rss_2.0Journal of Applied Engineering Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Applied Engineering Sciences of Applied Engineering Sciences 's Cover Building Acoustics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the most significant aspects which need to be analysed in the case of a building consists in finding that the sound level perceived by listeners is a proper one (Daniela-Roxana Tămaş-Gavrea et all., 2012). Their inconsistent spreading can develop problems in audition which can be solved only by putting in work a number of measures of acoustic rehabilitation. The evaluation of the acoustic quality of a building is a delicate issue, because of the complex system of the sound field contained in closed spaces and the sound features of the outlining surfaces. This paper presents a research on improving the acoustic conditions of a building which initially had a technical-administrative destination and was then converted into an office building (Stanca S.E., 2021). The measures of acoustic protection were recommended with a view to mitigate the noise level under admissible limits in the functional unit under consideration.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis and Routing of Basic Parameters of Tasuj Earthquake (April 2013, Northwest of Iran) with an Emphasis on Geodetic Data, Foreshocks and Large Aftershocks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the science of seismology, issues such as the study of tectonic seismic maps and the identification of the behavioural pattern of pre-earthquakes and aftershocks are among the cases that have been proposed as the basis of applied geological studies in recent decades. Accordingly, numerous studies and researches in this field have been carried out in different regions of the world. However, the results of these studies so far have not been able to meet the needs of this field in a practical and practical way, and in this regard, there is a need to provide practical approaches in this field. In order to realize this approach, there is a need for specialized research and case studies in this field in order to be able to present studies on earthquake risk reduction in an institutionalized and practical way by identifying practical patterns. In this study, the basis of the case study, considering the special characteristics of Tasuj earthquake as one of the important earthquakes according to the basic patterns that can be provided in this field for this earthquake has been considered. Also geodetic analysis of Tasuj fault and the other faults studied for estimation of accuracy this analysis for prediction of earthquake. The results of this study indicate that the fault causing the Tasuj earthquake, contrary to what is presented in the fault map of the region and previous reports and articles, is of the strike-slip type, which should be corrected. Also, the analysis of the behavioural pattern of geodetic data, foreshocks and aftershocks as a precursor shows that these patterns can be used in predicting major earthquakes and large aftershocks. To predict the time of large aftershocks in this study, three phases have been used, which are based on changes in depth to magnitude, changes in seismic quiescence to magnitude and depth changes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Interaction Between the Transport Network and the Territory of Algiers (Complex System): In Search of Indicators<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years and within the framework of its project “Algiers the metropolis”, Algiers has classified its transport network among its first concerns in order to compete with the other Mediterranean metropolises. However, the complexity of its territory, which is of a particular geological and geomorphological nature, represents a constraint for the proper distribution and management of its transport network. The complexity of its territory and of its transport network, leads us towards the systemic approach for the search of an adequacy between these two complex urban realities in order to find an effective and efficient tool of management and urban planning. The development of a set of indicators of sustainable mobility, as a result of this work, allowed us to find through an epistemological study of the literature on the two complex concepts to select and develop a list of Input and Output Indicators that are related to both territory and transport. Indeed, this list of sustainable mobility indicators will allow, on the one hand, in urban planning, a better match of the transport network to the Algerian territory and, on the other hand, the study of the effectiveness and efficiency of the present and future transport network.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Strengthening of Un-Reinforced Brick Masonry Walls Using Epoxy Mortar<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study is carried out to investigate the effectiveness of using externally applied epoxy mortar on joints of masonry wall panels to enhance their load carrying capacity under axial compressive and lateral loads. A total of six 113 mm thick masonry wall panels of size 1200 x 1200 mm were constructed for this study. Four out of six walls were strengthened using locally available CHEMDUR-31 epoxy mortar on joints. The remaining two walls were tested as control specimens. The control and strengthened wall panels were tested under axial compression and lateral loads. In axial compression test, out of plane central deflection and vertical strain at the center of wall panel were recorded while in lateral load test, in-plane lateral displacement of wall and horizontal strain at the center were recorded at each load increment. Failure pattern of each wall panel is also studied to notice its structural behavior. The results of this experimental study showed an increase of 45% and 60% in load carrying capacity under axial compression and lateral bending, respectively by the use of strengthening technique employed in this study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Slump Test: A New Empirical Model for High Yield Stress Materials<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In order to decrease the fitting deviation between rheometrical measurements and empirical parameters using slump test, this paper proposes a new analytical method to evaluate the high yield stress of materials (cement pastes).In doing so, an experimental study was performed for measuring the empirical characteristics by cylindrical mold with different water to binder ratios (w/b) by aiming to increase the yield stress. Parallelly, experimental observations showed clearly the unyielded zone at flow stoppage of high yield stress samples. Based on these results, an idea was formed to applied metallic element at inlet of mold in order to push the spreading of paste. The obtained results of the model proposed in this paper were compared with the yield stress evaluated from shear flow curves using AR2000-rheometer with plate-plate geometry at rate-controlled. In fact, this study demonstrates the applicability and novelty of the present model in the process of relating the empirical parameters to yield stress.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluating the Compressive Strength of Concrete Containing Recycled Aggregate in Different Curing Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In construction industry, demolished construction waste is recently used as reprocessed aggregate to produce environmentally friendly concrete which is a good substitute to normal crush due to increased demand of ecological growth and conservation benefits. Though, the properties of recycled aggregate concrete are smallest as compared to concrete produced from natural aggregate and these properties can be enhanced by adding some materials having cementitious properties. Rice husk ash (RHA) is used as partial replacement of cement in recycled aggregate concrete to improve the properties as well as to conserve the natural resources. The elementary purpose of this investigation is to determine the compressive strength of concrete by the replacement of cement with different percentages of rice husk ash such as 0%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5%, 15%, and 17.5% respectively with different curing conditions. For the experimental program approximate 198 cylinders (18 for rapid curing, 90 for normal water curing and 90 for acid curing) are casted with the mix proportion of 1:2:4 and water to cement ratio of 0.50 whereas curing is done at the ages of 3,7,14,21 and 28 days. Various experiments are performed on fresh and hardened concrete to determine the effects of rice husk ash on recycled aggregate concrete with different curing conditions. Linear regression analysis is carried out to determine the compressive strength of concrete. It is pragmatic from the slump test results that the workability of recycled aggregate concrete is decreased by increasing the quantity of rice husk ash. This reduction in slump is due to high water absorption of recycled aggregates and rice husk ash. Further, the compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete with normal and acid curing is decreased by increasing the percentages of rice husk ash. It is also observed that at 28- days of normal water curing for mix M1,M2,M3,M4,M5 and M6 the compressive strength is increased by 0.96%, 2.74% 1.45%,4.50%,4.23% and 4.22% respectively as compared to the compressive strength values at 28 days of acid water curing. Therefore, it is concluded that recycled aggregate concrete with 10 to 12% of rice husk ash is suitable for properties of concrete. The acid water curing has negative impacts on hardened properties of concrete as it reduced the compressive strength of concrete as compared to normal water curing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Human Resource Management and Technology Development in Artificial Intelligence Adoption in the UAE Energy Sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Artificial Intelligence (AI) is proved a very effective technique in reducing complexity and making suitable quick decisions for achieving success. Artificial Intelligence is an emerging area and growing fast. It is used successfully in various fields. In UAE also, AI is being used in several sectors. Now the government of UAE has promoted AI in the energy sector to get the maximum of its benefits. Hence, this study evaluated various indicators that affect the promotion of AI in the energy section of the UAE. With the help of a questionnaire survey, 350 questionnaire forms were analyzed to prioritize the parameters affecting AII adoption. From the analysis results it was found that “Organization use AI to provide effective business innovation”, “Organizations use AI to align with its business strategy”, and “Organization use AI to improve the levels of production” are the key motivating factor to adopt AI. Significant parameters of AI technology include are; AI Technology is user friendly, AI Technology is able to improve the quality of the work and AI Technology fits well with the tasks involved; are reported as significant technological parameters to adopt AI. On the other hand, Referral person is required if facing difficulty with AI technology, and teammate support in using AI technology are essential parameters of the human resource management which affect AI adoption in the energy sector of the UAE. In addition, reliability and normality tests validated the data. Hence, these findings can be used to promote AI and understand the situation for making proper decisions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Testing Deformation and Compressive Strength of the Frozen Fine-Grained Soils with Changed Porosity and Density<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Current paper focuses on the laboratory experiments performed wit aim to test the deformation in the frozen loam soil specimens. Loam frozen soils are subject to the external effects, such as climate and environmental impacts including temperature changes. Soil heave is one of the key features restraining possible area development: construction of buildings, roads and railways. Necessarily, this requires the improvements of methods of the assessment of heave. This research evaluated the compressive strength and deformation in several specimens of the frozen soil. The approach included varying load and physical properties of soil specimens: porosity, pore filling, moisture, density of soil particles and dry soil density. Besides during the experiment, the external conditions were changed: decreased temperature and increased load pressure. The experiment is based on the UPG-MG4-01. The paper presented the laboratory tests of heave and compressive strength of the frozen soils using applied geotechnical methods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Using 3D Modeling to Promote Railway Heritage. The Railway Station of Curtea De Argeş Municipality as Case Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The characteristics of the industrial heritage (antiquity, architectural, cultural, technological value) determined its inscription in the category of historical monuments. In recent years, non-invasive digital technologies have been used in studies focused on documenting, digitizing, preserving elements of industrial heritage. Also, another objective of digitizing the industrial heritage is to facilitate its promotion as a cultural resource among the general public. The purpose of this study is to promote the railway station of Curtea de Argeş through non-invasive technology. The analyzed industrial monument represents a symbolic building of the neo-Romanian architectural style. The building is also associated with a remarkable historical value: the railway station was also used by the Romanian royal family. Based on the use of terrestrial photogrammetry (versatile GNSS RTK GS18 I sensor) and aerial (photogrammetric flight), the authors created the 3D model of the station, obtaining a high-resolution modeling. The results of this study reflect the usefulness of modern technology for documenting, 3D modeling and promoting an industrial monument inscribed on the list of national cultural heritage. The accuracy and optimal performance of the measurements made, using GNSS technology and aerial photogrammetry, allowed highlighting the remarkable architectural and volumetric characteristics of the railway station of Curtea de Argeş Municipality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Average Operating Pressure Effect on Water Supply Systems Performances. A Case Study for 12 Romanian Small Water Distribution Networks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The performance evaluation of an implemented water distribution network is in tight relation with the choice of adequate measures for water loss reduction. Hence, the consequences of placing the water network in a wrong performance category are bad and will conduct to unreasonably costs or considerable water loss volumes. Therefore, the evaluation of the water network performance level based on both Non-Revenue Water (NRW) and Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI) indicators is to be recommended. This paper deals with the performance evaluation of water distribution systems based on the calculated performance indicators NRW and ILI. For this purpose, collected data for a period of one year from 12 Romanian small water distribution systems and two simplified average pressure determination methods were used.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Prediction of Aggregate Impact Values and Aggregate Crushing Values Using Light Compaction Test<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Crushing test and Impact test are very important to estimate strength and toughness characteristics of the road aggregate. Extensive experimental procedures and different sets of equipment are required for these types of aggregate testing. Therefore, the objective of the study is to investigate whether the light compaction test can be a suitable alternative for both these tests. For this experimental procedure, 60 aggregate samples were collected from different rock quarries spread along North-eastern states of India. The specifications of the aggregate samples are kept similar for all of these three test procedures. The result indicates a strong correlation of Light compaction values (LCV) with Aggregate crushing values (ACV) and Aggregate Impact Values (AIV). The R<sup>2</sup> values for the relationship was found to be more than 0.9 for both these relationships. It indicates that the LCV can be used to closely predict the ACV and AIV. The root mean square error (RMSE) values estimated based on the actual and predicted values were also found to be low which further concrete the claim that light compaction test can be a suitable alternative for crushing test and impact test of the aggregates.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of the Central City on the Location of Commercial Buildings in the Agglomeration. The Example of Krakow, Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Shaping the spatial policy belongs to the tasks of the local commune governments, which through the acts of local law in the form of local spatial development plans establish rules of land development for specific purposes. Analyzing properties which are not significantly diversified in terms of location, because they belong to the same area of the “local market”, it can be concluded that linking land properties with the functions they can perform and with their development possibilities is the most significant attribute which shapes the level of land value. Suburbanization processes influence the decisions of communes located in the immediate vicinity of urban agglomerations as to the directions of allocating land for specific purposes, especially in the areas within the city’s range of influence. The subject of the research is real estates with commercial, service and industrial functions located in the district of Krakow, within the boundaries of communes directly adjacent to Krakow. The aim of the works is to analyze the links between the location of areas designated for commercial development and the location of main communication routes and the distance from the city borders.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimization in Water Resources At Dry Weather Conditions Before and After the Dam Failure By Using Dummy Variable Regression Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the direct economic consequences of dam failure (DF) is that water supply for irrigation is affected and incomes of the agriculture sector (AS) are reduced. The main purpose of this study is to apply a linear programming model (LPM), which, the objective function of the model was set to maximize the income function of the region AS with accessible water sources and function of crops production before and after the DF by using dummy variable (DV) regression models to optimize water supply for irrigation. The results obtained indicate that the consumption of surface water(SW) and groundwaters (GW), before the DF has not been optimized, as there are 15.5 % source loss in SW and 14.5 % in GW. After the DF, the allocation of SW in the best possible situation of access to SW sources is independent of the model input. It has a fixed value equivalent to 86 million cubic meters (MCM), which indicates a 116% decrease in comparison with the optimized value. Total accessible water sources are decreased by 36 % and using GW is 15 % more than an average long period time. A based on the finding from this research and its comparison with previous studies, this model is appropriate for water supply programming after DF and for dry weather Conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Review of Landfills in Europe Accordind to the European Commissin’s Policy Identifying Effective Criteria for Reducind, Reusing, and Proposing Waste Levels in the Construction Sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Construction waste makes up a large part of the waste produced in Europe. Therefore, the European Commission has developed policies to create an economic cycle and increase waste recycling. These solutions have been developed reduce the destructive effects of the environment, including various certificates such as LEED in different countries to encourage building debris management. However, not all construction waste can be recycled and reused, often buried in the environment. Although these wastes are extracted from natural resources, the process of making them changes their original nature, and it is not possible to estimate the exact time of their decomposition and reversibility of waste in nature. Thus, a large part of them is landfilled due to their Non-Recyclability. Moreover, every year, a large area of fertile and usable land is allocated for their burial. This paper aims to clarify the non-recyclable part of landfilled construction waste in the environment, highlighting the need for importance and research in this area. It can improve and preserve the sources, land, and health of the environment and human beings in EU member states threatened by landfilling.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Synthetic Analysis of Geoinformatics Technologies for Preservation of Cultural Heritage, Methodological Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Currently in Transylvania there are over 600 castles, considered monuments belonging to the world or national heritage. Some of them have disappeared, some are in an advanced degradation, the vast majority being in different stages of degradation, but recoverable, through very expensive investments. The first condition for them to start a program of recovery and put them again in the tourist and cultural circuit is to know exactly the state in which they are, to evaluate the costs. The development of geomatics technologies now allows for the high fidelity assessment of this aspect. These included Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) - Total Stations + Levels precision, terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry, laser scanners with fixed stations, for each presenting technical data and products analyzed sequentially and corroborated-complementary. The purpose of the entire action was to establish a Workflow as dedicated as possible to the requests of the specialists involved in such projects, architects, builders, restorers, historians, cultural people, etc. The paper can highlight a model of good practices in this field, the researches continuing, by consulting the beneficiaries of products from the range offered through these activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00An Assessment of the Performance of the Amasya Bayezid II Mosque Under Static and Dynamic Loads<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Located in the north-central part of Anatolia, Amasya has hosted many civilizations throughout history. The city existed as a major commercial and cultural center during the Byzantine, Seljuk, and Ottoman eras. Many monumental works were gifted by these civilizations to the city, including the Bayezid II Mosque, which was constructed during the Ottoman Empire. In this study, the Bayezid II Mosque was assessed under static and dynamic loads. Results from the static analyses revealed the sections where stress and deformations occurred under static loads. Iron braces were used in these parts to reduce these impacts. Results from the dynamic analyses indicated that the sections of the structure where stresses and deformations have large values are the domes, the minarets, narthex, and the bottom and top points of the columns in the main load-bearing unit. The data derived from this study can serve to guide future restoration efforts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Calcinated Bentonite as Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Cement-Based Mortar<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The construction industry consumes a large quantity of cement, which therefore leads to a high CO<sub>2</sub> emission due to the cement manufacture. The partial replacement of cement by supplementary cementations materials (SCMs) is considered as the most promising alternative to reduce the environmental impact of this industry. This investigation aims to evaluate the performance of calcinated clay (calcined bentonite at 850 °C) used as partial replacement of cement in cement-based mortar. The evaluated performances include the physico-chemical and mechanical properties, as well as microstructural characteristics.. Various characterization tests, including laser granulometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) have been investigated. In addition, the hardened properties of different mortar mixtures were also investigated. Mortar mixtures incorporating different calcinated clay percentages corresponding to 8, 10, 12, and 14%, by mass of total binder content, were proportioned. Termogravimetric analysis (TGA) and its derivative (DTG), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and microstructural (Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) analysis were carried out on samples of mortar mixtures. Furthermore, the 28-d hardened properties were assessed to assess the pozzolanic activity of the investigated mixtures. Strength activity index (SAI), DSC, and TGA analyzes are presented. The obtained results showed that all the mixtures exhibited adequate pozzolanic activity conforming to the ASTM C618 specifications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Hydro-Sedimentary Study of a Tidal River: Case Study of the Arvand River in Iran<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present field study investigated hydraulic and sediment in tidal conditions. Measurements were made for two stations at neap tide and spring tide for 13-hour periods at no-dimensional depths of 0.2, 0.6 and 0.8 of the water level each time. In these measurements, the parameters of velocity, direction of flow, electrical conductivity, temperature and depth were measured directly, and to determine the amount of suspended sediments per hour, 3 samples of one litre from the mentioned depths were measured by the instantaneous vertical sampler and taken to a laboratory. An examination of the depth charts of the suspended sediments concentration for all stations, and in both the neap tide and the spring tide, showed that, in general the suspended sediments concentration increased with increasing depth. Moreover, the deep distribution of sediments concentration showed that the values obtained in the laboratory corresponded well with the values calculated from the Rouse equation, and as the depth increases, the sediments concentration usually increases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Geoinformatics Technologies for Preservation of Cultural Heritage, Case Study, Rákóczi-Bánffy Castle, Urmeniș, Bistriţa Năsăud County, Romania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents an application of the methodology used in the paper “Synthetic analysis of geoinformatics technologies for cultural heritage conservation, methodological approach”. The creation of the 3D model of the Rákóczi-Bánffy Castle in Urmeniș, Bistrița Năsăud County, was done by applying and integrating Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) technologies and aerial photogrammetry performed with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Agisoft Photoscan was used to compare the results and then they were compared with the images scanned using CloudCompare software. Thus, following the performance, with the help of the mentioned software, of a series of processing of the point cloud obtained, through the two imaging technologies, the error between the points belonging to the point cloud taken with UAV and the one taken with Laser Scanner was between 1 and 15 mm, the margin of error being acceptable for monuments without complex architectural details, so that the point cloud resulting from UAVs can be used successfully in this activity. The aim of the paper is to elaborate a geomatic methodology with an optimized cost-quality ratio, later replicable in the analysis of the current state of other constructions of the same type, knowing that over 600 castles in Transylvania alone are in a similar state, and such cases can be found in other Central European states as well.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Analytical Investigation of MR Damper for Vibration Control: A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, a vibration control system with magnetorheological (MR) damper investigation is reviewed. At first a MR damper is investigated analytically using various finite element method software and the performance is investigated using experimental. The MR Dampers are designed and modelled for a scaled down setup. The application is in seismic resistance of buildings, automobile, physical and biological. Finally, the damper is investigated using various technique and methods used to study the performance is reviewed. This device reduces the vibration in both active and semi active control system effectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1