rss_2.0Herba Polonica FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Herba Polonica Polonica 's Cover extraction of phenolic compounds from coffee ( L. Linden) bee pollen<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Coffee bee pollen contains some precious bioactive compounds, especially phenolic compounds. This material is easily found in many regions in Vietnam and is quite useful for human health.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The main aim of this study was to determine the best extraction conditions for the total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of coffee (<italic>Coffea robusta</italic> L. Linden) bee pollen with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE).</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> TPC and AC of extract of coffee (<italic>C. robusta</italic>) bee pollen were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. In addition, micromorphology of sample was observed using scanning electron micrographs (SEM).</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The findings showed that all factors strongly affected the efficiency of the extraction process. The best extraction conditions obtained were ethanol concentration of 60% (<italic>v/v</italic>), solid to solvent ratio of 1/30 (<italic>w/v</italic>), extraction time of 7 min, and a microwave power of 314 W.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> The highest TPC and AC obtained were 13.73 mg GAE/g DW and 10.08 <italic>µ</italic>mol TE/g DW with aqueous ethanol as the solvent at the optimal extraction condition. In addition, the microstructures of the material changed insignificantly under microwave irradiation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Phytochemical characterization of leaves<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> <italic>Moringa oleifera</italic> (moringa) is a fast-growing tree from north India and Himalayan foothills considered to be one of the most nutritious species. Especially it’s leaves contain proteins in a high concentration, all essential amino acids, nutrients like calcium, iron, potassium and cooper, vitamin A, E and group B, and also antioxidants and polyphenols. Many studies have demonstrated the medicinal properties of moringa leaves consumption thanks to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, prevention of diabetes or antitumor and anticancer properties. The amount and number of essential nutrients and phytochemical constituents may vary depending on the plant tissue and age and especially on the climatic and edaphological conditions.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> We pointed to demonstrate moringa plants grown on proper conditions display a better production of its desired compounds. In this work, the mineral, amino acids, antioxidant activity and various bioactive compounds were analysed in moringa leaves extract from plants grown on Tenerife Island under organic production and similar climatic and edaphological conditions as the place of origin.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Our results revealed a high concentration of several nutrients as calcium, potassium and iron, as comparison to other moringa plants; <italic>β</italic>-carotene (pro-vitamin A), ascorbate (vitamin C) and glutathione, whose function is mainly antioxidant; chlorogenic acid with anticancer function; quercetin with antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic functions, among others; glucomoringin-isothiocyanate with anti-micro-biological and neuroprotective function.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> The results obtained in this study placed on Tenerife Island as one of the best suitable places for moringa good quality production and highlight the potential use of moringa novel food for humans and as a biostimulant for plants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Cytoprotective roles of epigallocatechin gallate and resveratrol on staurosporine-treated mesenchymal stem cells in culture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> There are many scientific reports on the beneficial effects of epigallocatechin gallate and resveratrol on the human body, e.g. antioxidant properties, a protective effect on the circulatory system and reduction of inflammation.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of these substances on the survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the presence of the pro-apoptotic factor staurosporine.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> Cell viability WST-1 colorimetric assay.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> It was confirmed that both 25 <italic>µ</italic>M/ml and 50 <italic>µ</italic>M/ml of epigallocatechin and 50 <italic>µ</italic>M/ml of resveratrol statistically significantly increased the MSC survival rate.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> An excess supply of epigallocatechin gallate (50 <italic>µ</italic>M/ml and higher) has a cytotoxic effect on MSC, which may have a negative impact on the body’s auto-regenerative capacity. Under toxic and stressful conditions, resveratrol and epigallocatechin gallate perform cytoprotective functions, thereby reducing the negative impact of toxic environmental conditions on the mesenchymal stem cells.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Lack of salidroside impact on selected cytochromes encoding genes transcription in the liver of ethanol induced rats<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: The molecular basis of <italic>in vivo</italic> metabolism of selected representatives of phenylethanoids in the presence of ethanol has not been fully elucidated.</p> <p><bold>Objective</bold>: The aim was to estimate a salidroside (Sal) metabolism in the liver tissue in rats with induced alcohol tolerance by assessing changes in the transcription of genes encoding cytochromes: CYP1A2, 2D2, 3A1, 2C23.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold>: cDNA was synthesized from total RNA isolated from rat liver samples. mRNA level changes were evaluated using real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technique.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Ethanol caused a significant induction of the CYP1A2 and CYP2C23 genes transcription, and a decrease in the CYP3A1 mRNA level, predominantly without statistical significance. A statistically significant increase of the CYP1A2 mRNA level was observed in the group receiving only Sal (4.5 mg/kg b.w.; <italic>p.o.</italic>) (<italic>p</italic>&lt;0.01).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: There was no unequivocal effect of salidroside on the transcription of investigated cytochrome genes in the liver of rats with induced alcohol tolerance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Pilot study of dietary supplement consumption by kindergarten and elementary school children<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The use of dietary supplements has been increasing globally, especially among children. A lot of parents are influenced by advertising. In addition, in Poland a trend to self-medication has been observed. Parents often do not distinguish dietary supplements, medicinal products and non-prescription drugs. These are the most common reasons for the increase in sales of dietary supplements in Poland. Until a few years ago, many products containing vitamins and minerals intended for children were sold as medicines. Today, a product with the same formulation is sold as a dietary supplement. However, a few studies have been conducted to assess the use of dietary supplements among Polish children.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The aim of the study was to analyse the use of dietary supplements provided by parents and the study of the awareness of the risks associated with supplements intake among preschool and elementary school students.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The study was conducted by questionnaire method among 316 parents/legal guardians of children attending elementary schools and preschools in three provinces.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The questionnaire was completed by 88.3% mothers and 11.7% fathers. The age of the respondents was as follows: 64.5% aged 31–40, 18.3% aged 41–45, 9.5% aged 26–30, 7.2% above 46 years and only 0.3% younger than 25. About 80% of parents administered their children with dietary supplements in specific situations. Vitamin and mineral supplements were predominant. A statistical analysis showed the effect of the education level as well as having many children on the administration of dietary supplements.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> The questionnaire shows that the vast majority of parents/legal guardians administer their children with dietary supplements. There is a need to educate parents/legal guardians about the use of supplements and the risks involved.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Wild collection of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) for commercial purposes in Poland - a system’s analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: Poland is one of the main exporters of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in Europe. A substantial part of this plant material is collected in the wild. So far, the system of wild collection (WC) of medicinal plants in Poland, its social and ecological aspects have not been studied comprehensively.</p> <p><bold>Objective</bold>: The aim of the study was to analyse the organisation of WC system in Poland, including legislation, situation of protected species, and socio-ecological dimensions of the MAPs’ supply chains.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold>: Data from environmental agencies (<italic>RDOŚ</italic>) about protected MAPs was analysed. Stakeholders engaged in WC were interviewed. National legislation on WC was reviewed.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Although Poland is the second largest exporter of MAPs in Europe, legislation on wild collection in the country is sparse and incoherent. Monitoring does not apply to WC entirely. The structure of WC has a large degree of informality, lacks transparency, and does not take many sustainability criteria into account.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: The system needs major adjustments: a) to insure sustainability of WC, b) to accommodate market demands, including plant material quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Chemical compounds and antimicrobial activity of petitgrain (Citrus aurantium L. var. amara) essential oil<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p> Introduction: Due to its low cost and easy availability on the market, the petitgrain oil is commonly used in food, cosmetics, and aromatherapy. Objective: The examination of chemical composition and antibacterial activity of commercial petitgrain oil. Methods: Identification of chemical components of the petitgrain oil was performed by gas chromatography (GC). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations (MBC/MFC) were determined using macrodilution method for the reference strains of bacteria and fungi. Results: Twenty components were identified. The petitgrain oil contained mostly oxygenated monoterpene hydrocarbons (98.01%), and the main components included linalyl acetate (48.06%) and linalool (26.88%). The MIC/MBC of the petitgrain oil for bacteria was in the range of 0.63-5.0/1.25-5.0 mg/ml and for fungi in the range of 1.25-40/5.0-80 mg/ml. Conclusion: The petitgrain oil had higher antibacterial activity than antifungal activity. Bacillus subtilis among the tested bacteria and Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum among the fungi were found to be highly inhibited by the petitgrain oil.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-03-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Occurrence of pathogenic and endophytic fungi and their influence on quality of medicinal plants applied in management of neurological diseases and mental disorders<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p> Due to increasing demand of medicinal plants (MPs), quality and safety more attention to the plant health should be paid. Among herb pathogens, especially fungi cause serious diseases in these plants decreasing yield and quality of herbal raw material. Some species, i.e. Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp., Penicillium sp. are known as mycotoxin producers. Paradoxically, self-treatment with herbal raw material can expose the patient to mycotoxin activity. In tissues of some MPs species, asymptomatically endophytic fungi residue. It is known that they are able to influence a biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in their host plant or produce biologically active compounds. Until recently these microorganisms have been neglected as a component of MPs, the reason why there have unexplored bioactivity and biodiversity. The paper presents an overview of herbal plants that are used in the treatment of nervous system diseases. Pathogenic fungi that infect these plants are described. It focused mainly on species producing harmful mycotoxins. The publication presents a list of these mycotoxins and a brief description of their effects on human health. The second part of this article provides information on the occurrence of endophytic fungi in herbal plants and their effects on human health. Coexistence of fungi and medicinal plants is not fully understood but can be crucial to ensure health and safety of patients with neurological diseases and mental disorders.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-03-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Cichorin A: a benzo-isochromene from Nypa fruticans endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp.<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p> Introduction: Similar bioactive metabolites are obtainable from host plants as well as the endophytic fungi residing in them. Objective: The aim of the study is to isolate the major compound(s) from the endophytic fungus residing in Nypa fruticans Wurmb, Arecaceae family. Methods: Purification of the ethyl acetate extract of the isolated endophytic fungus was performed by employing different chromatographic techniques and structural elucidation of the isolated compound was carried out using UV and NMR spectroscopic methods. Results: Cichorin A was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the solid rice cultures of Pestalotiopsis sp., isolated from N. fruticans, collected in Nigeria. Conclusions: This compound is being isolated for the first time from a fungus; it is commonly isolated from the plant Cichorium intybus L. (Compositae). </p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-03-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Genetic resources of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as very rich source of α-linolenic acid<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p> Introduction: Polish oilseed and flaxseed collection is a source of genotypes containing very high amounts of α-linolenic acid. Objective: The objective of the study is to test the seeds for the fat content and fatty acids composition in the oil pressed from the 9 tested accessions of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Our goal is to promote the Polish flax collection, which seeds are unique as one of the richest sources of α-linolenic acid. Methods: Assays to determine the content of fat and fatty acids composition in linseed oil were performed at the IHAR-PIB Biochemical Laboratory in Poznań. The fat content was determined by infrared analysis (calibration performed on the basis of seed sample at IHAR-PIB in Poznań) by means of a NIRS 6500 spectrophotometer with a reflection detector within the range of 400-2500 nm. The composition of fatty acids was determined by means of a method proposed by Byczyńska and Krzymański (1969), based on gas chromatography of methyl esters of fatty acids contained in linseed oil. The following varieties of flax were investigated: Tabare (INF00111), Szegedi 30 (INF00427), Olin (INF 00444), Redwood 65 (INF00523), Dufferin (INF00540), AC Mc Duff (INF00648), Alfonso Inta (INF00683), Olinette (INF00687), Royale (INF00689). Results: The content of α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3) in evaluated genotypes of flax ranged from 48.9 (Royale) to 59.9% (Alfonso Inta). Content of linoleic acid (LA, C18:2) in evaluated genotypes of flax ranged from 12.4 (Tabare) to 17.1% (AC Mc Duff). The content of oleic acid (OA, C18:1) of 9 accession of flax ranged from 17.1 (Alfonso Inta) to 26.7% (Royale). The content of stearic acid in evaluated genotypes of flax ranged from 2.3 (Alfonso Inta) to 5.0% (Tabare, Szegedi 30) and the content of palmitic acid ranged from 4.7 (Dufferin) to 6.0% (Olin). The content of fat ranged from 42.7 (Olin) to 52.0% (AC Mc Duff). The fatty acid ratio n-6/n-3 ranged from 0.23/1 (Tabare) to 0.32/1 (AC Mc Duff).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-03-06T00:00:00.000+00:008-Prenylnaringenin from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) – a panacea for menopause?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p> 8-Prenylnaryngenin (8-PN) is the strongest known phytoestrogen (PE). Its main source is the female inflorescences of hops (Humulus lupulus L.). 8-PN, which, in contrast to other PEs, is proven to have stronger activity and higher affinity for the α subtype of estrogen receptor (ER). Therefore, it may be an effective substitute for hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The studies in postmenopausal women have shown its particular effectiveness in reducing hot flashes. However, a strong stimulation of uterus by 8-PN may be associated with the occurrence of adverse effects (eg. bleeding) and increase the risk of carcinogenesis. The H. lupulus extracts preparations are currently supplements which makes control of the doses used and thus increases the occurrence of uncontrolled self-treatment difficult. This paper presents the current knowledge on 8-PN and discusses the potential risks associated with use of hops to alleviate the symptoms of menopause.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-03-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Terminalia chebula Retz. – an important medicinal plant<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p> Ayurveda, whispered to be the ancient practice of healthcare existed and contributes a holistic approach to health, healing and longevity. Terminalia chebula Retz. is a popular plant and widely spread all over southern Asia. T. chebula is a native plant of India and its dried fruit is extensively used in various types of home remedies. Dried fruit of T. chebula contains high quantities phenolic compounds that consist of ellagic acid, gallic acid and chebulic acid. The fruit extract of T. chebula is known to display different biological properties like anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-protozoal, antimicrobial, hepato and renal protective activities, and in the management of metabolic syndrome. The phenolic active compounds might play vital role in the influence of biological activity. Fruit extract of T. chebula is widely employed as an important ingredient in various ayurvedic preparations like ‘Triphala’. This formulation is beneficial as detoxifying agent of the colon, purgative in chronic constipation, aids in digestion and as a body rejuvenator. The fruit has great medicinal significance and conventionally applied for the management of various illness conditions, such as sore throat, high cough, asthma, ulcers, gout, heart burn, vomiting, diarrhea, dysentery, bleeding piles and bladder diseases. It is also utilized as mild laxative, antispasmodic and stomachic. Because of these enormous medicinal properties, T. chebula is commonly termed as ‘King of Medicine’ in Tibet and can be called as a ‘wonder herb’. In the present review, recent advances in medicinal properties of T. chebula are discussed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-03-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Phytochemical analysis and cytotoxicity evaluation of flowering buds of L.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> <italic>Bauhinia variegata</italic> is used in traditional medicine in Pakistan.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The present study was designated to analyze phytochemical screening and cytotoxicity assay of crude aqueous and methanol extracts of flowering buds of <italic>Bauhinia variegata</italic>.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of both extracts were performed by using standard protocols while brine shrimp lethality assay was conducted for cytotoxicity analysis of both extracts.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The highest levels of phenolics, flavonoids and terpenoids were observed in methanol extract with respective standard drugs. The aminoacid content was highest followed by phenol and flavonoids in crude aqueous extract of the raw materials. In cytotoxic studies (brine shrimp lethality assay) the use of methanol extract was reported as potent with LD<sub>50</sub> of 241.778 <italic>µ</italic>g/ml as compared to aqueous extract with LD<sub>50</sub> of 489.7061 <italic>µ</italic>g/ml.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> This study reveals that the presence of bioactive compounds in both extracts are responsible for the treatment of various ailments and being utilized by the traditional folks as a food as well. And showed that methanol extract possess cytotoxic activity and thus needs further scientific intervention for its value addition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Nigerian polyherbal-based hydrotherapy: a panacea to infectious diseases<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A global society, including developed countries, continues to struggle with fatal diseases that are difficult to treat with Western medicine. A variety of infectious diseases have existed for ages, but in Africa they had been limited thanks to the Indigenous Knowledge System (IKS) prior to the introduction of cosmopolitan medicine. Influenza virus repression has been demonstrated by a number of herbal antivirals, yet the invaluable therapeutic potential of herbal medicine has been underestimated. Despite various reliable methods offered by Western medicine, the globally destructive COVID-19 pandemic requires a successful fight. The wisdom of African IKS used in tackling epidemics that have broken out in the past is brought to mind again. Pneumonia – a COVID-19 symptom, could be treated with polyherbal fomentation. Selected plants cultivated across Nigeria for hydrotherapy are under consideration to be used in proper doses. Given the potential associated with IKS, a multi-disciplinary approach involving experts in phytomedicine, ethnobotany, phytochemistry, plant physiology and ecology is necessary to unlock the therapeutic potential of traditional medicine.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Probiotics in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The human microbiota has a tremendous effect on our health. In the last decades, our knowledge about interactions between bacteria and humans have grown greatly. Not only is it necessary for humans to synthesize vitamins, to have tight intestinal barriers or protect from pathogens, it also has an impact on our immune system and thus plays an important role in autoimmune diseases and prevention of excessive inflammatory response. The idea of probiotics is to restore the balance in humans digestive microbiota. There is a growing number of scientific papers that proves a positive impact of using probiotics in various diseases. However, there are still questions that need to be answered before probiotics play a bigger role in the treatment. This paper presents the information about the use of probiotics in most common diseases of gastrointestinal tract.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Phytochemistry and biological activities of seed oils: (Ker Gawl.) Haw. and (L.) Mill. A review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><italic>Opuntia</italic> species belong to semi-arid and arid regions of Mexico and the United States. <italic>O. ficus-indica</italic> and <italic>O. dillenii</italic> are commonly used in alternative medicine to treat various diseases. Up to date, several scientific works have been carried out on the different parts of these plants. However, over the last few years, studies have been focusing on the oil obtained from the fruit seeds of these species. For this reason, this study aims to draw the attention of researchers toward the phytochemical and the pharmacological effects of these two <italic>Opuntia</italic> oils, which would help set up other scientific projects that promote these products. Phytochemical studies have shown that these oils are rich in biologically active molecules, such as unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols (mainly linoleic acid and <italic>β</italic>-sitosterol), as well as vitamin E, which is represented only by the <italic>γ</italic>-tocopherol. Besides, these oils are rich in polyphenols that protect them from photo-oxidation. Moreover, several studies have shown their antioxidant, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and gastroprotective activities, as well as their hypolipidemic properties. The beneficial effects of these oils include also their ability to block the weight loss, and what makes them more interesting is their safety, according to the literature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Potential of karamunting () fraction against kidney damage in diabetic rats<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Karamunting (<italic>Rhodomyrtus tomentosa</italic>) is Indonesian native plant that contains high anti-oxidant compounds with the potential to suppress oxidative stress activity in cells. This study is the first research to specifically explore the role of the karamunting fraction in protecting kidney damage due to the formation of AGEs in the renal glomerulus in diabetes mellitus.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> This study aims to assess the impact of karamunting on blood glucose profile, HbA1c, insulin profile and kidney condition (AGEs expression, TNF-<italic>α</italic> and kidney histology) in diabetic rats.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The karamunting extraction process was carried out by maceration with ethanol. Induction of diabetes mellitus was carried out using streptozotocin. Thirty male rats (<italic>Rattus norvegicus</italic>), Wistar strain weighing between 200–250 grams were the subject in this study. HbA1c, insulin, TNF-<italic>α</italic>, AGEs levels were evaluated in the kidney tissue. Histological assessment of the kidney was carried out.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Karamunting can improve blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. This improvement in blood glucose levels causes an improvement in the level of HbA1c. Administration of karamunting fraction can prevent AGEs deposition in renal tissue, which in turn will inhibits the inflammation and prevents further damage of kidneys.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Karamunting fraction can improve blood glucose regulation so that it can prevent further damage and complications of kidney organs in diabetic rats.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Ethnobotanical investigation of significant seasonal medicinal weeds of Toba Tek Singh District, Punjab, Pakistan<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Medicinal plants are found throughout the world but most are considered weeds. They are – directly or indirectly – the major source of medicines in pharmaceutical and herbal industries. Formulations used to prepare medicines or the method of use for these plants are mainly based on folk or traditional knowledge. This folk knowledge is not documented in many areas and needs to be explored.</p> <p><bold>Objectives:</bold> This study was aimed to enlist the seasonal weed species with traditional medicinal usage in Toba Tek Singh District, Punjab, Pakistan.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> Field surveys were arranged in winter and summer 2019–2020 to enlist the important medicinal weeds and traditional knowledge of the local community. Data collected were as follows: local name of weed, medicinal use, method and part used.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Numerous wild perennial, biennial and annual plants were identified, 30 of them were ethnomedicinally important in the local community. They were grouped in 16 families. It was found that whole weed is used in many prescriptions (37%). <italic>Achyranthes aspera</italic> L. (<italic>Amaranthaceae</italic>) was the most common weed used in treating fevers, respiratory problems and asthma. <italic>Cichorium intybus</italic> L. (<italic>Asteraceae</italic>) was used in summer drinks to reduce thirst, improve digestion and liver function. <italic>Chenopodium album</italic> L. (<italic>Amaranthaceae</italic>) was used with 0.71 UV and 0.147 RFC values. <italic>Medicago polymorpha</italic> L. (<italic>Fabaceae</italic>) was used to treat kidney, intestinal and bladder infections. Its UV was 0.65 and RFC was 0.121. <italic>Tribulus terrestris</italic> L. (<italic>Zygophyllaceae</italic>) was used in impotency treatment, and in the removal of kidney stones and urinary tract infections treatment. It has 0.63 UV and 0.21 RFC values. This weed also showed the highest Fidelity Level (FL) (77%), as compared to other weeds.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> It was concluded that there are many significant medicinal weeds in the Toba Tek Singh District, Punjab, Pakistan that are used in traditional medicines in treating various disorders. These plants also showed herbal or pharmacological importance that can be used to develop medicine at commercial scale.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Attitude and awareness of medicinal plants in treatment of kidney lithiasis in eastern Morocco: a retrospective study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Kidney stone is a major public health problem. Over 5% of the population is affected by kidney stones, with causes a lifetime risk of transmitting renal lithiasis of about 8 to 10%.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> The goal of our study is the attitude and awareness of lithiasis patients regarding the use of medicinal plants in eastern Morocco.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> We carried out a study on lithiasis patients to retrospectively identify medicinal plants used in this disease, using a pre-established questionnaire. The study was carried out from 10 December 2017 to 28 February 2018.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Our survey describes several medicinal plants used to treat renal lithiasis in eastern Morocco. Most patients used <italic>Herniaria hirsuta</italic> L., <italic>Zea mays</italic> L., <italic>Urtica dioica</italic> L., and <italic>Petroselinum crispum</italic> (Mill.) Fuss. This preliminary study showed that the first reason to use medicinal plants in half of lithiasis patients is to calm the pain and expel the stones. The primary source of plant use information is oral tradition. However 67% of lithiasis patients are unaware of the harmful and toxic effects that can appear.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Medicinal plants must, like medicines, comply with strict requirements and standard rules of use to which only the specialist in herbal medicine can respond and sensitize people to the dangers of irrational consumption of medicinal plants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00 studies of selected xanthophylls as potential candidates against SARS-CoV-2 targeting main protease (Mpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The main protease (Mpro) and the papain-like protease (PLpro) are essential for the replication of SARS-CoV-2. Both proteases can be targets for drugs acting against SARS-CoV-2.</p> <p><bold>Objective:</bold> This paper aims to investigate the <italic>in silico</italic> activity of nine xanthophylls as inhibitors of Mpro and PLpro.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The structures of Mpro (PDB-ID: 6LU7) and PLpro (PDB-ID: 6W9C) were obtained from RCSB Protein Data Bank and developed with BIOVIA Discovery Studio. Active sites of proteins were performed using CASTp. For docking the PyRx was used. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ADMET were evaluated using SwissADME and pkCSM.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> <italic>β</italic>-cryptoxanthin exhibited the highest binding energy: –7.4 kcal/mol in the active site of Mpro. In PLpro active site, the highest binding energy had canthaxanthin of –9.4 kcal/mol, astaxanthin –9.3 kcal/mol, flavoxanthin –9.2 kcal/mol and violaxanthin –9.2 kcal/mol. ADMET studies presented lower toxicity of xanthophylls in comparison to ritonavir and ivermectin.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Our findings suggest that xanthophylls can be used as potential inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 main protease and papain-like protease.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1