rss_2.0Autex Research Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Autex Research Journal Research Journal 's Cover Lean and Six Sigma Integration using Deep Learning: Applied to a Clothing Company<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Implementation of Lean and Six Sigma methodologies enable companies to boost their competitiveness and their efficiency. However, the adoption of these approaches is very much restricted in the Textile and Clothing sector in Morocco. In fact, despite all the advances in these methodologies and practical approaches, defining a rational implementation strategy such as the adequate chronology and the prediction of the expected success level are still a part of a fierce debate and an impediment for practitioners. The result is that only 11 companies out of 1,200 Moroccan clothing companies have successfully implemented Lean and Six Sigma. This article, based on an intelligent model, draws up a support tool to the clothing stakeholders, or otherwise aims to successfully integrate Lean and Six Sigma using Deep Learning. The neural network was trained for the prediction of success level rate and customizing of Lean and Six Sigma implementation chronology with the help of weights and maturity of a set of common critical success factors (CSFs). These CFSs were selected as input data. Then, the dataset have been used for training, testing, and validating the neural network model. To evaluate the trained network, 25% of the data have been used and a tuning hyperparameter process has been designed to reinforce the model performance. For the performance indices such as Categorical Cross Entropy (CCE), the defined loss function, accuracy, and precision have been evaluated and optimized. The developed model can then define the adequate chronology and predict success level with an accuracy of 97%. The trained neural network was then applied to a clothing company as a guide to the success of its continuous improvement project.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Developing Real Avatars for the Apparel Industry and Analysing Fabric Draping in the Virtual Domain<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The youth of today are much more technologically adept than previous generations. This has led to many technological innovations, and the development of these innovations has in turn altered our perception of the world. The film, gaming, and clothing industries have been forced to embrace new technology to satisfy the demand of people for a more realistic virtual experience. These industries all rely on the use of 3D avatars to create virtual depictions of the human body. In the gaming and film industry, the accuracy of the avatar is not so critical. The avatars used in computer games and CGI sections of films have soft contours, which look visually appealing, but are not necessarily accurate to the human form. By contrast, the apparel industry needs to focus on creating very accurate avatars, which represent each person's body shape for virtual fitting to achieve realistic, well-fitted garments. This article describes the methods used to build an avatar and compares the draping between the following scenarios: the real avatar with a real garment, the real avatar with a virtual garment, and finally the virtual avatar with a virtual garment. This research will help to understand how the body shape can affect the virtual fit.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Blend Electrospinning of Poly(Ɛ-Caprolactone) and Poly(Ethylene Glycol-400) Nanofibers Loaded with Ibuprofen as a Potential Drug Delivery System for Wound Dressings<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Electrospinning (ES) is a versatile and diverse technique to fabricate nano and micro fibers that could be utilized as drug delivery systems. The aim of this research was the fabrication and characterization of drug loaded nanofibrous scaffold produced by single-needle ES using poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene glycol-400) (PEG) and to investigate the potential of this material as a drug delivery system. A model drug, Ibuprofen (IBU), was used. Ibuprofen is a medicine that is a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Two concentrations of IBU, 5 wt% and 7 wt%, were incorporated for the ES of PCL and PCL/PEG nanofibers. Characterization of nanofibers was done by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Water Contact Angle Measurements. The impact of IBU on nanofibers’ properties such as morphology, diameters, hydrophilicity, and tensile strength was investigated. Finally, the drug release kinetics of IBU from nanofibers was analyzed and their percentage release efficiency of IBU (RE%) was determined by UV-vis spectroscopy during 24 h.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-26T00:00:00.000+00:00A Novel Foam Coating Approach to Produce Abrasive Structures on Textiles<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Abrasive materials are classified as paper, nonwoven, or plastic-based multilayer structures, which are used for different kinds of surface finishing. Currently, the production of abrasive structures on textiles is carried out by spraying a slurry of binder and abrasive particles, e.g., Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> or SiC, with subsequent drying and curing of the binder. The drawback of this production method is the poor runnability of the spraying process. Even small variations in the process parameters may lead to an uneven coating. Therefore, a novel coating approach was developed to produce abrasive structures with foam coating on textile substrates. The foam coating method, which is commonly used in the textile industry, has the potential to produce an even coating layer. The runnability and reliability of the foam coating process are good even with high solids. From a workplace safety perspective, another advantage of foam coating is that there are no airborne particles during the coating process. A polyamide woven cloth was foam coated with an aqueous slurry containing abrasive grains (SiC), a water-based UV-curable acrylate binder, and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) to adjust the slurry rheology. Stable abrasive-binder foams were generated from the slurries even at high solids of 50% using an anionic foaming agent. The cloth was foam coated and dried, and the resin was cured with a LED-UV lamp on a pilot scale. It was observed that without the addition of CNC the foam did not stay on the surface of the cloth after coating. CNC acts as a rheology modifier and co-binder, which prevent the foam from penetrating deeper into the pores of the cloth. CNC also acted as a dispersing agent: the slurry was effectively stabilized by the CNC to prevent sedimentation of the abrasive grains. An organic solvent-free composition was introduced by combining CNC with a water-based UV-resin.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-26T00:00:00.000+00:00A Fabric-Based Integrated Sensor Glove System Recognizing Hand Gesture<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The research on wearable glove sensor system has been increasing over recent years because of the need for portability and comfort. This study presents a fabric-based integrated sensor glove system with five sensing zones. Five sensors are knitted by silver-plated nylon yarn and embedded into glove directly using intarsia technology. Various parameters including sensor elasticity, sizes of embedded sensor as well as glove are discussed, respectively. Further, selected or chosen integrated sensor glove is manufactured and tested for recognizing gestures. Results show that elasticity affects effective sensing range of knitted sensors, size has significant influence on sensors’ sensitivity, and appropriate glove size helps avoiding nonlinear sensing phenomenon. Finally, the glove system, by extracting feature data, can distinguish Chinese number gestures very well and has also the potential to recognize more hand gestures in the future.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Yarn Damage Evaluation in the Flat Knitting Process<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Textile yarns are subjected to numerous types of forces during knitting, usually leading to yarn damages, such as decrease in tensile, bending, shearing, and surface properties, which are closely related to different yarn properties, knitted structures/actions, and machine settings. This article comprehensively evaluated yarn damages in the computerized flat knitting process. Five different commercially available and commonly used yarns including cotton, wool, polyester, acrylic, and viscose were selected as raw materials, and the tensile, bending, shear, and frictional properties were investigated and compared before knitting and after being unraveled from plain- and rib-knitted fabrics, respectively. The results show that knitting actions/structures exhibit different damage extents for all different raw materials. It has been observed that the modulus is declined by 3–30% for bending, 2–10% for tensile, and 8–80% for shearing due to flat knitting action, respectively. The frictional coefficient of yarns also increased from 6 to 23%. As compared to yarn before knitting, the yarns unroved from plain and rib structures have been damaged to a great extent as a result of the loss of mechanical properties. The results are completely in agreement with the statistical analysis that clearly represents the significant loss in yarn properties during the knitting process. The microscopic analysis of the yarns clearly illustrates the effect of knitting action on yarn surface and mechanical properties. For yarn’s cross-sectional shearing properties testing, this article self-designed an innovative “Yarn Shear Testing Device.” The methodology and results are of great importance for improving the quality of knitted products, evaluating knitting yarns’ knittability, and in the development of high-performance technical textiles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Changeover Process Assessment of Warp-Knitting Let-Off Equipped with Multispeed Electronic Let-Off System<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Warp-knitted fabrics have gained increasing attention due to their excellent properties, and their production is strongly dependent on the warp-based electronic let-off system. Most of the existing control systems are single speed electron let-off structure, which brings a series of issues such as broken yarn, missed needle, and running thread caused by let-off delay, making it hard for manufacturer to produce the required fabrics. To fill the gap, this article proposes a new framework of a multispeed electronic let-off system for warp knitting based on closed-loop control strategy. As a demonstration of the capacity and generalizability of this newly proposed methodology, the 01-type four-channel acoustic vibration analyzer is used to test and analyze the time of switching, the let-off amounts, and the change in warp tension during the process of switching let-off amounts, including the explanation and comparison of difference values of let-off quantities. It is shown that the proposed method for the production of warp-knitted fabrics is a useful method for achieving digital manufacture of warp-knitted fabrics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Thermal Analysis of Heating–Cooling Mat of Textile Incubator for Infants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>On the medical device market there are several types of stationary and portable incubators that can be used in the care of infants. The prototype of a textile incubator made as part of this work consists of five material layers. The textile incubator is equipped with a functional heating and cooling mat, which is made on the basis of 3D channeled weft-knitted fabric. Its function is to generate heat and maintain it inside the textile incubator or to cool the baby's body while using therapeutic hypothermia. The mat is equipped with hoses transporting the heating or cooling medium.</p> <p>The mat, depending on variable input parameters, can emit heat in the range from 1.15 W to 86.88 W. In case of the cooling function, it can receive heat in the range from −4.32 to −27.96 W. This indicates a large adjustment range of the amount of heat supplied and received, which is a positive feature, and enables programming the heat balance to ensure comfort for the baby.</p> <p>The analysis of temperature measurements on the mat surface confirmed that maximum temperature differences do not exceed 1.6°C.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of Textile Heating Element in Simulated Wearing Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research was focused on the heating capacity of developed, isolated from water penetration, knitted textile heating element with incorporated conductive silver (Ag)- plated yarns, which can be used in manufacturing heating textile products intended for recreation, sports, or health care for elderly. The aim of the investigation was to obtain an appropriate temperature on a human skin, generated by the textile heating element surface at a lower voltage depending on a variety of wearing conditions indoor. Depending on the supplied voltage to the heating element, an incoming electric energy can be converted into different heat. Therefore, the electrical and achieved temperature parameters of heating elements are very important by selecting and adapting required power source devices and by setting the logical parameters of programmable controllers. The heating–cooling dynamic process of developed textile heating element was investigated at different simulated wearing conditions on a standard sweating hot plate and on a human skin at applied voltages of 3V and 5V. It was discovered that a voltage of 5 V is too big for textile heating elements, because the reached steady state temperature increases to approximately 39–40°C, which is too hot for contact with the human skin. The voltage of 3 V is the most suitable to work properly and continuously, i.e., to switch on when the adjusted temperature is too low and to turn off when the necessary temperature is reached. Based on the values of reached steady-state heating temperature, the influence of the applied voltage, ambient air flow velocity, and heating efficiency, depending on various layering of clothes, was determined. Recorded temperatures on the external surface of the heating element provided the possibility to assess its heat loss outgoing into the environment. It was suggested that heat loss can be reduced by increasing thermal insulation properties of the outer layer of the heating element or using layered clothing. On the basis of the resulted heating characteristics, recommended parameters of power source necessary for wearable textile heating element were defined.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The Eco-Modification of Textiles Using Enzymatic Pretreatment and New Organic UV Absorbers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Textile fabrics were subjected to bio-pretreatment using high-activity laccase from Cerrena unicolor for comparison to standard alkaline scouring and organic absorber of ultraviolet (UV) radiation based on 1,3,5-triazine derivatives. The basic aim of the study was the development of textiles made of natural cellulose fibers (mainly flax or its blends with cotton) to provide barrier properties against UV radiation. Controlled application of enzymatic pretreatment of woven fabrics made of natural cellulose fibers allows for an efficient removal of impurities from these fibers, resulting in the improvement of sorptive properties and good penetration of dyeing agents, UV organic absorbers and other chemical modifiers, into the textile structure. In this way, products with UV-protection properties (ultraviolet protection factor &gt;40) are obtained. These innovative barrier materials can be used for outdoor textiles that protect professional people from harmful effects of UV radiation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Thermal Protective Performance of Firefighters’ Clothing Under Low-Intensity Radiation Heat Exposure<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The stored energy provided by the fabric assemblies will greatly influence the thermal protection performance (TPP) of firefighters’ protective clothing under low-intensity radiation heat exposure. In this study, two test methods, namely radiant protective performance (RPP) and stored energy test (SET), were used to investigate the TPP of the fabric assemblies. The results indicated that T<sub>SET</sub> value was lower than T<sub>RPP</sub> value because of the release of the stored energy in the fabric assemblies after heat exposure. Increasing the fabric layer numbers, air gap between the fabric assemblies would increase the time of T<sub>RPP</sub> and T<sub>SET</sub>, indicating that the thermal stored energy weakened the TPP of the firefighters’ protective clothing. Moreover, the T<sub>RPP</sub> and T<sub>SET</sub> of the fabric system would be increased when the moisture barrier was cut in the fabric combination system. These findings suggested that stored energy should be considered in analyzing the TPP of fabric assemblies..</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Basis Weight Uniformity Indexes for the Evaluation of Fiber Injection Molded Nonwoven Preforms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fiber injection molding is an innovative approach for the manufacturing of nonwoven preforms but products currently lack a homogeneous fiber distribution. Based on a mold-integrated monitoring system, the uniformity of the manufactured preforms will be investigated. As no universally accepted definition or method for measuring uniformity is accepted yet, this article aims to find a suitable uniformity index for evaluating fiber injection molded nonwovens. Based on a literature review, different methods are implemented and used to analyze simulated images with given distribution properties, as well as images of real nonwovens. This study showed that quadrant-based methods are suitable for evaluating the basis weight uniformity. It has been found that the indexes are influenced by the number of quadrants. Changes in sample size do not affect the indexes when keeping the quadrant number constant. The quadrants-based calculation of the coefficient of variation showed the best suitability as it shows good robustness and steady index for varying degrees of fiber distribution.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-21T00:00:00.000+00:00The Influence of Brand on Consumer Quality Assessment of Clothes: A Case Study of the Polish Market<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents the results of research carried out based on consumer assessment of the quality of clothing using sensory analysis. The study aimed to determine the role of the brand and information about it in assessing product quality and identify the quality parameters that distinguish brands of a similar quality level. An attempt was also made to classify popular brands of clothing available on the Polish market based on the parameters that determine their quality. A significant impact of the brand name on the sensory assessment of clothes’ quality has been reported. The study has shown that assessors attribute higher rating values to quality features when they know the product brand; moreover, the brand and its information shortens the assessment time, which may suggest that it simplifies and facilitates consumers’ decision-making process. The result analysis has led to the identification of three groups of the factors determining the quality of clothing products: fabric composition, workmanship, and all other variables. It has also led to the separation of three clusters, characterized by different levels of product quality, for which sets of features distinguishing a given category were determined.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of Ergonomically Designed Functional Bra for Women with Hemiplegia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hemiplegia is the lifelong paralysis, caused by brain stroke that affects one side of the body. Stroke exerts a great threat to patient’s health and lives, and hemiplegia after stroke may severely affect their activities of daily life including self-dressing that causes fatigue and frustration and ultimately ended with “dependence on others.” This situation damages the sense of dignity, especially for women, while independently dressing intimate apparel like bra. The research through the design approach is used as the conceptual framework to design and evaluate bra for the women with hemiplegia. Three design criteria were identified from which specifications were developed, and their interrelationships explored through an interaction matrix. This article presents a research work on improving bra design, adjusted to the special needs and demands of an individual with hemiplegia, by using bi-layer knitted fabric, magnetic fasteners, and shape-memory alloys. The findings of the current study showed that adaptive bra design offers independence, concealment of the disability, and comfort and psychological contentment. This adaptive bra promotes the harmony between functionality and esthetics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Kinematic Comparison of a Heald Frame Driven by A Rotary Dobby with A Cam-Slider, A Cam-Link and A Null Modulator<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The kinematics of the heald frame of a rotary dobby with two different modulator types are analyzed and compared. Kinematic mathematical models of the modulator main shaft, cam unit, and heald frame driven by the rotary dobby with a cam-slider modulator and a cam-link modulator were constructed based on two different cam contours derived from measured points on the conjugate cams of the two modulators. The motion characteristics of the two modulators and a null modulator, the cam unit, and the motion transmission unit are analyzed. The purpose of the present study was to establish the kinematic models, investigate the motion characteristics, and analyze their differences. At the same time, a calculation method for each motion transmission process was established and numerical models were developed. The results demonstrated that the two different modulators produce almost the same heald frame motion characteristics. Despite that both modulator types can be adapted to the requirements of a loom, the cam-link modulator can produce a more stable and reliable motion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Limitations of the CAD-CAM System in the Process of Weaving<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The weaving process is constantly evolving in terms of productivity, quality, and possibilities of fabrication of different fabric structures and shapes. This article covers some issues that have still not been resolved and represents distracting factors in the woven fabrics production. In the development of woven fabric using the CAD technology, it is inevitably a deviation of the virtual image on the computer screen from the woven sample. According to comprehensive industry analyses, the findings of many authors who contributed to the resolution of these problems can be concluded that these problems are still present in the development and production of striped, checkered, and jacquard woven fabrics. In this article, jacquard, multicolor woven fabrics were investigated, with deviations in pattern sizes and shades of color in warp and weft systems compared to virtual simulation on the computer, as well as the tendency of the weft distortion arising from the weaving process leading to the pattern deformation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Surface Characteristics of Seersucker Woven Fabrics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The surface characteristics of fabrics are important from the point of view of the sensorial comfort of clothing users. Surface friction and surface roughness are the most important surface parameters of fabrics. These parameters can be measured using different methods, the most important and well-accepted method being that using the Kawabata evaluation system (KES)-FB4 testing instrument. In this work, the surface roughness and surface friction of the seersucker woven fabric have been determined using the KES-FB4. However, the measurement procedure needs modification. On the basis of the results, the influence of the repeat of the seersucker effect and the linear density of the weft yarn on the surface parameters has been determined.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Polish Textile and Apparel Industry: Global Supply Chain Management Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents changes that took place in the textile and apparel (T&amp;A) industry in Poland in the years 2004–2020. To describe the changes, we adopted the supply chain management perspective, which allowed for a global view of the changes taking place. We discuss the basic characteristics, such as the size and structure of the industry, innovation, production value, and the use of information and communications technology (ICT). In the research, we used the databases of the Central Statistical Office (GUS) on the sold production of the T&amp;A industry, as well as imports and exports. Our research shows that, at the level of basic characteristics, the industry is close to the European model. However, it is characterized by a smaller share of small companies in the structure of enterprises. The research showed an upward trend in the production of sold textiles and, to a lesser extent, apparel. At the same time, the operation of the Polish T&amp;A industry is influenced by the import of finished products and raw materials from China, Germany, Bangladesh, and Turkey. The export is directed to the German, Czech, Romanian, and Ukrainian markets. The article provides an overview of the development trends in the Polish T&amp;A industry in the broad context of international conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Structural Damage Characteristics of a Layer-to-Layer 3-D Angle-Interlock Woven Composite Subjected to Drop-Weight Impact<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The most attractive structural feature of the three-dimensional (3D) angle-interlock woven structure is that the straight weft yarns are bundled by the undulated warp yarns, which induces the overall good structural stability and a stable fabric structure. Thus the 3-D angle-interlock woven composite (3DAWC) prepared by the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) curing process has excellent mechanical properties by using the fabric and epoxy resin as the reinforcement and matrix, respectively. The low-velocity impact damage properties of the composites under different drop-weight energies (70, 80, and 100 J) were tested experimentally. The load–displacement curves, energy–time curves, and the ultimate failure modes were obtained to analyze the performance of resistance to low-velocity impact, as well as the impact energy absorption effect and failure mechanism, especially the structural damage characteristics of the 3DAWC subjected to the low-velocity impact of drop weight. By analyzing the obtained experimental results, it is found that the fabric reinforcement is the primary energy absorption component and the impact energy mainly propagates along the longitudinal direction of the yarns, especially the weft yarn system, which is arranged in a straight way. In addition, as the impact energy increases, the energy absorbed and dissipated by the composite increases simultaneously. This phenomenon is manifested in the severity of deformation and damage of the material, i.e., the amount of deformation and size of the damaged area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Durability Assessment of Composite Structural Element Reinforced with Fabric due to Delamination<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Layer composites reinforced with fabrics – laminates are construction materials in which mechanical properties can be shaped by designing their microstructure appropriately. However, the multi-phase microstructure of laminates makes it difficult to calculate the strength of the laminate constructions, especially when the reinforcement is a fabric. The article presents a special calculation model for determining the strength of an exemplary construction element made of laminate reinforced with a roving fabric with a plain weave made of carbon fibers. The computational model reflected in a simplified way the laminate microstructure, i.e. the number and orientation of the reinforcement fabric layers and its weave, and enabled a simulation of the behavior of the construction element under load up to fracture, which occurred as a result of breaking the reinforcement and interlayer crack – delamination. The simulation results were compared with the results of experimental stand tests. A method of modifying the computational model for laminates reinforced with non-plain weave was also suggested.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-06T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1