rss_2.0Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Agriculture and Environment FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Agriculture and Environment Universitatis Sapientiae, Agriculture and Environment 's Cover and biological nitrogen fixation in soybean ( L.) as influenced by phosphorus fertilization and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can be used to promote the productivity of legumes on phosphorus- (P) deficient soils. The present study investigates the inoculation effects of three AMF species (<italic>Funneliformis mosseae</italic>, <italic>Rhizophagus intraradices</italic>, and <italic>Claroideoglomus etunicatum</italic>) and the control (uninoculated) on nitrogen fixation efficiency and growth performance of tropical soybean cultivar (TGx1448-2E) under varying P fertilizer rates (0, 20, and 40 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>−1</sup>) in a derived savannah of Nigeria. The results showed that shoot and root dry matter, number of nodules, relative ureide abundance (RUA), nitrogen derived from atmosphere (Ndfa), total N fixed, shoot P uptake, grain, and biomass yield significantly increased with AMF inoculation, with better performance observed in plants inoculated with <italic>Rhizophagus intraradices</italic> and <italic>Funneliformis mosseae</italic> compared to <italic>Claroideoglomus etunicatum</italic>. Similarly, the soybean growth variables, P uptake, and nitrogen fixation activities increased with increasing P application rates. Conversely, AMF root colonization significantly reduced with increasing P rate. Interaction of AMF inoculation and P rates significantly influenced soybean growth and nitrogen fixation. <italic>R. intraradices</italic> inoculation with 20 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>−1</sup> resulted in the highest amount of RUA, Ndfa, N fixed, and grain yield. It could be concluded from this study that <italic>R. intraradices</italic> with moderate P rate could be used to enhance nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and soybean yield in P-deficient soils.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The analytical assessment of the weaknesses of the agriculture of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County based on empirical research results<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In our empirical research, we examined the agriculture of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. We surveyed the situation of agriculture through farmers using certain criteria to rank the situation within the framework of a SWOT analysis. The responses received from farmers in the county were quantified and evaluated on the basis of what these farmers have considered to be true. The interdisciplinary study of agriculture is a timely and important task. It can be enforced on the basis of systemic contexts studying not only food production but also environmental issues, preservation of rural habitats, employment, and regional development.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Seedling and adult plant resistance to in Ethiopian rice cultivars<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Two separate experiments were done for seedling and adult resistance in rice varieties against blast. Each experiment consists of 20 varieties and is evaluated under artificial inoculation with blast. The result of the study confirmed that NERICA varieties have shown low disease infection at the seedling stage whereas the varieties Chewaka and Edget have shown adult plant resistance. Severe yield reduction and highly diseased grain were obtained from Superica-1, which is highly susceptible at adult plant stage. In contrast, the maximum grain yield was obtained from the Chewaka and Edget varieties, these having a high level of adult resistance. Therefore, Chewaka and Edget are promising candidates for utilization in yield and blast resistance in rice improvement.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00PM concentration reduction due to the wet scavenging in the Ciuc Basin, Romania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The PM<sub>10</sub> concentration reduction caused by large-scale precipitation in the Ciuc Basin was studied under no-wind conditions. The PM<sub>10</sub> concentration changing before, during, and after the rainfall was followed up from 2008 to 2019. After the rainfall episode, the PM<sub>10</sub> concentrations were lower in the cold and warm periods with 2.8 μg/m<sup>3,</sup> and 2 μg/m<sup>3</sup> respectively. The highest PM<sub>10</sub> concentration reduction was detected in the cold season, by the moderate and light rain intensity, after 6 hrs of continuous rain (35.61%, 32.46%), and the average PM<sub>10</sub> concentration reduction in the cold and warm periods was 22.3% and 16.1% respectively.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative analysis of relevant climate change, landscape and regional development strategies regarding the areas pertaining to Debrecen (Hajdú-Bihar County)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Today, the countries of the world have to face several global challenges with regard to the plans they have developed together. The protection of the natural values of our country and their sustainable use is receiving more and more attention in today’s society. In order to achieve the above, a change of perspective in social strategy built on knowledge and professional training is inevitable. An environmental strategy paradigm shift emphasizing the protection of biodiversity, resources, and landscape cultivation is also necessary. The need for documents providing a basis for the paradigm shift is indubitable; however, more efforts are needed to induce fundamental changes by plans detailed in the documents.</p><p>The aim of this study is to review the current environmental protection initiatives in Hajdú-Bihar County and to assess the degree to which the relevant plans are harmonized and that the objectives outlined in the documents overlap.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of slope aspect on soil moisture<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this research, we investigated the variability of soil moisture on two slopes of opposite aspect (a northern slope and a southern slope) but with the same soil type. To identify the spatial disposal of the soil type on both slopes, we georeferenced the paper-based soil map of Sfântu Gheorghe, using the QGIS platform. In order to use the correct slope aspect, we used a numerical model of the terrain (relief). The research plot was soil sampled at the depth of 10 cm on two different dates: on 7 November 2019 and on 3 March 2020, using a Buerkle soil sampler.</p><p>Gravimetric method was used to determine the soil moisture values that proved to be the most accurate for our purpose.</p><p>The soil moisture values, obtained in weight percentage, were assigned to the coordinates of the sampling points, and soil moisture maps were generated in QGIS for both slopes and for both sampling dates. These maps gave us the opportunity to evaluate the variability in time of the soil moisture distribution on the sample plots.</p><p>The water holding capacity of the soils is mostly influenced by their organic C content. So, the total organic carbon content of the soil from the sampling plots was measured using the Tyurin method.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Genetic variation in common bean ( L.) using seed protein markers<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The genetic diversity of common bean accessions were assessed using seed storage protein markers. At regional level, accessions from the two major growing regions showed the highest level of gene diversity (H = 0.322, I = 0.485, and H = 0.312, I = 0.473), which can be exploited for the future improvement of the crop. Based on phaseolin, the major storage protein in common bean, the majority of the accessions (86%) were grouped under Mesoamerican gene pool. Seed proteins were also used to differentiate various Phaseolus species, indicating the usefulness of seed storage proteins in species identification in this genus.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Current status, challenges, and prospects of biopesticide utilization in Nigeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The toxicity, persistence, and non-biodegradability of chemical pesticides have increased calls for the adoption of sustainable and cost-effective pest control measures. Biopesticides present a sustainable alternative to synthetic pesticides. However, the biopesticide utilization in agrarian countries like Nigeria remains low, resulting in increased chemical pesticide utilization. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine the current status, challenges, and prospects of biopesticides in Nigeria. The findings revealed that biopesticide utilization in Nigeria is low due to high costs, poor infrastructure, skilled manpower alongside inconsistent field performance and government policies. The solution to these challenges will significantly boost crop protection, food security, and sustainable agriculture in Nigeria.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Performance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) in response to organic and NPK fertilizers<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The soil of North-Central Nigeria is home to many plant products that are used as industrial raw materials, and after processing their waste are often left in drainage channels, which ultimately find their way into rivers and streams where they pollute these water bodies, and sometimes some of these materials are burnt, which further aggravates global warming. In addition, the soil of the region is characterized by low organic matter content because of annual bush burnings, which reduce the low humus content of soils. Watermelon requires a fertile soil, which is high in organic matter content, while infertile soils yield an increased production of male flowers at the expense of female flowers, which results in low fruit set. Therefore, a study was carried out at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm, Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria, during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014 to assess the effect of different organic materials on the growth and yield of watermelon. The factors imposed were a control, NPK fertilizer and five organic materials (neem seed cake (NSC), jatropha seed cake (JSC), poultry manure (PM), compost manure (CM), and cow dung (CD)). The experiment was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated thrice. Data collected on soil physico-chemical properties were: organic matter content, soil pH, organic carbon, total N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, bulk density (BD), micro porosity (MIP), macro porosity (MAP), and saturated hydraulic conductivity (K<sub>S</sub>). Plant parameters evaluated include growth (vine length and number of leaves) and yield (number of fruits per plant, fruit weight per plant, and yield ha<sup>−1</sup>). Results indicated that the organic matter content increased after the first year’s cropping and declined at the end of the study. The amended plots showed significantly higher values (P &lt; 0.05) with respect to most soil physical properties (MIP), (MAP), and (K<sub>S</sub>), except the BD, where the values were lower. The bulk density particularly deteriorated on soils that were not organically amended. In addition, the soil chemical properties examined increased following the first year’s cropping, and thereafter declined at the end of the second-year cropping season. The response of watermelon showed that the two years’ yield data ranged between 334 and 402 t/ha, 306 and 390 t/ha, and 38.25 and 59.20 t/ha for NPK, poultry manure, and control treatments respectively. From the results, it was observed that the organic amendments were environmentally more friendly compared to the inorganic amendment (NPK fertilizer) in terms of positive effects on soil structural properties.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of land-use changes on soil properties based on reambulated soil profiles<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In our study, by investigating reambulated soil profiles from the Nagy-Sárrét region in Hungary, we attempt to determine the extent of changes which have occurred due to effects which impacted the landscape in terms of the soil chemistry properties of soil profiles exposed during the Kreybig soil survey more than 70 years ago. Based on the results, in the areas used as grassland, we observed a decrease in pH and an increase in the humus content of the topsoil. The increased CaCO<sub>3</sub> following the chemical improvement of the soil which was used as cropland is still characteristic of the area. During the past decades, the investigated soils have been affected by significant changes with regard to water management, which have also modified the investigated parameters. We have classified the reambulated soil profiles among the Solonetz, Vertisol, and Gleysol reference groups based on the World Reference Base of Soil Resources (WRB) diagnostic system.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Genotype-by-environment interaction and yield stability analysis in sorghum ( (L.) Moench) genotypes in North Shewa, Ethiopia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A multi-environment sorghum variety trial comprised of nine genotypes along with one standard check, “yeju”, was carried out in the main cropping seasons of the period of 2006–2008. The objective of this research was to identify a stable and better-yielding sorghum variety under the conditions of the sorghum-growing area of North Shewa, Ethiopia. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design replicated three times within an experiment. AMMI analysis based on grain yield data revealed that genotypes ICSV 1112BF, 82 LPYT-2 # 5x81ESIP 46, and PGRC/E #222880 were superior to the standard check both in grain yield and stability, and hence these genotypes have been verified, and the genotype PGRC/E #222880 has been registered by the national variety-releasing technical and standing committee by the given name “Chare” for commercial production for the North Shewa sorghum-growing areas.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of thysanoptera populations in Hungarian greenhouses<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Studies were performed on sweet pepper and on weeds in their surroundings from 2005 to 2007 in the Jászság region, on different vegetables and ornamentals from 2015 to 2016 throughout Hungary, and on some indoor ornamental plants in Budapest and Kecskemét in 2017. These studies were carried out in greenhouses. The main objectives of this work was to clarify the consistency of Thysanoptera populations in these greenhouses and, secondly, as part of the official monitoring of <italic>Thrips palmi</italic> Karny and <italic>Thrips setosus</italic> Moulton, the study also focused on the first appearance of these pests in Hungary. An important additional aim was to determine which reservoirs were significant in the risk of Thysanoptera species transmitting tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Regarding the surveys conducted, the most frequent Thysanoptera species present in large numbers during the investigation period in every greenhouse was <italic>Frankliniella occidentalis</italic> Pergande. Also, a significant amount of <italic>Echinothrips americanus</italic> Morgan was found on ornamentals in southern Hungary, whereas on indoor ornamental plants only <italic>Hercinothrips femoralis</italic> O. M. Reuter was found.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The short- and long-term effects of changes of vegetation structure on isopod (Oniscidea) diversity and composition in Mátra Mountains<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the present study was to examine the short- and long-term effects of changes in vegetation structure caused by shrub removal and mowing on isopod diversity and composition in Natura 2000 habitats of Mátra Landscape Protection Area. Species richness and isopod diversity increased in the short term as a result of annual changes in vegetation; however, the values of both indices were reduced in the long term. The changes in vegetation structure on a regional scale led to a reduced isopod diversity in the short and long term. The changes in vegetation structure caused alterations in community structure in the long term. We conclude that changes of vegetation structure have a negative effect on species richness and the diversity of isopod communities in the long term.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Phenotypic characterization of Ethiopian finger millet accessions ( (L.) Gaertn), for their agronomically important traits<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Cereal finger millet (<italic>Eleusine coracana</italic> (L.) Gaertn) is one of the most promising vital crops of Asia and Africa in the face of climate change. It has a capacity to adapt to extreme environmental conditions and can be grown under a wide range of wider agroecology. It is believed to be originated in the highlands of Ethiopia and then disseminated across the globe. It is mainly cultivated as dietary staple food for humans, animal feeds and also used as medicinal crop. Though finger millet is recognized as the most important staple crop, particularly for the poor people in dry and semidry areas, it has been neglected and given little concern in mainstreaming the crop for its improvement research.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The issues of urban green space in Baia Mare based on tree composition<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Harmonious urbanization entails the creation of new green spaces and the rehabilitation of existing ones. Green spaces are not just spaces of psychic well-being but also social interaction sites. Present-day practice in redesign requires taking into consideration the ones using the spaces, in our case, the needs of urban residents, since space needs to have a crucial role in building and maintaining communities. This paper aims at drawing attention to conflicts regarding use mainly due to improper design and use of plant material and, in addition to the importance of green spaces, the need for quality green spaces.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Historical gardens of the Banat region<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the article is the studying of a frequently seen phenomenon, which is the loss of value as far as some buildings and their surroundings are concerned, which, at the moment of their construction, held great historical and architectural value, but in time they have gradually lost their value due to political, social, and cultural changes. In the Banat region of the first half of the 19<sup>th</sup> century, we can remark the dominance of the neoclassical style. The parks of the Banat region, apart from their role of satisfying the visual aesthetic appearances, are very well adapted to the place. They are unique, but the pattern after which they were conceived is common, according to the fashion of the era in which they were created. The subject of the research develops around the historical gardens belonging to certain historical monuments. The aim of researching these landscape arrangements is the investigation of the present-day situation and their evolution that has led to their actual transformation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Genetic diversity study of sorghum ( (L.) Moenc) genotypes, Ethiopia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Sorghum bicolor</italic> is one of the most important cereal crops around the world, particularly in Africa, highly cultivated for dietary staple. For this reason, a good knowledge and usage of this genetic resource in sorghum accessions is highly vital for improving crop quality. Analysis of genetic variability among the accessions will enable accurate results in breeding. The research design used was augmented design, which is common in many gene banks. This research finding would be used later by plant breeders to select best performers for further evaluation of the crop and obtain a new variety of sorghum.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Damage caused by the small red-belted clearwing borer ( Borkhausen) in cultivars grafted on different types of rootstocks<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Considerable damage caused by the red-belted clearwing was observed in the biologically controlled apple orchard. In all cases, the larvae were found in the tumourlike tissue proliferations developing at the grafting point of the rootstock (M9) and scion, while no larva was found in crowns and cut surfaces. Samplings involving different cultivars were implemented in two apple orchards; in Bősárkány, where trees are grafted on M9 rootstocks and tumours were found at grafting points, and in Mosonmagyaróvár, where trees are grafted on M26 rootstocks and no proliferations were found at graft unions. During the aforementioned samplings, the numbers of larvae living in the tissue proliferations were counted, the sizes of tumours were measured, and the flight dynamic of adult clearwings was investigated. Research results reveal that damage caused by the clearwing larvae was only observed in trunks with tumour-like disorders (Bősárkány), where feeding larvae were found in 15.3% of the examined trunks in cultivar Royal Gala, 4.6% in Idared, 2.6% in Jonagold, and 1.3% in Florina. We investigated whether there is a correlation between the size of tumours and the degree of damage. The highest rate of proliferations was found on cultivar Florina, where only a minimum degree of damage was experienced. The lowest rate of proliferations was observed on cultivar Gala, which suffered the highest degree of damage done by clearwing larvae.</p><p>According to sex-pheromone trap catches, the flight period of male clearwings occurred simultaneously in both studied orchards from mid-May to mid-August. On the basis of scent trap catch results, however, it has to be highlighted that females were only present at the Bősárkány research site.</p><p>It is assumed that the absence of females in the Mosonmagyaróvár orchard can be attributed to the fact that they did not find such suitable oviposition sites as tissue proliferations. Hence, egg-laying and damage caused by the larvae did not happen there either.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of nutrient content of tomato hybrids for processing<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>We have tested the refraction of 6 cultivars of open-field tomatoes. In our work, we have tested the nutritional values of tomato cultivars harvested at different times. Our aim was to answer the question as to which cultivar fulfils the requirements for processing under given circumstances. During harvest time, we also measured the ratio of yellow and red pigments. The trial was conducted in Kecskemét, Hungary, on the trial field of NAIK ZÖKO, in open-field conditions. The refraction measurement was done on weighted tomato, which was then ground to juice and then measured on a tabletop refractometer. The 6 tested cultivars Brix% were measured at 5 different harvest dates, and then the average refraction of the harvest was analysed. The most suitable cultivar for processing was found to be Solerosso.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Honey-bee production practices and hive technology preferences in Jimma and Illubabor Zone of Oromiya Regional State, Ethiopia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The study was conducted in two purposefully selected zones of Oromiya Regional State, namely Jimma and Illubabor. The objective of the study was to analyse the honey-bee production and to assess hive technology preferences in the study area. A total of 156 beekeepers were randomly and proportionately selected from four districts (Mana and Gomma from Jimma and Bacho and Yayo from Illubabor). Data were collected through formal survey and secondary sources. Accordingly, the average age of the beekeepers was 40.2 ± 8.13 years with an average of 13.5 ± 6.58 years of experience. The majority of the respondents (53.2%) in the study area got their colonies by catching swarms. Three hive types (traditional, transitional, and frame hive) were found in the study area. More than 70% of the respondents harvested once a year from traditional hives, while 25% of respondents harvested up to three times per year from frame hives. Moreover, an average of 22 ± 4.6 and 16 ± 4.1 kg of honey were harvested from frame and transitional hives per year, respectively. Compared to these two hives, a much lower (7 ± 1.6 kg) amount of honey was harvested from traditional hives. Various honey-bee floras were identified in the study area. Plants such as <italic>Vernonia amygdalina, Croton macrostachyus</italic>, and <italic>Schefflera sp</italic>. produce white honey. Half of the respondents’ preferred transitional hive followed by frame hive (37.2%). Factors which affect the use of frame hives were lack of equipment (36.5%) followed by wax quality and availability problems (34%). That is why few beekeepers tried to modify the frame hive to solve the problems of wax in vertical frame hive. In order to adopt and sustain modern hive technology, the focus should be on honey-bee equipment as well as wax quality and availability.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1