prepared under these conditions had high antioxidant and antihypertensive activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Thermal and Non-Thermal Processing on the Nutritional Composition, Pasting Profile and Protein Secondary Structure of Alfalfa<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Alfalfa is an unconventional alternative legume and its potentiality for utilization can be improved by processing. In this study, alfalfa seeds were processed by different thermal and non-thermal techniques and evaluated for their physical properties, colour characteristics, nutritional composition, pasting profile and protein secondary structure. The results were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis to elucidate the effect of processing. Colour of the flour was more affected by thermal processing in comparison to non-thermal processing. Nutritional composition of alfalfa flour was significantly affected by germination as compared to other methods and germinated flour showed an increase in the protein content. All the processing treatments resulted in improving the pasting properties except for germination. Particularly, marked improvement in the pasting properties was observed by wet heat processing and soaking. ATR-FTIR exhibited change in the secondary structure of the protein as a result of processing and showed the dominance of intermolecular β-sheets in extrusion, germination and microwave treated flour and formation of anti-parallel β-sheets after dry heat processing. Wet heat processing and soaking treatment can be employed for alfalfa for enhancing its techno-functionality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Possibility of Reinforcement the Functional Potential of Vegetable Juices with the use of Novel Strain EK11 Isolated from an Unconventional Fermented Food Matrix<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study investigated the suitability of a novel strain <italic>Lactiplantibacillus plantarum</italic> EK11 for obtaining fermented tomato and beetroot juices with improved functional potential. EK11 had the capability of dynamic acidification of pasteurized vegetable beverages. The lowest values of pH were noted in juices after 48 h of fermentation with the probiotic <italic>L. plantarum</italic> 299v (pH=3.72±0.01 in beet juice and pH=3.43±.0.01 in tomato juice). The fermentation increased the lycopene content in tomato juices from 27.90±0.31µg mL<sup>−1</sup> (after 24-h fermentation by strain EK11) to 116.86 ±0.19 µg mL<sup>−1</sup> (final products obtained using strain 299v after 7-day cold storage). The process contributed to changes in the betanin and vulgaxanthin-I concentration in beetroot beverages. All fermented products exhibited antioxidative activity, i.e. 50% inhibition of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals. Moreover, three genes involved in the biosynthesis of bacteriocins were detected in the novel strain EK11, which exhibits functional and technological potential for the production of fermented foods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Complexation Conditions on Microcapsulation of L61 in Gellan Gum–Chitosan Gels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Probiotics have many benefits for human intestinal health. However, Probiotics have poor tolerance to gastric acid and bile salts of the stomach. Microencapsulation could confer protection to probiotic against harsh environments effectively. In this experiment, <italic>Lactobacillus casei</italic> L61 was embedded by extrusion with gellan gum and chitosan as wall material. The viable cells and encapsulation yield of microcapsules were used as the indexes, the optimum values of each factor were determined by a single factor experiment. Chitosan concentration 0.50%, chitosan pH 4.5, gellan gum concentration 1.50%, the volume ratio of bacterial suspension to gellan gum is 1:6, the volume ratio of bacterial gum to chitosan is 1:4, the stirring time is 40min.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Bioactive, Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Properties of Cooked and Uncooked Irish Potato (<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Potatoes are considered very important staple and antioxidant-rich tubers in human diet. The present study evaluated the bioactive, antioxidant, antidiabetic and inhibition of lipid peroxidation properties of cooked and uncooked Irish potatoes. The samples were subjected to total phenolic (TPC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total flavonoids (TFC), ascorbic acid (AsA) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity analyses using spectrophotometric method. Also Fe<sup>2+</sup>-induced lipid peroxidation, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition were assayed. The results revealed that there is no significant (p &lt; 0.05) difference in TPC and TAC of the potatoes samples but there was a significant (p &lt; 0.05) enhancement in TFC and reduction in AsA of the cooked potatoes. There is also dose-dependent inhibition in DPPH and α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. The IC<sub>50</sub> revealed that cooked sample has significant higher (p &lt; 0.05) inhibition in the enzymes assay. The lipid peroxidation was also reduced upon incubation with Irish potato samples but higher inhibition was exhibited by the cooked potato. In conclusion, this study has shown that Irish potato can be a good functional food in the management of diseases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Characteristics of Technological Properties of Grain and Flour from Ancient Varieties of Wheat (Einkorn, Emmer and Spelt)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The study presents assessment of commodity characteristics of grains from ancient varieties of wheat (einkorn, emmer and spelt) in comparison to grains of the conventional wheat cultivar <italic>Arkadia</italic>. The findings related to the grain of einkorn and emmer were very similar, and far worse than those related to spelt grain; the latter were found with better ratings, sometimes even in comparison to the conventional wheat grain (e.g. the highest mass-weight density). Similar relationships were observed between the flours produced by milling the grains. Analysis of the indirect baking quality indicators showed that flours from einkorn and emmer can effectively be used for baking purposes, however they present low technological value. The flour from emmer wheat was found to be the poorest, which was confirmed e.g. by the low gluten number, gluten index, Zeleny’s index, and high gluten spreadability. Spelt flour was found to present moderate technological value. Based on the results it can be concluded that by using adequate modification in the process of dough kneading and fermentation it will be possible to produce high quality baked goods from ancient wheat grains.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-24T00:00:00.000+00:00The Use of Non- Yeast and Enzymes in Beer Production<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The objective of this paper was to test the potential of selected non-<italic>Saccharomyces</italic> strains for beer production, by using <italic>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</italic> as a control sample. For some of variants brewing enzymes were added to wort to increase the content of fermentable sugars. The non-<italic>Saccharomyces</italic> yeasts differed in the fermentation process rate. The basic beer physiochemical parameters were assessed, including: alcohol content, extract, free amino nitrogen, sugars, acidity, colour, and the profile of volatile compounds and metal ions. The use of enzymes caused an increase in alcohol and fusel alcohols concentration in beers obtained. Total acidity, free amine nitrogen content, colour and sugar content indicated that the tested non-<italic>Saccharomyces</italic> yeast allowed obtaining beers with the proper analytical parameters.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Exploring Antioxidant Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Selected Under-Exploited Tropical Fruits<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Dacryodes edulis</italic> (DE), <italic>Dalium guineensis</italic> (DG), <italic>Spondias mombin</italic> (SM) and <italic>Irvingia gabonensis</italic> (IG) as notable underexploited tropical wild fruits in Nigeria, were evaluated for quality characteristics, phenolic contents and <italic>in-vitro</italic> antioxidant activity. pH of the fruits ranked thus DE &gt; IG &gt; DG &gt; SM and the reverse order was true for acidity. IG exhibited highest <sup>o</sup>brix, vitamin C and total sugar content. DE had no detectable reducing sugar compared to 18.84% in IG. Total phenol and flavonoid contents followed the same pattern with DG as the highest (1796.89 ± 71.1 and 860.64 ± 3.7 mg/100g) and IG as the lowest (454.23 ± 13.9 and 304.98 ± 7.5 mg/100g), respectively. Regarding antioxidant activities, SM was significant for ABTS•, DE and IG were similar in FRAP assay, while all the fruits were effective DPPH• radical scavengers. Generally, the fruits demonstrate high food application potentials with possible health benefits if consumed adequately.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimization of Peroxidase Activity of Turnip () Using Response Surface Methodology<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The present study is focused on the determination of optimized activity conditions of peroxidase (POD) of turnip (<italic>Brassica rapa</italic>). The enzyme is extracted from turnip with 0.5M Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> (pH7.0). Peroxidase activity is evaluated by monitoring the oxidation of guaiacol to tetraguaiacol in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>). Before the optimization of peroxidase activity from a turnip by response surface methodology (RSM), a preliminary step is conducted for each studied parameter (pH, temperature, and NaCl concentration). Further, RSM following Box-Behnken design is used in order to refine the optimization of the conditions. Response surface analysis showed that parameter values with the highest peroxidase activity are 5.9, 29.8°C, and 1.07M for pH, temperature, and NaCl, respectively. Under these experimental conditions, peroxidase activity is found to be 4027.25U/mg. The obtained experimental value agrees with that of the calculated one, indicating the pertinence of the developed model for the optimization of peroxidase activity.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Nutritional Properties of Produced from Blends of Cassava and African Yam Bean Flours<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study investigated the effect of African yam bean flour (AYF) inclusion on the quality of <italic>sakada</italic>. Fermented cassava mash (FCM) and AYF were blended at ratios (% w/w) 100:0 (control), 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40. <italic>Sakada</italic> was produced using the blends, and its nutritional and sensory properties were determined. Protein, fat, crude fibre, P, Ca, phytate, and oxalate contents of <italic>sakada</italic> increased (p &lt; 0.05) with increasing AYF level, while moisture, carbohydrate, and cyanide decreased. The incorporation of 20% AYF in <italic>sakada</italic> resulted in a significant amount (&gt; 4.0 g/100g protein) of arginine, leucine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine. Sensory properties of <italic>sakada</italic> that contained ≤ 20% AYF compared favourably with <italic>sakada</italic> produced using 100% FCM. This study showed that the nutritional quality of <italic>sakada</italic> improved following AYF incorporation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-24T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1