rss_2.0Journal of Horticultural Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Horticultural Research of Horticultural Research 's Cover of Planting Time and Corms Treatment with Gibberellic Acid on Growth, Flowering, and Vase Life of ‘Corona’<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Freesia hybrida</italic> is one of the most important cut flowers with a short vase life. The present study was conducted to explain the effect of the two planting dates December 1st and 15th and soaking corms before planting in gibberellic acid at concentrations of 0, 75, and 150 mg·L<sup>−1</sup> on the growth, flowering, and flowers quality of <italic>Freesia hybrida</italic> ‘Corona’. A larger diameter of the inflorescence stem and floret head, fresh weight of inflorescence, and longer vase life were obtained when planted on December 1st. Soaking the corms in a GA<sub>3</sub> solution of 150 mg·L<sup>−1</sup> before planting significantly extended the vase life compared to the control. Finally, it can be concluded that the planting of corms soaked in a solution of 150 mg·L<sup>−1</sup> GA<sub>3</sub> on December 1st in unheated greenhouses can improve the growth, development, and quality of flowers of <italic>Freesia hybrida</italic> ‘Corona’.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Red and Blue Light-Emitting Diodes Significantly Improve Tuberization of Potato ( L.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The tuberization phenomenon in potatoes (<italic>Solanum tuberosum</italic> L.) is a highly synchronized morphophysiological process occurring on the underground stolons under the influence of various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This involves the participation of the phytochrome sensory system, transport of sucrose from source to stolon, and several regulatory pathways including tuber-inducing hormone biosynthetic lipoxygenase (<italic>StLOX1</italic>) gene and major calcium-mediated signaling pathway genes (<italic>StCDPK</italic> and <italic>StCaM1</italic>). This study was aimed to explore the impacts of distinctive qualities of the light-emitting diode (LED) light with a specific wavelength on <italic>in vitro</italic> tuberization of potato. Single nodal segments of potato ‘Kufri Jyoti’ were incubated <italic>in vitro</italic> on the growth medium at a temperature of 22 ± 2 °C and exposed to various combinations of red (R) and blue (B) LED light. The results showed that the combination of 30% red + 70% blue LED light (R<sub>30</sub>B<sub>70</sub>) significantly shortened the tuber induction period, increased the number of tubers, and their yield compared with these parameters in the tissues exposed to the white light (W<sub>100</sub>). The induction of the <italic>in vitro</italic> tuberization correlated with the enhanced expression of the major tuberizing pathway genes, including the lipoxygenase (<italic>StLOX1</italic>), calmodulin (<italic>CaM1</italic>), and calcium-dependent protein kinase (<italic>StCDPK</italic>). The current study indicated that the combination of red and blue LED lights at R<sub>30</sub>B<sub>70</sub> is the best spectrum for effective <italic>in vitro</italic> tuberization of potatoes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Adoption of Good Agricultural Practice to Increase Yield and Profit of Ginger Farming in Nepal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ginger (<italic>Zingiber officinale</italic>) is one of the major high-value cash crops in Nepal. Low yield, conventional farming, and limited access to production resources such as improved cultivars, production technologies, and extension services are the existing problems of Nepali ginger farmers. In this study, we conducted community based-participatory research in Ilam district, Nepal, in 2015–2017. This research aimed to explore the appropriate ginger farming technology considering yield, income, and environment. We compared the effect of four different ginger production technologies on ginger yield and net farm income that include: i) traditional practice with mother rhizome harvest, ii) traditional practice without mother rhizome harvest, iii) good agricultural practice (GAP) with mother rhizome harvest, and iv) GAP without mother rhizome harvest. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with five replications. The yield of ginger under GAP and without mother rhizome harvest was observed 17.9 t·ha<sup>−1</sup>, which was 39.8% higher than the farmers’ existing practices and 45.5% higher than the national average. The cost of production was almost the same in all treatments; however, the GAP with mother rhizome-harvested treatment gave the highest benefit–cost ratio (1.5) along with the maximum net farm income ($2072.6·ha<sup>−1</sup>·year<sup>−1</sup>). Thus, we suggest ginger producers adopting GAP rules to obtain a higher yield and harvesting mother rhizomes earlier for obtaining maximum profit. The GAP rules will additionally protect the environment. This study also suggests policymakers and related stakeholders promoting GAP as a sustainable production technology in agriculture-based countries like Nepal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Five New Sweet Cherry Cultivars Bred in Romania, with their Parental Forms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The studies were performed for four consecutive years (2016–2019) at the Fruit Growing Research Station (North-East part of Romania), using eleven sweet cherry genotypes as research material. Five of them are new cherry cultivars – ‘Cătălina’, ‘Andreiaş’, ‘Maria’, ‘George’, and ‘Margonia’ – obtained by means of controlled hybridization or open pollination, and six of them are their progenitors (‘Van’, ‘Boambe de Cotnari’, ‘Stella’, ‘Fromm’, ‘Ciliegia di Ottobre’, and the ‘HC 27/4’ hybrid). The experiment compared the traits of new cultivars with those of their progenitors. The following traits were evaluated: tree vigor, frost damage, the phenological stages, and the physical and chemical traits of the fruit. The highest values concerning the fruit's weight have been recorded for ‘Andreiaş’ (10.0 g) and ‘Maria’ (7.6 g), the content of soluble substance was between 16.6 and 19.5°Brix, the titratable acidity was between 0.413 and 0.675 mg malic acid·100 mL<sup>−1</sup> juice, and the total content of polyphenols was recorded with values between 268.00 and 488.75 mg GAE·100 mL<sup>−1</sup> of fresh juice. The new cultivars have mostly superior traits, especially frost damages, productivity, fruit quality, and fruit's cracking percentage compared with their parental genotypes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Microbiologically Enriched Mineral Fertilizers on Selected Groups of Microorganisms in the Rhizosphere of Strawberry Plants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, the use of bio-fertilizers enriched with specially selected microorganisms has been used more and more often. The beneficial effects of bio-fertilizers enriched with consortia of microorganisms on strawberry plants have been reported previously. The purpose of the research was to determine the effect of bio-fertilizers containing selected fungal and bacterial strains on the microorganisms living in the rhizosphere of strawberry plants. In the experiments described in this paper, synthetic mineral fertilizers were enriched with selected microorganisms. The fertilizer urea was enriched with the fungi <italic>Aspergillus niger</italic> and <italic>Purpureocillium lilacinum</italic>, while the fertilizers Polifoska 6 and Super Fos Dar 40 with strains of the bacteria <italic>Bacillus</italic> sp., <italic>Bacillus amyloliquefaciens</italic>, and <italic>Paenibacillus polymyxa</italic>. Bacteria and fungi belonging to these species can exert a positive effect on the growth of many plants. The results obtained in this study showed that the application of fertilizers enriched with microorganisms had different effects on the analyzed populations of soil microorganisms in the rhizosphere of strawberry plants. There were evidences of both, an adverse effect of the applied fertilizer and/or microorganisms, but more often, the beneficial effect was found on the abundance of the microorganisms in the rhizosphere of the strawberry. The most effective for the population of <italic>Pseudomonas</italic> bacteria was application of urea and fungi and Polifoska and bacteria. The highest number of phosphorus utilizing bacteria B was scored in the treatments containing NPK, NPK + fungi and urea 60% + fungi. The application of NPK + fungi and urea 100% + fungi as well as Super Fos Dar with bacteria was most beneficial for population of actinomycetes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Trifluralin on Post- Morphogenesis of Five Genotypes of Head Cabbage ( var. )<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Six genotypes of head cabbage (‘Flexima’, ‘Mutsuma’, ‘Septima’, ‘Zeus’, DC6, ‘Ancoma’) have been studied to find an effective method of obtaining polyploids using trifluralin. The effect of various trifluralin concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg·L<sup>−1</sup>) and treatment conditions (24 °C/24 h, 24 °C/48 h, 30 °C/24 h, and 30 °C/48 h) on organogenesis of organogenic callus, hypocotyl, and seeds was tested. Ploidy level was detected using a flow cytometer. As a result, low survival of hypocotyls and calli was obtained. The shoots induced from calli and hypocotyls failed to develop quality plantlets and most calli and hypocotyls remained recalcitrant for further differentiation. Treated seeds seemed to be promising objects basing on a considerable percentage of plant regeneration. With the increased concentration of trifluralin and increasing press of treatment conditions, the seed germination rate was significantly reduced. Shoot induction from germinated seeds varied among genotypes and treatments. The root induction was independent of treatments but also reduced considerably compared to the control. Under tested conditions, none of the polyploids resulted. Further studies are required to be successful in protocol development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Chromatographic Fractions on Infecting Chili Pepper ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nematodes are widespread organisms and pose a serious problem in vegetable production. The use of synthetic nematicides is a common method of bringing down the nematode population to increase crop yield. This has, however, brought about serious pollution to the environment. Leaves and twigs of <italic>Terminalia glaucescens</italic> were extracted in organic solvents and then chromatographed on a silica gel column. Chromatographic fractions obtained from the methanol and acetone crude extracts were characterized with UV-visible, FTIR, and GCMS and tested for their potential nematode suppressing activity in field micro plots. Spectroscopic analysis of the fractions revealed the presence of compounds such as aldehydes, acids, ketones, phenols, terpenes, hydrocarbons, and fatty acid esters. The extract fractions of <italic>T. glaucescens</italic> were applied at 100, 75, and 50 mg·ml<sup>−1</sup> at 100 ml each and carbofuran at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg a.i.·ha<sup>−1</sup>. The vegetative growth of pepper plants as well as the number and weight of fruits increased significantly in plants treated with the above-mentioned extract fractions. The protective role of fractions compared favorably with the synthetic nematicide (carbofuran). The most effective in reduction of the nematode population, and plant growth and yield was the highest concentration of 100 mg·ml<sup>−1</sup>. Thus, organic solvent extract fractions from <italic>T. glaucescens</italic> can serve as a biopesticide and an alternative to the environmentally hazardous synthetic nematicide.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Storage Temperature and Postharvest Tuber Treatment with Chemical and Biorational Inhibitors on Suppression of Sprouts During Potato Storage<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Consumption of ware potatoes in the tropics may be enhanced by storage under conditions that inhibit sprouting, most important of which is the temperature. The effects of storage temperatures (10 °C and 23 °C) and two alternatives to the chlorpropham (CIPC): 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) and peppermint oil (PMO), a biorational inhibitor, were evaluated for tuber sprout suppression at postharvest. Tubers of three cultivars – ‘Asante’, ‘Kenya Mpya’, and ‘Shangi’ – with different dormancy lengths were assessed. Storage temperatures and suppressant effects on tuber sprouting, sprout length and sprout numbers per tuber were investigated in replicated storage experiments. Significant differences in sprout inhibition were observed between the two temperatures with suppressive effects higher at 10 °C than in 23 °C. CIPC had the greatest suppressive effect on tuber sprout inhibition at both temperatures. After 24 weeks of storage, the suppressive effects of CIPC at 10 °C was 100% on the three cultivars, whereas all the nontreated tubers sprouted after six (‘Shangi’), twelve (‘Asante’), fourteen (‘Kenya Mpya’) weeks of storage. At 23 °C, the effectiveness of CIPC followed the dormancy period of the cultivars, with ‘Shangi’ recording significantly more sprouted tubers followed by ‘Asante’ and ‘Kenya Mpya’. The inhibition of sprouting by DMN and PMO varied with storage temperatures and cultivars, but were significantly greater than the nontreated tubers. At 10 °C, the effectiveness of DMN treatment was equal to that of CIPC for ‘Kenya Mpya’ resulting in 100% inhibition. In the PMO treatments, complete inhibition of sprouting was observed for 18 weeks on cultivars ‘Asante’, ‘Kenya Mpya’ and 14 weeks on ‘Shangi’. At 23 °C, PMO suppressed sprouts for 14 weeks on ‘Asante’ and ‘Kenya Mpya’ and on ‘Shangi’ for 8 weeks. Storage temperature effects on sprout length and numbers varied with inhibitor type and cultivar. These findings showed that in potato tuber storage, inhibitors can replace low temperature but to an extent depending on the cultivar dormancy character and storage length, thus enabling greater consumption of potatoes in tropical regions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Japanese Bulb Onion: Production, Consumption, and Cultivars<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bulb onion is an ancient vegetable crop that has been cultivated for at least 5,000 years. In Japan, this cultivation has only 150 years of history, but nowadays, it ranks fourth in total production, fourth in cropping acreage, and second in consumption among vegetables grown domestically. Until the 1970s, open-pollinated onion cultivars were predominantly cultivated throughout the country; they were selected mainly from old US cultivars. Over the past three decades, these open-pollinated cultivars have been replaced with F1 hybrid cultivars that offer higher yield, better disease resistance, uniformity at maturity, and high bulb quality. In this review, an attempt is made to characterize the commercial production and consumption of Japanese bulb onion as well as agronomic characteristics of representative cultivars.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Chitosan Improves Morphological and Physiological Attributes of Grapevines Under Deficit Irrigation Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to estimate the morphological and physiological effects of chitosan foliar spray and/or three irrigation levels of 100%, 60%, and 40% of field capacity on grapevines grown in plastic containers to simulate water shortage conditions. The results showed that water irrigation deficit significantly reduced leaf area, trunk cross-sectional area, plant dry weight, root dry weight, relative chlorophyll content, leaf total carbohydrates, catalase activity, leaf midday water potential (<italic>ψ</italic>), relative water content (RWC), and crop evapotranspiration (ET<sub>c</sub>), but increased the proline content. Under well-watered condition, foliar-applied chitosan, in particular, 5 and 10 g·dm<sup>−3</sup> increased plant growth and biomass production compared with untreated plants. Also, chitosan sprays during deficit irrigation conditions significantly improved plant tolerance to water deficit by enhancing the morphological and physiological parameters of grapevines. The results of this work suggest the opportunity to grow grapevines under deficit irrigation conditions using chitosan foliar spray. Increased plant biomass and root weight, and the positive impacts of chitosan as antitranspirant on increased <italic>ψ</italic>, RWC, and decreased ET<sub>c</sub> play the main role in drought stress avoidance mechanisms in grapevines raised under moderate deficit irrigation conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Scab Resistant Apple Cultivars for Juice Production<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this experiment was a selection of scab resistant apple cultivars suitable for juice production. Special attention was paid to cloudy juices. During three successive seasons, apple cultivars were processed into juices using laboratory method of juice extraction. Considering the possibility of both clear and cloudy juice production, apples were pressed with and without mash enzymation. The parameters investigated were: pressing yield, titratable acidity, soluble solids, juice density, and juices’ sensory characteristics. Average values indicate that all the cultivars fulfilled the requirements of the Code of Practice of the European Fruit Juice Association concerning investigated chemical components, however, in single years, there were some deviations that should be taken into consideration offering single cultivar juices. Considering a low yield of juice without mash enzymation (below 70%), cultivars ‘Renora’ and ‘Retina’ are not recommended for cloudy juice production. Sensory quality of juices, irrespectively if cloudy or clear, depended mostly on taste acceptability and in fact on soluble solids to acidity ratio. Juices with the ratio above 17 were usually scored higher concerning the taste than those with lower values. An example of exception was ‘Free Redstar’ which is highly astringent. Considering the efficiency of pressing and soluble solids content several investigated cultivars were highly suitable for concentrated apple juice production. Especially valuable may be considered ‘Regine’, ‘Rebella’, ‘Sawa’, and ‘Topaz’ and can be recommended for planting in industrial orchards, which became of special interest in recent years.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of the Susceptibility of Several Plum (Prunus Domestica L.) Cultivars to Plum Pox Virus (Ppv) Infection in the Field. Sharka-Like Symptoms Observed on 'Jojo' Fruit are Not Related to PPV<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Susceptibility of plum cultivars: 'Katinka', 'Jubileum', 'Diana', 'Valjevka', 'Żółta Afaska', 'Elena', 'Jojo', 'President', 'Vision', and 'Węgierka Zwykła' (Pozegaca type, included as reference, highly susceptible cultivar) to aphid-vectored Plum pox virus (strain D), was evaluated. The trees were grown for 7-8 years in the field characterized with high infection pressure. 'Katinka' and 'President' showed susceptibility even higher than 'Węgierka Zwykła'. 'Vision' and 'Valjevka' showed relatively low susceptibility with less than 30% of trees becoming infected. All 'Jojo' trees remained free from ELISA-detectable amounts of PPV, although a high percentage of the fruit of this cultivar showed sharka-like symptoms on stones and fruit flesh. The reason for that phenomenon is not known.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Yield and Quality of Red Beet Roots Cultivated Using Conventional, Integrated and Organic Method<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The experiment on different means of cultivation of red beet cv. ‘Regulski Cylinder’ was conducted in the years 2006-2009, using conventional, integrated, and organic methods. The greatest impact on total and commercial yield, the average root weight, dry weight and chemical constituents’ content in the roots had the season. In the years 2006 and 2008, the highest total and marketable yields of beet roots were obtained by organic method, but in 2009 these parameters were the lowest in organically produced plants. Total yield was correlated with mean root weight. In the years 2006 and 2008, betanine content was the lowest in organically produced roots while in the year 2009 it was the highest. The low yield of marketable roots and the low nitrates’ content were the only two parameters, which distinguished organically produced red beet roots throughout the years of experiment.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Branching System of the Mexican Hawthorn “Tejocote” (Crataegus Spp.)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The architecture of the tejocote (pronounciation: tehocote) - a Mexican fruit trees is described. There is a great morphological diversity among the tejocote clones growing in Germplasm Bank of the Autonomic University of Chapingo, Mexico. The common character of all hawthorns in this bank is that the inflorescence axis dies after shedding the reproductive parts (flowers or fruits) but remains on the tree, and the growth continues from the bud situated below the dead part. The growth and ramification habit were described as long shoots showing marked apical dominance and as the complex of shoots showing week apical dominance. The non-pruned trees of tejocote clones used as fruit trees form strong natural crown. The architecture of it is similar to the “Troll’s model” of Hallé and Oldeman (1970). Metamorphosis and reiteration are relatively frequent. The inflorescence structure was described, as well as the types of thorns in clones, which have thorns. Tejocote hawthorn may probably be an interesting fruit tree for countries with warm climate and a long dry period. It is also well adapted to shallow calcareous soils.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Detection of Narcissus Latent Virus Isolates Using One-Step Rt-Pcr Assay<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A one-step RT-PCR procedure was developed for specific detection of Narcissus latent virus (NLV) isolates. Following alignment of RNA sequences of three NLV isolates, the conserved sequence fragments were identified in viral polyprotein gene and 3’UTR region. Based on those fragments, a forward NLs1 and two reverse: NLa1 and NLSCPR2 primers were designed. Primer pairs NLs1-NLa1 and NLs1- NLSCPR2 proved to be effective in amplification of a 669 bp and 1295 bp products, respectively. Sequence analysis of amplified products confirmed their specificity.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Gibberellic Acid Effect on Growth and Flowering of Ajania Pacifica /Nakai/ Bremer et Humphries<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The research addressed the effect of gibberellic acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) on growth and flowering of Ajania pacifica /Nakai/ Bremer et Humphries ‘Bea’. The vegetative growth lasted for 8 weeks in glasshouse, under natural long day and from August 15 - under natural short day. The plants were divided into four groups: 1 - the plants sprayed with distilled water (control combination); 2, 3 and 4 - the plants sprayed with GA3 ones, twice and thrice, respectively, starting from the 5<sup>th </sup>week of growth, and then in the 6<sup>th </sup>and 7<sup>th </sup>week, successively. Each of the group was divided into two subgroups: the first one treated with GA<sub>3 </sub>at concentration of 250 mg·dm<sup>-3 </sup>and the second with 500 mg·dm<sup>-3</sup>. It was observed that double spraying with GA<sub>3 </sub>accelerated the buds development of Ajania pacifica, thus shortened the cultivation time by about two days. Treatment with GA<sub>3 </sub>at concentration 500 mg·dm<sup>-3 </sup>stimulated the elongation of shoots more than treatment with GA<sub>3 </sub>at 250 mg·dm<sup>-3</sup>. The plants sprayed twice were longer than the control and then those sprayed one time. However, elongation of shoots was not remarkable; corymbs were shorter, narrower, and contained lesser number of inflorescences. The present study indicates the specificity of the response of Ajania pacifica to GA<sub>3 </sub>treatment, which appears to be different from other ornamental species.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Control of Codling Moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) Population Using Mating Disruption Method<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The series of experiments on codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) control using mating disruption method were conducted in three experimental orchards during 2006-2010 growing seasons. The efficacy of two commercial pheromone preparations: Ecodian CP and Isomate CTT, in comparison to pesticides Calypso 480 SC and Appeal 04 PA, was evaluated on the base of percentage of damaged fruits, number of caterpillars collected during their migration for overwintering in bands of corrugated cardboard placed on tree trunk and number of moths caught in pheromone traps. Two thousands dispensers of Ecodian CP were used twice a season (at 6-week interval) on the area of 1 ha of the orchard. Five hundred of Isomate CTT dispensers were applied once a season on 1 ha of the orchard. In all the experiments, application of mating disruption method significantly reduced the level of apple damage; the control efficacy (calculated according to Abbott’s formula) ranged from 54.2% to 95.8%. The efficacy of chemical control ranged from 58.5% to 93.0%. The lower efficacy of mating disruption method was noticed in orchards with high codling moth population. The treatments also affected the number of caterpillars caught in bands of corrugated cardboard placed on tree trunk. In experiments where the codling moth was not controlled, the number of caterpillars per a band varied from 0.2 to 11.9 whereas in these where the pest was controlled chemically or by mating disruption method, their number varied from 1.4 to 2.8 specimens.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Growth and Development of Potted Rhododendron Cultivars ‘Catawbiense Boursault’ and ‘Old Port’ in Response to Regulated Deficit Irrigation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on growth and development of potted rhododendron ‘Catawbiense Boursault’ and ‘Old Port’ plants and to evaluate the usefulness of this technique for saving water in nursery production and promoting flowering. Plants were grown in 1.9 litre plastic containers in unheated greenhouse and were subjected to six irrigation treatments lasting for 14 weeks from June to mid-September. A drip irrigation system with one 2 dm3·h-1 emitter per container was used. Six treatments of irrigation were applied: T1) 1 ETp (evapotranspiration) (control, well watered plants); T2) 0.75 ETp (moderate deficit irrigation); T3) 0.5 ETp (strong deficit irrigation) during the entire period of the experiment and the others three were: T4) 1 ETp for 5 weeks followed by 0.5 ETp for 4 weeks and 1 ETp for 5 weeks (strong deficit irrigation in phase II); T5) 1 ETp for 5 weeks followed by 0.25 ETp for 4 weeks and 1 ETp for 5 weeks (very strong deficit irrigation in phase II) and T6) 0.5 ETp for 5 weeks followed by 1 ETp for 4 weeks and 0.5 ETp for 5 weeks (strong deficit irrigation in phases I and III and well watered plants in phase II). The results showed that exposing plants to moderate water deficit (0.75 ETp) for 14 weeks had the best effect on quality of Rhododendron ‘Old Port’ plants. In this cultivar the application of very strong water deficit (0.25 ETp) for 4 weeks during floral buds initiation improved significantly floral bud set. Reduction of water supply by 50% during 14 weeks of Rhododendron ‘Catawbiense Boursault’ cultivation resulted in both the enhanced plant quality and increased number of floral buds set. Rhododendrons has adapted to reduced water supplies through stomatal control. At the end of the experiment, chlorophyll fluorescence parameter F<sub>v</sub>/F<sub>m </sub>(quantum efficiency of photosystem II) did not indicate damage to photosynthetic apparatus and relative chlorophyll content in leaves of plants subjected to all irrigation regimes did not differ significantly between each other.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Characteristics of Fruits Morphology, Chemical Composition and Colour Changes in Must During Maceration of Three Grapevine Cultivars<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The study compares morphology of clusters and fruits, the chemical composition and changes of pulp in the process of maceration of grape cultivars ‘Mavrud’, ‘Pinot Noir’ and ‘Merlot’. The cultivar ‘Mavrud’ had biggest clusters and fruits. Its fruits were less firm but had the highest acidity while the fruits of the ‘Pinot Noir’ had the highest content of soluble solids and dry matter and the greatest firmness but the lowest acidity and content of nitrites and nitrates. The fruits of the ‘Merlot’ cultivar had the highest content of L-ascorbic acid, nitrites and nitrates. The pulp colour was largely affected by the maceration temperature. During a warm maceration, the process of pulp darkening accelerated and the red colour saturation increased, whereas cold maceration resulted in the blue colour saturation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Genetic Variability, Inheritance and Correlation for Mineral Contents in Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea Var. Capitata L.)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Brassica vegetables are important sources of dietary minerals. However, information on the inheritance and correlation for content of mineral elements such as iron, zinc, copper, manganese, potassium, and calcium in cabbage, which is essential if the quality of this vegetable is to be improved through breeding, is not available. Therefore, the experiment was set up with seventy-one cabbage genotypes including cultivars, germplasm and F<sub>1 </sub>hybrids grown in field. Mineral composition of the genotypes tested differed highly significantly indicating the presence of adequate amount of variability. A high heritability (&gt;80%) accompanied by high genetic advance as percentage of mean (&gt;40%) for uptake and accumulation of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ca indicates the predominance of additive gene, which could be improved by hybridization followed by selection breeding approach. Nevertheless, heterosis breeding would be an imperative in increasing the K content in cabbage heads as indicated by non-additive gene action for K accumulation having high heritability (&gt;80%) and low genetic advance as percentage of mean (&lt;30%). Moreover, both additive and non-additive genes were responsible for individual head weight. A positive correlation for Fe, Zn and Mn contents with other minerals will help in simultaneous selection of mineral elements. Nevertheless, major yield contributing ‘head weight’ was negatively correlated with minerals content and emphasized the selection of smaller head size to maintain the higher minerals content in tissues of cabbage heads. Hence, assessing the heritability, inheritance and correlation for minerals would be useful in the developing mineral-rich and productive genotypes.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1