rss_2.0Environmental & Socio-economic Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Environmental & Socio-economic Studieshttps://sciendo.com/journal/ENVIRONhttps://www.sciendo.comEnvironmental & Socio-economic Studies 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/60e77f8972d1ef3ea5f9aeb8/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20210924T081931Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20210924%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=3b5dfe03ce24cd1a9098af0c9b35203d74c7d4f313b432d28f88e5131598a728200300Estimating the recreational value for the sustainability of Hingol National Park in Pakistanhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2021-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hingol National Park (HNP), in Baluchistan, Pakistan, is rich in biodiversity and has a variety of eco-services and marine eco-services. It has dune and mountain habitats that provide a significant environment for wildlife, including amphibians, dolphins, green marine turtles, and migratory birds, but the number of species is declining. HNP faces many problems such as unregulated tourism and lack of a budget to protect and conserve precious wildlife. The study used a negative binomial regression model and a zero-truncated regression model to estimate the visitors’ travel demand and recreational value of the National Park by collecting a sample of 210 respondents.. The study estimated a consumer surplus of USD 270 per person per visit and thus a total annual recreational value of the park at USD 35.11 million. Since the elasticity of demand is low, the study suggests the imposition of an entrance fee of USD 0.86 (PKR 100) that would generate an annual revenue of USD 113,000. It is recommended that both provisional and federal governments should take the necessary steps to maintain and promote heritage tourism in the region by reshaping the national parks for the protection of scarce natural resources and the protection of biodiversity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Ageing in European post-communist countries – is it a threat to the welfare system?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to diagnose the current and projected pace of ageing in the societies of European post-communist countries from the point of view of its being an increasing economic burden on the economically active population. The analysis covered the years 1990–2050. Ageing is already visible and, according to the forecast, the process will accelerate even more. The old-age dependency ratio (OADR) is expected to exceed 50 in half of the countries in the study by 2050. This will result in major threats to the further development of these countries and will lead to poverty and social exclusion of the elderly. In order to slow down the ageing process, the authorities of these countries should take a number of actions, the most important of which are the implementation of an effective and efficient pro-natal policy (so that the total fertility rate would increase above 2.1), and a well-thought-out migration policy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The current landscape fire management in Ukraine and strategy for its improvementhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recurrent wildfires in Ukraine exert severe impacts on the environment, human health and security as well as damage to private and public assets. From 2007 to 2020, the frequency of large wildfires has increased and reached a level that has not occurred previously. The period during April-October 2020 was the worst in modern Ukrainian history for the occurrence of catastrophic fires, e.g. in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (67 000 ha), Zhytomyr oblast (43 000 ha), Lugansk oblast (35 000 ha) and Kharkiv oblast (8 000 ha). In Ukraine there is the additional problem of open burning, mainly burning agriculture residues, which covers two million hectares (ha) annually. State forestry enterprises who are responsible for the management of 71% of the Ukrainian forests (7.6 million ha)and agricultural holdings are also responsible for the management of 41.3 million ha of croplands. The remaining forest users manage forest areas of 3.1 million ha within reserves and national nature parks. This article presents a brief overview of the problem of forest fires as well as of fires in other landscapes in Ukraine, and includes a critical reviews of the current wildfire management system and a description of the main features of the national wildfire management strategy. It also highlights the results of a survey of numerous stakeholders conducted on landscape fires in Ukraine. Based on the review of global and regional experiences, as well as existing fire risks in Ukraine, recommendations were developed for implementing an integrated landscape level national fire management approach.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Monitoring the extent and impacts of watershed urban development in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, using a combination of population dynamics, remote sensing and GIS techniqueshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Several urban centres of different sizes have developed over time, and continue to grow, within the basin of Lake Victoria. Uncontrolled urban development, especially along the lake shore, puts environmental pressure on Lake Victoria and its local ecosystem. This study sought to monitor the extent and impacts of urban development (as measured by population growth and built-up land use/land cover) in the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya, between 1978 and 2018. Remote sensing and GIS-based land use/land cover classification was conducted to extract change in built-up areas from Landsat 3, 4, 5 and 8 satellite imagery obtained for the month of January at intervals of ten years. Change in population distribution and density was analysed based on decadal census data from the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics between 1979 and 2019. A statistical regression model was then estimated to relate population growth to built-up area expansion. Results indicate that the basin’s built-up area has expanded by 97% between 1978 and 2018 while the population increased by 140% between 1979 and 2019. Urban development was attributed to the rapidly increasing population in the area as seen in a positive statistical correlation (R<sup>2</sup>=0.5744) between increase in built-up area and population growth. The resulting environmental pressure on the local ecosystem has been documented mainly in terms of degradation of lake water quality, eutrophication and aquatic biodiversity loss. The study recommends the enactment and implementation of appropriate eco-sensitive local legislation and policies for sustainable urban and rural land use planning in the area. This should aim to control and regulate urban expansion especially in the immediate shoreline areas of the lake and associated riparian zones.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The consequences of expropriation of agricultural land and loss of livelihoods on those households who lost land in Da Nang, Vietnamhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Acquisition of large-scale agricultural land for urbanization and industrialization is a widespread phenomenon in Vietnam. This acquisition has impacted those households whose land was expropriated in many ways, such as economic, cultural, and social aspects. In this research, the author surveyed 100 households who lost their land for Da Nang Hi-Tech Park project to collect data about the change in their livelihoods and the satisfaction level with their quality of life. This study aimed to answer three questions relating to employment, compensation expenses, and life. The results show that these householders still have many difficulties adapting to a new life after nearly ten years. The unemployment rate increases, but it depends on the gender and age of the worker. Compared with the five years ago, the households’ incomes also decreased by 190 USD/household. The misuse of compensation money paid for their has also had negative impacts on their livelihoods. Some other problems such as environmental pollution and social evils have put pressure on households who lost their land. Hence, most of these households want to return to their previous agricultural life.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00An assessment of the aviation industry’s impact on air pollution from its emissions: worldwide and the Ukrainehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>CO<sub>2</sub> emissions are one of the main causes of the global problem of climate change, the solution to which requires the efforts of every country. One of the main polluters is the energy sector, which includes transport. Despite the seemingly small share of aviation in emissions, its role as a polluter and CO<sub>2</sub> emitter cannot be underestimated due to calculated specific rate and a number of factors that were researched. The purpose of this study was to analyze the aviation share in the polluters’ structure and to study if Covid-19 restrictions influence on it, to investigate the share of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions from air transport in Ukraine and to assess its impact, to forecast CO<sub>2</sub> emissions in Ukraine by 2030 and to build scenarios of possible changes in the direction of decarbonization in the aviation industry. Analysis and synthesis, comparison, methods of pairwise regression and modelling scenarios were used for solving these tasks. The results show that the aviation industry could achieve the carbon reduction targets only by applying different types of carbon pricing with conducting the research and development in the sphere. The last significant improvement in aircraft design technologies and flight operations was achieved almost 60 years ago. Economic incentives at the international and local scales should be used to stimulate aviation manufacturers to invest significant money on R&amp;D to find stable solutions to achieve decarbonization. Development of Ukrainian aviation industry should not stand aside from global trends and must meet modern challenges, including environmental issues. The created scenarios show solutions to achieve decarbonization goals that align with EU best practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The disappearance of inland dunes landscape – a case study from southern Polandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents changes in the landscape of inland dunes in one of the basins in the eastern part of Silesian Upland. Based on the analysis of archival maps and historical sources, the former dune landscape of Dąbrowa Basin was reconstructed. The current state of its preservation was determined based on contemporary cartographic materials and field research. It was established that the dunes occur on the floodplain, under-slope flattening, and cuesta escarpment (Ząbkowice Hummock)). The source of aeolian sands was fluvioglacial and alluvial deposits, which, as a result of aeolian transport, were moved to higher and higher morphological levels and stabilized on a substrate of different lithology and age. The impermeability of the bedrock – tills, clays, mudstones, siltstones had a significant influence on the dune landscape. It resulted in the presence of wetlands and peat bogs in the vicinity of most dunes. Consequently, the landscape of the valley was distinguished by a lot of contrast in terms of vegetation - dry pine forests or grassy areas on the dunes and moisture-loving vegetation in their surroundings. However, this landscape was under strong human pressure. Most of the dunes (3/4) have been destroyed in the last hundred years due to sand mining and industrial and residential construction. One of the largest dune fields in the Przemsza River basin and most floodplain and under-slope flattening dunes were utterly destroyed. In addition, an interesting dune at Triassic clays was almost fully exploited, and a rare case on the Silesian Upland where a dune entered the Triassic limestones was partially covered with concrete. There are only 25 dunes in the study area - they deserve protection both as the last fragments of the inland dunes landscape in this part of the Silesian Upland and for historical and natural reasons.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The damage caused by landslides in socio-economic spheres within the Kigezi highlands of South Western Ugandahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An assessment of the socio-economic implications of landslide occurrence in the Kigezi highlands of South Western Uganda was conducted. Landslide occurrence is on the increase and threatens community livelihoods in these highlands. Detailed field investigations were undertaken with the help of local communities between June 2018 and May 2020 to identify and map recent and visible landslide scars in Rukiga uplands of Kigezi highlands. In the course of field inventories, 85 visible landslide scars were identified and mapped using handheld GPS receivers to produce a landslide distribution map for the study area. A socio-economic analysis was conducted to establish the effects of landslide damage on people’s livelihoods as well as their existing coping and adaptation mechanisms. The assessment was administered through field observations and surveying, focus group discussions, key informants and household interviews as well as the use of Local Government Environmental Reports. The study established an increase in the spatial-temporal distribution of landslides over the Kigezi highlands in the past 40 years. The landslides have resulted in a reduction in the quality of land, loss of lives, destruction of transport infrastructures, settlements, farmlands, crops and other socio-economic infrastructures. Therefore, it is important to look for reliable and sustainable measures to prevent landslide hazards. Total landscape reforestation with deep-rooted trees can possibly reduce the landslide risk. It is also important to undertake policy implementation for preparedness and mitigation plans against landslides in this region and in the country at large. Proper soil and water conservation measures could help in enhancing soil strength against landslide hazards.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00An evaluation of the conservation status of the forest vegetation of the Volyn Upland, Ukrainehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current conservation status of the rare vascular plant species and rare forest communities of the Volyn Upland (Ukraine) was characterized and analyzed. We found 14 rare plant species belonging to the Red Data Book of Ukraine in this territory (<italic>Lycopodium annotium</italic> L., <italic>Allium ursinum</italic> L., <italic>Cephalanthera longifolia</italic> (L.) Fritsch, <italic>Cephalanthera rubra</italic> (L.) Rich., <italic>Cypripedium calceolus</italic> L., <italic>Epipactis atrorubens</italic> (Hoffm.) Schult., <italic>E. helleborine</italic> (L.) Crantz, <italic>Lilium martagon</italic> L., <italic>Listera ovata</italic> (L.) R. Br., <italic>Neottia nidus-avis</italic> (L.) Rich., <italic>Platanthera bifolia</italic> (L.) Rich., <italic>P. chlorantha</italic> (Cust.) Reichenb., <italic>Galanthus nivalis</italic> L., <italic>Carex umbrosa</italic> Host) and 28 locally rare species preserved within the Volyn, Rivne and Lviv regions. The major threats for these species were indicated. Four rare associations, according to the Green Data Book of Ukraine, were studied in the Volyn Upland (<italic>Carpineto (betuli)–Quercetum (roboris) hederosum (helicis)</italic>, <italic>Carpineto (betuli)–Fraxineto (excelsioris)–Quercetum (roboris) alliosum (ursini)</italic>, <italic>Tilieto (cordatae)–Carpineto (betuli)–Quercetum (roboris) alliosum (ursini)</italic> and <italic>Pinetum (sylvestris) caricosum (humilis)</italic>) and their structure, main features and status were characterized in detail. The importance of further research, and the development of recommendations for the conservation and continued preservation of these forest ecosystems of the Volyn Upland was highlighted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of changes in the quality of ground water in the area of landfill site in Poczesna (South Poland) using the LWPI indexhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Municipal waste landfill is a potential, or actual, source of groundwater pollution. Even landfill with a ground containment system can generate leachate that will migrate to aquifers. In this context, it is important to monitor water and leachate and to rationally analyze the existing situation. The purpose of this article was to assess groundwater contamination in the region of the municipal landfill site in Poczesna (Southern Poland) using the Landfill Water Pollution Index (LWPI). Certain physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Hg, were analyzed from samples from six piezometers in the years 2015-2019. The LWPI index values in the groundwater samples ranged from 0.97 to 3.11 (P&lt;0.05). Indicator values that are within the range 2-5 reflect poor water quality with a high visible landfill impact, and those &gt;5 suggest strongly polluted water with a very high landfill impact. The results of this study indicated that the quality of the groundwater in the area around the landfill was better in the case of the Jurassic aquifer compared to the Quaternary aquifer. The results provided by this index are very useful in the context of a quick assessment of groundwater quality. For the purposes of further risk analyses, it is important to consider other variables (chemical components) which can influence groundwater quality in the region of municipal landfill sites.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of regional demographics on Higher Education Policy. An example from Silesia, Polandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The determinants of higher education policy have their sources in various spheres, such as economic, social, educational, national policy, administrative, and demographic. Problems for the development of higher education also stem from these spheres. One of them is the challenging demographic situation that is a significant element of developing higher education in southern Poland (particuarly in the Silesia region). Given this context, this article aims to indicate the policies of the universities in the region which respond to the existing demographic threats. This relationship is to confront student opinions regarding their vision for their education and future career within the current demographic situation. Using research-based on an analysis of university and regional local government strategic documents and surveys carried out among students, we conclude that higher education development policy is responding to the demographic transformation. Meanwhile, students’ attitudes to the challenges of the demographic situation is quite “flexible” and relatively ambivalent. This article presents the contrast between the increasingly tricky demographic situation in Silesia, Poland, and the limited response in the two main groups of stakeholders – academic authorities and students – that require shaping higher education ipolicy towards future demographic challenges.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The population of () in the Valley of the River Svydnya, Eastern Ukraine (Desna basin)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A new locality for <italic>Crataegus ucrainica</italic> in the ravine-valley system of the River Svydnya valley (Desna basin) near the town of Krolevecz (Sumy region) has been reported. This article presents the results of a study of <italic>C. ucrainica</italic> within the species’ distribution. Based on a survey of the identified population, its ecological and coenotic features, and the ontogenetic state of the population are presented. The species is confined to areas with steep slopes, which are inaccessible for grazing, where clay deposits are exposed. The complexity of these ecotopes provides a good preservation of individuals in open meadows, forest edges, as well as in thickets of <italic>Robinia pseudoacacia</italic> and <italic>Populus alba</italic>. The coenotic affiliation of some individuals and thickets of this species to meadow-steppe, natural forest and spontaneous tree-shrub vegetation is noted. The state of the studied population in the Desna river basin is stable and sufficient for its preservation, its existence is due to the optimal hydrological regime of the slopes, which is associated with the presence of accumulated water at the bottom of valley s and a low groundwater level. The map shows the peculiarities of the distribution of the identified populations of <italic>C. ucrainica</italic> in Ukraine. A comparison of biotopes, ecotopes, soils, and vegetation types, in which populations of <italic>C. ucrainica</italic> in the area of their distribution are presented. Analysis of the seed products of this species according to analysis from different habitats allows us to assert the existence of favourable conditions for its distribution in the presence of optimal habitats.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Teachers’s attachments to their place of work and their working locality. A case study of geography teachers in the Silesian Voivodeship (Poland)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2019-0024<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The authors of the article sought to answer the questions: do geography teachers feel a tie with their place of work, what is the strength of this relationship and what factors influence these declared ties with the place. A step towards knowing the answers is the declared subjective assessment of emotional relationships with such a place. To this end, surveys were conducted among geography teachers. Due to their profession, they are a social group having a wide range of influence on young people and their attitudes towards their local geographical environment. Organizational reasons (the ability to reach teachers of all schools through the information exchange platform between Board of Education and school heads – so-called the headmasters panel) decided to examine a selected group of respondents – geography teachers of the Silesian Voivodeship. Google questionnaire was used as an electronic form of data collection. The research was quantitative and only partly qualitative. The analysis of the obtained results gave an interesting view of the perception of teachers' relations with the place where their school is located – their place of work. Almost all respondents declared the existence of a territorial bond with their place of work. The workplace itself is an important factor in the formation and strength of these ties. The length of residence in a given place was also important, and its type (town or a village) and size were less important. For half of the surveyed teachers, it was difficult for them to indicate the distinguishing feature (symbol) of their place of work, regardless of whether they were inhabitants or commuters from elsewhere.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of the implementation of a progressive tariffs policy on water management in DKI Jakarta, Indonesiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2019-0022<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The status of the availability of water resources in DKI (Indonesia’s Special Region of) Jakarta has reached a critical phase. Determination of progressive tariffs by the DKI Jakarta Provincial Government in 2007 aimed to encourage water users to use water resources rationally and in a sustainable way. However, since the launch of the policy, there has been no evaluation to determine the effectiveness of these progressive tariffs. This research analysed empirical data to examine the effect of policy interventions on water use behaviour in DKI Jakarta. An analysis was carried out by calculating water usage before progressive tariffs were applied and comparing them to water use after the tariffs were applied. Another analysis calculated the number of customers before and after the implementation of progressive tariffs and compared the changes. The increase in water prices plotted are stated in nominal value by assuming the average level of inflation in Jakarta (especially the price of water) was nearly under 2 percent and the price of water was not controlled by the market mechanism The results of this study indicate that before progressive tariffs were applied, water consumption had declined despite an increase in the number of customers, however, water consumption increased after the implementation. This shows that progressive tariffs are effective instruments to distribute clean water access through cross-subsidies, however, it has no effect on consumption levels.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00How blameless are hospitals in climate change? An example of a province in Turkeyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2019-0023<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Starting from the 1970s, the discussion about the negative effects of human activity on the world has accelerated and with a increasingly raised voice and it has been noted that the natural balance of our world was being altered. The World Health Organization has focused its policies and directives on strategies aimed on dealing with climate change (and its impact on human health), and diseases related to air pollution and implementing health-related sustainable development goals in climate friendly-hospitals. Hospitals exist to treat patients, but they also pollute the environment because hospitals consume a lot of energy and water and produce hazardous waste. These organizations need to work hard to improve their carbon footprints. The study investigated practices at 21 public hospitals in Konya, Turkey. Results show that domestic waste was on average 54.83 tons per year, medical waste was 33.59 tons per year and packing waste was 24.36 tons per year. It was determined that medical waste disposal costs on average of €26,800 per annum, and the amount of medical waste per bed was 1.15 kilograms per annum. According to 2014 medical waste data the average medical waste per bed of these hospitals in Konya province is less than the average in Turkish public hospitals, in which it is 1.18 kilograms per bed. The hospitals in our study were found to be especially inadequate at water management and did not pay much attention to green practices.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00The spatial correlation between social capital and crime: A case study of the new town of Pardis, Iranhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2019-0025<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The crime rate can vary in different geographical areas, and several studies have tried to explain the crime rate by concentrating on the socio-economic characteristics of an environment. The literature on the subject shows a lack of attention to spatial analysis and its relationship which this research attempts to address. The main aim of this study was to investigate the spatial correlation between social capital and crime in the city of Pardis in Iran. A five-point Likert questionnaire survey was conducted among 297 citizens of the new town of Pardis. The survey included 27 questions about the social capital component (trust, attention, awareness) and crime hotspots collected from the police office. A mapping raster layer of both crime and social capital and Band Collection Statistics Tools in ArcGIS were used to show the spatial correlation between crime and social capital. The main findings of this study revealed that there was a statistically significant reverse correlation between social capital and crime in the correlation matrix. The study also illustrated that some of the crime subsets such as fighting (r = -0.74), family conflicts (r = -0.72), and moral crime (r = - 0.62) were more related to social capital than other social capital components in a neighborhood.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Perceptions and practices of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies among farmers in the Konta Special District, Ethiopiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2019-0019<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Nowadays climate change is amongst the most critical problems affecting the wellbeing of human beings. In Ethiopia, where the majority of the population rely on agriculture, climate change has adverse effects. In rural areas, low resilient capacity to shocks exacerbates the impacts of climate change such as production failure, which in turn enormously contributed to food insecurity. In view of this fact, this study assessed the perceptions and practices of climate change and related adaptation and mitigation strategies among farmers in the Konta Special District, Southern Ethiopia, by using a mixed research approach involving a concurrent method of data collection and analysis. Quantitative data for this study was generated from 296 randomly selected survey households; while, qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and in-depth interviews. The findings of this study revealed that sample respondents recognized the occurrence climate change and its increasing adverse effects. Regarding its cause, a substantial proportion (46.8%) of the respondents perceived climate change as the wrath of God and a natural phenomenon rather than attributing it to human activities. Participants also acknowledged that anthropogenic factors such as deforestation are the major driving factors for climate change. The study found that farmers affirmatively perceive the feasibility of the majority of the strategies embraced in the Climate Resilient Green Economy initiative endorsed at national level. Understanding that climate change effects are less reversible, farmers were found to practice mitigation strategies such as afforestation, agroforestry and agricultural intensification more than adaptation strategies. Adaptation strategies such as fuel conservation technologies were perceived costly and complex given the economic capacity and skill of farmers. Hence, rural and agricultural development policies should initiate context sensitive adaptation and mitigation strategies to enhance the capability of smallholders to deal with the effects of climate change.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Service connections of the Katowice conurbation citieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2019-0020<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The study attempts to determine the service connections of the cities of the Katowice conurbation. The analysis was based on surveys conducted among 845 residents representing all cities in the conurbation, who were asked about using services in other cities. The collected material allowed the author to state that the practice of using services outside their place of residence, in other cities, is quite common, as 63% of respondents do so. The cities of the conurbation have a different impact on other centres, which allowed us to determine the service hierarchy of the conurbation cities. In all but one city, the inhabitants most often indicated that they used services located in Katowice, thus as the only city used this has an impact covering the entire Katowice conurbation. Seven other cities (Bytom, Chorzów, Dąbrowa Górnicza, Gliwice, Sosnowiec, Tychy and Zabrze) demonstrate sub-conurbation influences, which are mainly limited to neighbouring cities. The impact of cities within a mini-conurbation (4 cities) and a micro-conurbation (5 cities) were also identified. These have a limited impact on neighbouring centres, but, only in selected service areas. The collected information indicates that the inhabitants of the conurbation most often go to another city for commercial and cultural purposes and in connection with practising sports and recreation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of sustainable tourism potential of the principle Giant Mountains resorts in the Czech Republichttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/environ-2019-0021<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper proposes a new methodology for assessing the potential of sustainable tourism. It examines the overall potential of the landscape when faced with the negative impacts of tourism. Our assessment combines components of tourism and environmental sustainability. The methodology involved consultation with experts, and verification by tourists before being applied to the study area. The methodology was then applied to selected tourism centres in the Giant Mountains. The Giant Mountains are a popular tourist destination thanks to their outstanding natural beauty, and represent significant potential for tourism development. They are also one of the most over-burdened regions from tourism in the Czech Republic. However, many negative impacts of tourism exist, reducing the overall tourism potential of the region. Comparative results from the individual tourist centres in the study reveal the significant impact of potentially reducing attributes. Our assessment of the potential for sustainable tourism development in the area thus combines the environmental aspect of sustainable forms of tourism, with the identification of the most serious threats that need to be avoided to maintain the environment in the long-term. The results reveal the significant impact of excessive and inappropriate infrastructure and housing, as well as insufficient environmental education and legislation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Changes in local climate in the neighbourhood of the Ust-Ilimsk water reservoir on the Angara, Russiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/environ-2015-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper presents results of investigations on microclimate over one of the largest artificial water reservoirs in the world - Ust-Ilimsk on the Angara in Russia. It is located in the western edge of the Central Siberian Upland in the northern part of Irkutsk Oblast. The area of reservoir at a normal level of water damming (296 m a.s.l.) amounts to 1873 km2, the capacity of stored water - 59,4 km3, and the shoreline length is equal to 2384 km. The evaluation of the influence of the water reservoir on local climate was based on the analysis of data collected over many years measurements of a series of particular elements of the climate and carried out in the direct neighbourhood of the reservoir before (1936-1975) and after its construction in 1977. From the research the results show that the Ust-Ilimsk water reservoir distinctly influences the local climate of adjacent areas. The differences are mostly connected with the increase in total radiation and changes in the radiation balance of the reservoir, and the larger heat capacity of the water mass in comparison to land. As data from meteorological stations indicate, the climate in the neighbourhood of this water reservoir gains many new features and generally becomes milder. The average annual increase in air temperature over the reservoir shores reached 1.3°C, whereas with in land it was only 0.4°C. At every meteorological station (inshore and continental), in the summer period and during the whole year as well, the average sum precipitation decreased by 7-14%. In the winter, when polynya exist, the number of days with fogs increases over the reservoir. Fogs in the shore zone of the Ust-Ilimsk reservoir delay the coming of frosts by 1-2 weeks.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-05-23T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1