rss_2.0Architecture and Urban Planning FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture and Urban Planning and Urban Planning 's Cover Buildings of the Resort Establishments of the Soviet Period and their Present State in Jūrmala City, Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a summary of large-scale buildings of resort establishments of Soviet period in Jūrmala, by analysing their typology, physical parameters, scenarios of the development, architectural stylistic and the present state of physical condition and authentic substance. The research reveals that half of the large-scale resort buildings are already irreversibly lost and the rest of buildings are seriously endangered due to the tendency of extensive rebuilding.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Can Micro-Housing Policies Enable Higher Liveability Standard in Urban Areas? Case Study of Cascais Historical Centre, Lisbon, Portugal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Liveability within urban planning is a necessary prerequisite to the development of micro-housing. Liveability may contribute to improvement of urban environments where micro-homes are prevalent, notably, in highly populated urban areas. After a brief review of the concept, discussion is focused on whether the historic centre of Cascais has liveability standards to facilitate micro housing. The key metrics highlight if such metrics perform the role of determining whether Cascais fulfils the set liveability criteria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Approaches to Modernizing the Architectural and Planning Structure of Maternity Institutions in the Context of a Pandemic and a New Social Distance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article discusses individual approaches to the formation of the architectural and spatial environment of maternity hospitals and perinatal centres contributing to social distancing. A ‘functional-spatial’ approach is proposed, in which the boundaries of spaces in the most active functional areas of the maternity hospital are changed: entrance area, reception of women in labour, area for relatives and visitors of the hospital, delivery of newborns, consultations in the polyclinic department of the maternity hospital. As a planning technique for distancing is proposed the formation of a system of space ‘soft borders’ using flexible, inclined, semi-cylindrical and ‘flowing’ translucent partitions. The second, ‘environmental approach’, is based on changing the scheme of communication and environmental situations in the internal environment of the maternity hospital due to the thoughtful arrangement of furniture and interior equipment, as well as due to light, colour and graphic navigation. Such a reorganization of the architectural and spatial structure of the maternity hospitals, based on the requirements of social distancing, preserves the value characteristics of the therapeutic environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Ability of Architects to See Autopoietic Environmental Features<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article discusses the way of rating the competency of architects through their ability to recognize the autopoietic properties of architecture in developed urban projects. The following theoretical methods were used: abstraction, analogy, generalization and reasoning. Metalanguage of consideration (opposite to directive metalanguage) embedded in projects displays the fact, that a person is able to recognize such autopoietic features as connotations, memory traces, that are important for continuity of locus cultural identity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Visual Identity of Riga 21st Century Multi-Apartment Developments<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is claimed that rapid changes, including globalization and urbanization, may lead to uniform urban environment. Therefore, it is crucial to address issues in terms of local architecture. This research particularly focuses on the visual identity of Riga 21st century residential developments. Theoretical studies and empirical research methods were used. According to the research results, the most typical characteristics are linear building blocks, symmetric arraignment of façade elements, polychrome façade colour approach and usage of white/grey/ black colour palette. However, considering variety of visual expressions as well as different architectural and spatial situations, there cannot be determined one exact visual identity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Cultural Urban Catalysts as Meaning of the City<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>City is a network with clear organization and architecture. It also has permanent connections. Human senses, perception and cognition are the base points while understanding these connections. Hypothesis of this article proposes that concentration of creativity potential in strategically placed junctions (cultural nodes) would catalyse people flow between them naturally. Three main features of the cultural node are distinguished, and possible identification methodology is being proposed. This strategy leads to more extensive methodology research and appliance analysing city structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00A Comprehensive Review on the Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Public Urban Spaces<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>COVID-19, evidently the world’s worst pandemic during the last two centuries, has predicated several challenges for urban designers, especially in their bid to find appropriate designing strategies. Even though there are umpteenth studies in the literature that have focused on the different aspects of COVID-19 related pandemics, very scant studies sought to find appropriate mitigating strategies in designing pandemic friendly urban spaces. Thus, through qualitative grounded theory as a main methodological approach, this study hypothesized that the COVID-19 induced pandemic has direct effects on the liveability of public spaces. Accordingly, by developing a comprehensive review of the literature on the environmental and socio-economic effects of the pandemic, this study proposed a comprehensive framework for understanding its side effects and a comprehensive mitigating strategy to deal with it in the short and long term of designing a healthy urban environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Compactness is Not Enough: Development and Trends of a Sustainable Urban Concept<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The changing concept of sustainable development is changing the practice of designing sustainable urban forms. The article presents a variety of concepts of a sustainable urban form and their ambiguous assessment – the model of a compact city, if applied in all cases, can cost the quality of one’s environment and the quality of life. New bottom-up trends are emerging in theory and in practice of the 21st century, which focus on the urban planning process which is more inclusive in terms of society. The article discusses examples of the creation of a sustainable urban narrative for the development of a relationship with the community.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-10T00:00:00.000+00:00From Construction to Deconstruction. The Heritage of Post-War Modern Mass Housing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study is to find out to what extent dominant ideologies of post-war decades shaped modern mass housing and to engage a discussion about potential heritage of the phenomenon. Analysis is based on the district of Lazdynai (Vilnius). The paper is committed to demonstrate that transition, considered by Tunbridge &amp; Ashworth as a factor of dissonance in heritage, made messages and meanings embedded in mass housing obsolete, and in some cases even undesirable.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Building Orientation as the Primary Design Consideration for Climate Responsive Architecture in Urban Areas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Orientation is a design parameter that plays a major role in climate responsive architecture and helps achieve comfort within the built environment. However, it is difficult to achieve an ideal orientation, especially in urban context. The main aim of this paper is to develop alternate strategies to overcome the challenges faced in designing as per preferred orientation and then derive a set of tools that can help decide the orientation of a building on site both under normal and congested site conditions. Thereafter, the inferences from the paper can act as references for choosing an optimum orientation for placement of buildings in warm humid climate. It can act as a significant pedagogical guideline for students of architecture in deciphering solutions for a climate responsive design in a simplified manner. The results can also be utilised for future research in formulating similar tools for other climatic regions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00“Build Back Better”: Between Public Policy and Local Implementation, the Challenges in Tohoku’s Reconstruction<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although Japan, because of its long history of natural disasters, has always been one of the most prepared country, the 2011 Great East Japanese Earthquake and tsunami caused unprecedented damages to the country. This paper introduces public policies for urban resilience from international level to national level, analysing Tohoku’s reconstruction. First, we will introduce the United Nations frameworks and guidelines for “Build Back Better” before confronting this theory with its practical application. Concluding remarks suggest that Japanese reconstruction policies provoked some challenges in the local implementation of urban resilience.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Identifying Key Criteria for Quality Assessment of Landscape Architecture Projects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>the question of quality of modified landscape is critical for the client and the users and depends on the quality of projects. After theoretical and empirical research, the paper proposes the framework for quality assessment criteria and corresponding indicators for assessing landscape architecture projects. By thorough analysis of the recent international research and design and implementation practices in Lithuania, the paper gives the flexible and universal set of environmental, socio-economic, and aesthetic quality criteria and relevant indicators in the context of sustainable performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Community Involvement in Participatory Process – Lessons Learned in the Baltic Sea Region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For exploring and discovering the main knowledge, experience and practices, four main issues were analyzed: what were the goals of the involved participants regarding the community involvement in the spatial and community planning; what methods were used to extend the involvement of community members; what problems and obstacles did the project participants face, and what were the main lessons learned. This study provides reflections (analysis, comparison and evaluation) on community involvement in participatory process in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea Region by investigating the methods, which were used in community involvement in project participating countries; and its influence in improving local governance of the local territory development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Human Behaviour Simulation Using Space Syntax Methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>City is a multi-layered structure of social, cultural, and economic aspects and their relationship through the physical space. Recognition of some patterns in those relationships is the essence for defining fragmentations in urban fabric and suggesting solutions on how those fragmentations could be solved.</p> <p>The article analyses how different <italic>space syntax</italic> methods can be used to find patterns in the chosen urban environment. <italic>Space syntax</italic> allows to find urban relationships between physical environment and human behavior. <italic>Space syntax</italic> suggests a few different approaches on how these relationships could be simulated: <italic>Segment Analysis</italic> perceives environment as a <italic>network</italic> of paths or streets, <italic>visibility graph analysis</italic> concentrates on inter-visual relationships, while <italic>agent-based analysis</italic> uses simple artificial intelligence for modeling movement in open space. Consequentially, the aim of this research is to find out what human behaviour aspects each of these <italic>space syntax methods</italic> are able to simulate.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Idea of in the Evaluation of Lithuanian Concrete Architecture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents a theoretical model for evaluating architectural works artistic novelty of which is associated with concrete – the medium of the 20th century architecture. The theoretical model reflects the idea of <italic>autopoiesis</italic> and works as a network parameter system, which promotes the constant renewal of knowledge in the field of concrete architecture. The theoretical scheme consists of two levels: at Level I the object’s aesthetic-technological type is identified; at Level II – specific features of interaction between artistic forms and reinforced concrete technologies in architecture are revealed through the net of aspects and indicators. Vilnius Palace of Culture and Sports as one of the iconic examples and the representative of <italic>solid</italic> aesthetic-technological type of the Lithuanian concrete architecture has been chosen to test the theoretical model.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The Importance of Brownfield Regeneration and Improvement<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>this research aims to explore the historical development, current situation, weaknesses and strengths of brownfield revitalization, as well as threats and possible solutions. Current situation in legislation and real life has been viewed, successful solutions globally and particularly in Latvia have been explored, innovation ideas, problems and recommendations for the improvement of the situations have been researched.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Heritage in a Globalised World: Pilot Study for Perception by Analysis of Buildings’ Potential<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Heritage connects the past and present, but at the same time it connects people with each other and with the place itself. The perception of heritage regarding the built heritage can be a problematic issue in the globalised world, since it might not be easy to relate to an artefact that is not necessarily one’s own, or an environment, which does not carry the characteristics that one is used to. This research aims to understand the constraints of the perception of built heritage by using the Modern Movement artefacts and tries to analyse the perception of different societies by a pilot survey. The pilot survey suggests that prior knowledge and public awareness has a colossal impact on the perception or evaluation of the built heritage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Participatory Planning in Post-socialist Cities: A Case Study of Riga<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>After three decades of socio-economic and political changes, participation in urban planning is still an emerging practice in post-socialist countries. Using Riga as a case study, the research aims to explore participatory planning practices in a post-socialist urban context since 1990. Employing meta-analysis as a methodological approach to combine information from various sources, the study identifies three phases of participatory planning in Riga characterized by changes in government-led participatory planning approaches, level of participation, outcomes as well as changes in the civic sector.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Experimental Harmonization of Shape Intuitive Interaction<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the increasing functionality and complexity of the material environment it is becoming important to universally improve the quality of its shape design for people with different knowledge. When the material environment shape does not match its value content or acquire unpredictable meaning, it creates disharmony between the function and user that requires intellectual and / or emotional effort for interaction. The intuitive design improves user’s interaction because the information is presented on the subconscious level, hence it is accepted as a natural part of our environment and demands less effort to grasp and evaluate it. In this study, the scientific context of intuition is examined to determine methods and values of shape intuitive expression modeling. The goal of the study is to assess the effectiveness of shape experimental intuitive harmonization methodology using qualitative and quantitative methods. Functional and interaction restrictions are integrated into the object’s shape by employing experimental modeling techniques. Surveys, controlled observations and MaxDiff analysis were used to monitor intuitive harmonization effects on car body split-line and box shape physical models. Experimental results show that the majority of participants consider conceptual shape models to be more intuitively attractive and informative. The study concludes that it is possible and viable to employ a proposed shape intuitive harmonization variable to achieve a universally positive effect.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital City as a Metaphor for New Experiences of Reality<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the era of already spent utopias and ideas about the city the experience of the city is transformed into a new perceptual grammar that is a consequence of the new virtual reality. With the revolutionary computerization of architecture a new architectural discourse was created that enabled virtual one – cyberspace, producing a new experience of transposed reality. The concept of a digital city does not exist without a virtual community, which on the other hand problematizes the issue of digital city ethics, bearing in mind that its use is conditioned by technical and technological possibilities, which are still not available to everyone. Digitalization of space communicates the newly created virtual dialogue between the user and space, outside of his physical and sensory experience and interaction with space, thus agreeing to the digitalization of the experience of space. By creating a new reality and a new era of the utopia of virtual architecture and virtual city, a new, cyberidentity of city was produced. Identity digitization policies in this regard will consciously use methods to promote virtual values, digitizing all aspects of identity, heritage, and even memory, and memory values of the city, producing a new, virtual identity, which largely leads to mutation of its original – existing – built identity. In this way, cities are positioned and valued in relation to the degree of their digitized representation, i.e., the extent to which their digitized identity is present and visible in cyberspace. The digital transition is one of the priorities of the “smart city” concept, which indicates that the future of cities is directed towards their digital transformation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-01T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1