rss_2.0Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research Culture and Sport. Studies and Research 's Cover social responsibility activities conducted by football clubs playing in the Polish top division – PKO Ekstraklasa<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The main goal of this paper is to analyze how football clubs playing in the Polish top division approach the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Professionalization processes in football clubs all over the world have led to the situation in which they are treated as companies and must follow the same rules. The goals of companies from all industries are no longer only about generating financial profits; they also want to meet the expectations of their shareholders, which can be done through CSR activities. Strong social bonds between football clubs and local societies indicate the CSR approach has massive potential for football clubs. The aim of this paper is to describe how PKO Ekstraklasa are approaching the concept of CSR and to answer the following questions: “To what extent were clubs playing in PKO Ekstraklasa during the 2020/2021 season active in the area of CSR? To what groups did they direct their activities?” The analysis was conducted based on data published by clubs on their websites. The results of the analysis show that PKO Ekstraklasa clubs are active in the field of CSR. However, they need to improve significantly in terms of the regularity of their activities and reporting in order to become truly socially responsible.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Perceptions of coaching success: an exploratory analysis of Czech coaches views on success<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A philosophical framework for success in coaching is established, upon which the results of 571 coaches’ views of success in coaching is consequently evaluated. The coaches are Czech nationals from seven sports, who coach all age groups from U8 to adult professional teams, with length of experience ranging from 1 to 26 years (mean 7.1). Success definitions were coded and categorized before being analyzed across sport, age group coached, experience and licensing level. Hal-lowell’s success cycle is used as a standard of evaluation. Results were also assessed in terms of modern coaching philosophies. Overall, it was shown that the most common definition of success by coaches fell into the Sport Growth domain (31.7%), by which they primarily meant Player Development (20.6% of these coaches). The second most common domain for defining success was Performance (28.2%), primarily defined in terms of Winning (15.5%). Emotional Growth (21.1%) and Personal Growth (7.6%), though emphasized in modern coaching philosophies, were largely undervalued by Czech coaches. Enjoyment, a key element of success from Aristotle to Seligman, and essential to Hallowell’s success cycle was evident in only a small number (5.6%) of the success definitions of coaches.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00A needs assessment study on refugees’ inclusion through physical education and sport. Are we ready for this challenge?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In recent years, European countries have become hosting destinations for thousands of people who have been forced to leave their home countries. Greece is one of the main European hosting countries of refugees, especially children. Thus, the pupil population is gradually changing and the need for intercultural education is increasing. Physical education (PE) and sports have been recorded as suitable contexts for this process. However, there are still many challenges present in these contexts. The following study attempts to present the perceptions of PE teachers, coaches, and academics on the inclusion of refugees in PE and sports. Fifteen PE teachers/coaches and academics involved in the field of intercultural education participated in the study. A phenomenological approach was followed through semi-structured interviews. The method of thematic analysis was chosen to analyze the data. While all the participants considered PE and sports to be the most suitable contexts for the inclusion of refugees, they emphasized certain barriers to be overcome: the lack of training for PE teachers and coaches, prejudices of the parents of both natives and refugees, and refugees’ socioeconomic status and gender issues. Participants also shared their ideas for an adequate training program to improve PE teachers’ and coaches’ attitudes and promote their knowledge and skills regarding the inclusion of refugees. The participants underlined the need for intercultural education and well-structured training programs to properly manage culturally diverse environments.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Learning to teach and play futsal using digital tablets: What knowledge do sports science students mobilize?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>There is little research on the knowledge mobilized by sports science students when they learn to play a sport by learning to teach it. This study focuses on the benefits of using digital tablets to foster this learning during a university teaching module in futsal with students in the second year of a sports science bachelor’s degree. We compare the knowledge mobilized by these students during self-confrontation interviews (based on video recordings of the sessions), game situations, reciprocal coaching and debates of ideas. We then identify the nature of this knowledge and the strategies for its mobilization in context using a framework mainly based on didactics in physical education (Amade-Escot, 2006; Armour, 2011) and on pedagogical content knowledge studies (Shulman, 1986). The students were divided into two experimental conditions following the same pedagogical curriculum. The students in condition 1 used digital tablets to film themselves, tag videos and discuss the recordings. The students in condition 2 did not use tablets. The interviews were conducted twice during the teaching module: first during period 1 (beginning of the module) and then during period 2 (end of the module). The results show that students in condition 1 were more likely to mobilize shared knowledge, make decisions through cooperation and even devolve the construction of tactical reasoning and knowledge by their peers following the didactic approach of the faculty teacher as early as period 1. This promoted access to the construction and meaning of teaching and learning content. These results are discussed in light of the current challenges within educational systems and of the joint development of interactional skills for learning to cooperate and even to teach.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of hopelessness on violence tendency: Turkish football fans<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the hopelessness and violence tendency of football fans and to investigate the differences between these variables and various demographic variables. The research group was formed by 398 male volunteer football fans who watched the Elazigspor (Sports Toto 1<sup>st</sup> League) matches in the 2018-2019 season in Turkey. In addition to demographic variables in the study, the Violent Trend Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale were used. The SPSS program was used to analyze the data. Independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, pearson correlation, and linear regression analysis were used in the analysis of the data. In the findings of the research, it was determined that there was a moderate positive relationship between the variable of hopelessness and the tendency toward violence. It was determined that there was a statistically significant difference in the tendency toward violence according to the variables of fans going to away games, the duration of watching matches at the stadium, and with whom fans watched the matches. As a result, as the level of fans’ hopelessness increased, it was observed that there was an increase in violent tendencies. In addition, those who went to watch away matches, those who watched matches at the stadium for a long period of time, and those who went to watch matches with friends were found to have high levels of violent tendencies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Individual knowledge of, perceptions about, and barriers to physical literacy (PL) in Malaysia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate individuals’ knowledge of, perceptions about, and barriers to promoting physical literacy (PL) in Malaysia. Random samples of 360 participants of different genders, ages, races, and education levels (aged 15–60 years) residing in Malaysia participated in this study, which was conducted on online platforms between the months of February and May, 2019. The participants’ knowledge was assessed using a modified Physical Literacy Knowledge questionnaire (PLKQ). Open-ended questions were also conducted to assess perceived perceptions and barriers to improving participants’ PL, thus strengthening the validity and reliability of data collection. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (e.g., means, SD) and the Pearson correlation coefficient, while the analysis of qualitative data involved the usage of the Interpretive Phenomenological Approach (IPA). The participants showed greater efficacy about standards in physical education and believed that PL is developed throughout one’s lifetime, with (M = 3.2, SD = 1.02) and (M = 3.78, SD = 1.02), respectively. Additionally, most participants pointed to the necessity of having specific skills and experience to develop PL among young people as the main barrier to improving PL in Malaysia, with (M = 3.25, SD = 1.02). This initial study will provide better direction for future researchers and educators to plan an intervention to increase PL among Malaysians and advocate for physical activity in individuals’ daily lives. Additionally, this study will be useful to inform future educators’ teaching practices, particularly in Malaysian schools.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Sport as a tool for public diplomacy in Hungary<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sport is often utilized as a tool by governments and nation-states in building a favorable international image, seeking external political legitimacy, and strengthening nation-building endeavors across borders. Given its universal appeal, sport is often perceived as a valuable soft power asset for conveying positive messages to foreign publics. Against this backdrop, the present study aims to introduce the sports diplomacy approach of Hungary, specifically focusing on the state-led utilization of sport in public diplomacy under the recent government of Viktor Orbán (2010–2020). With the institutionalization of sport in public diplomacy, Hungary has become a pioneering country in Central and Eastern Europe that can provide an example for other nation-states in the region. The Hungarian government’s sports diplomacy ambitions have not been curbed by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the country continues to invest large amounts of public funding in attracting and organizing international sporting competitions. Hosting the Summer Olympic Games in Budapest remains the ultimate goal of the current government’s sports diplomacy strategy, which focuses on elite sport.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00How football fans perceive sports heroes – The case of Israel<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Background: Hero-making and hero-worship are common in human society. Yet despite the universal appeal of heroes, the features attributed to these figures and the attitudes toward them change depending upon the circumstances. Heroes have been the topic of extensive discussion in the academic literature. Nevertheless, little research attention has been directed at sports heroes. Examining soccer heroes is of special importance, particularly in view of soccer’s popularity across the globe and the celebrity status of top soccer stars.</p> <p>Purpose: The objective of this paper is to examine and map the defining features of soccer heroes as subjectively perceived by their fans.</p> <p>Methods: We conducted a qualitative study that entailed semi-structured interviews with 18 young Israeli soccer fans as well as content analysis of fan chants.</p> <p>Results: The research findings indicate that fans attribute special importance to three main characteristics that are not perceived as dominant among heroes in other contexts: loyalty to team and family, modesty and morality, and the ability to influence their surroundings. Based on the findings, the paper discusses the unique nature of soccer heroes in contrast to other elite players and the role played by these heroes for their fans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00A case study: the AFL as a positive institution<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Australian Football League (AFL) is a leading professional sports organization within the multi-billion-dollar entertainment industry. This case study uses publicly available information to investigate the AFL in terms of its credentials as a positive institution using the good work model developed by Stansbury and Sonenshein (2012). The AFL has taken advantage of the economic rationalism and developed a corporate structure able to deliver a range of good work activities. For example, developmental programs that help players exceeding high community expectations. This study suggests that the good work model is beneficial for cognitive resources, normal functioning, regulatory focus, and impression formation. The AFL appears to answer Cameron et al. (2004) call to identify and enable flourishing and life-giving aspects of their organisation and, thus, represents a kind of positive institution. Finally, the study recognizes positive institutions as worthwhile but raises concerns about the uniqueness and lack of cultural research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Multilateral teaching in physical education improves resilience and self-efficacy in adolescents and could help reduce bullying behaviors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Youth with higher levels of resilience and self-efficacy are less likely to engage in aggressive behaviors or be victims of bullying. Previous anti-bullying approaches have often achieved no reduction in bullying behavior. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of 12 weeks of extracurricular multilateral teaching on the risk for students (aged 14–16 years) to be involved in bullying. Sixty male students were allocated to an experimental group (n = 30) that performed psychoeducational activities combined with physical exercise training and team games (90 min, 2d · week<sup>–1</sup>) or a control group (n = 30). Before and after the intervention, we used the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28) to assess individual capacities and resources, relationship with primary caregiver, contextual factors, and total resilience; and the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQ-C) to measure academic, social, emotional, and total self-efficacy. Four participants from the experimental group withdrew. Significant improvements of crucial relevance were found for the resilience and self-efficacy scales (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) in the experimental group. We found that multilateral teaching may improve resilience and self-efficacy in adolescents and make them less likely to engage in aggressive behavior or be bullied. Multilateral teaching should be considered an effective alternative to the anti-bullying approach, highlighting the crucial role of physical education teachers in the promotion of proactive educational strategies to reduce bullying behaviors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00How sport and its values are perceived by adults in the USA and Ukraine: a cross-cultural comparison<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There are practically no cross-cultural studies in the field of physical education and sport with Ukrainian society as the object of research. However, there is a particular and obvious interest to research not only young people as a major strategic resource for any state, but also adults, including parents. The main purpose of the study is to identify common and different features of the attitude toward sport and its axiological component in the Ukrainian and American societies. A total of 500 adults aged 18-64 (196 men and 304 women) participated in the national survey, with the majority being Ukrainian school teachers. The results obtained from the study were compared with the results of a study conducted in the United States. It should be noted that in our study, we only selected questions from the American questionnaire that solely addressed adults’ perceptions of sport and its values. We did not choose other questions. Mathematical processing of the survey indicators was carried out using the computer program SPSS. The result of the research is a comparison of statements from adults of both countries regarding the actual and potential impact of social institutions on the youth; their statements about sport; values or principles that may or may not be important in sport; the extent of sport’s actual influence on the formation of values; the values adults hope their children will learn from participating in sport; and statements about the importance of values from adults who are actively involved in sport. The results of the cross-cultural study among adults in the USA and Ukraine indicate that there is both an identical idea of certain values in sport and a different vision due to, in our opinion, the divergence of cultural traditions and the status of sport in the countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Examination of relationships between communication satisfaction and organizational identification of sport science students<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this study is to examine the predictor relationships between the satisfaction sport science students obtain from communication with lecturers and their organizational identification. Moreover, the study aims to determine whether there is a difference in both dependent variables in terms of gender, grade, whether they like their educational department, desire to change their department, establishment of out-of-class communication with lecturers, and being in active communication with lecturers in class. In this study, quantitative correlational techniques are used. Our sample comprised 252 (<italic>x</italic>¯ age = 21.39 ± 2.16) sport science students (127 female; 125 male). The “Student Communication Satisfaction Scale” developed by Goodboy, Martin, and Bolkan (2009) and adapted to Turkish by Akın, Yalnız, and Kazaz (2015) was used as a data collection tool, as was the “Organizational Identification Scale” developed by Mael and Ashforth (1992) and adapted to Turkish by Tak and Aydemir (2004). Parametric data was analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis, simple linear regression analysis, 2 × 2 MANOVA, and two-way ANOVA. Nonparametric data was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis H statistical test technique. The results indicate a strong and positively oriented relationship between the communication satisfaction and organizational identification of sport science students. Moreover, it is seen that communication satisfaction is a crucial predictor of organizational identification. According to our data, females’ communication satisfaction and identification levels are much higher than those of males. Students’ like or dislike of the department where they receive an education and the quality and form of communication they have established with lecturers result in significant differences in both dependent variables.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Standing on the ice: experiences of women national ice hockey players in Turkey<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine within the framework of symbolic interaction theory and field theory how women national ice hockey players understand ice hockey through their experiences. Semi-structured interviews were used to understand the experiences of 21 ice hockey players from the Turkish women’s national team, and themes were developed from the data using the thematic analysis methods. A total of three main themes and two sub-themes were created after the analysis. In this context, three main themes related to the theoretical framework were established: “Symbolic Meanings: A Strong Ice Hockey Player,” “Ice Hockey As a Life Space,” and “A Hard Fight On the Ice.” In addition, under the main theme of “Ice Hockey As a Life Space” are two sub-themes: “World of Emotions” and “Constraints.” Ice hockey is perceived by women players as a living space that expresses a firm stance towards life. Despite the presence of traces of the concept of gender, ice hockey is not seen as a fully gendered area by Turkish players. In general, women players reported the lack of financial and social support as limiting factors for participation in ice hockey, while moral support and high motivation were supporting factors.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Foreign ownership and local fans: Turkish football fans’ perspective<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Foreign investors have been very active in football clubs in many different countries. These clubs see significant benefits from foreign investment. However, in Turkey, this practice has not yet been implemented. Furthermore, there has been no general discussion about the applicability of this system in Turkish clubs, despite almost all Turkish football clubs being in a state of financial turmoil. To fill this void, this study aims to research the views of Turkish football fans regarding the possible sale of their club to a foreign investor. A total of 1172 football fans across Turkey completed a questionnaire form for the research. The distributions of fans’ views were analyzed by forming crosstabs and using the chi-square test of independence. A total of 66.8% of Turkish fans who participated in the research are against the possible sale of their club to a foreign investor, while 33.2% of the fans support this situation. Additionally, 55.5% of the fans think they have adequate information about club ownership, whereas 44.5% of them think they do not have adequate information. Also, desire for financial return, sporting success, and corporate management were found as reasons to support foreign ownership while nationalism and a sense of belonging to a club were found as reasons to oppose foreign ownership. The study indicates that fans oppose or support the idea of foreign ownership for various reasons. The study describes these factors in the context of past studies and also presents the path for future research.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Competitive spirit as a form of behavioral addiction: the case study of Michael Jordan<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>When studying biographical narratives constituting “The Michael Jordan Myth,” certain patterns emerge. For example, it is possible to identify mythemes corresponding with Campbell’s concept of the hero’s journey monomyth. This study focuses on a particular pattern, which is a progression of addiction with its phases, axial points, and list of symptoms. One of the most frequently used epithets in regard to the hero of this particular myth is “competitive.” While this is a quality of numerous outstanding athletes, in Jordan’s case competitiveness appears as a dominant quality and a driving force throughout his entire career.</p><p>The premise of my study is the assumption that Jordan’s competitive spirit is a symptom of behavioral addiction and winning/defeating rivals is the behavior of an addict. The goal of the study is to use Jordan’s biographies and, based on Jellinek’s model of addiction progression, to verify whether Jordan’s accomplishments on and off the court can be viewed as symptoms of unclassified behavioral addiction.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The effectiveness of sport within social intervention projects: a UK case study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the UK, successive governments have prioritised the use of sport for developmental purposes, a range of broader community matters, and as a purposeful tool to help at-risk youth. However, given the accepted wisdom underpinning the continued investment in sports projects that reflect ideas centred on youth and community development, it is not unsurprising that a number of authors (for instance, Coalter, 2007; Griffiths and Armour, 2011) question the validity and true nature of using sport in this context. This is especially so when some research indicates that it may well be the schemes, people, or ancillary benefits within projects that are the primary factor in any appreciable change in pro-social behaviours, rather than sport per se (Sandford, Armour, and Duncombe, 2008). This study used interviews with eight experienced community sport development officers, coaches, and project organisers in the south of the UK. The findings revealed that sport <italic>and</italic> social intervention projects could develop participants’ self-esteem, resilience, and aspirations, and that sport was seen as a helpful tool to help facilitate this. However, the findings also emphasised that any meaningful changes in behaviour were also subject, and subordinate to, the importance of developing positive coach-participant relationships. The implications are discussed within the paper.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of basic psychological needs satisfaction on intrinsic regulation is moderated by hedonic and eudaimonic motives: a longitudinal investigation among youth athletes in Japan<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The current study was conducted to examine the interactive effects of basic psychological needs satisfaction (BPNS), hedonic and eudaimonic motives on intrinsic regulation. To assess the causal relationship, two-wave time-lagged data collection was employed. A total of 159 youth athletes in Japan participated in online surveys twice (three-month time lag between two data points). The results indicated that the effect of BPNS on intrinsic regulation was moderated by hedonic and eudaimonic motives. Interestingly, BPNS negatively affected intrinsic regulation among youth athletes with low hedonic motives. This negative impact was further augmented when the level of eudaimonic motives was higher. Conversely, BPNS positively influenced intrinsic regulation among youth athletes with high hedonic motives. This positive impact of BPNS was more prominent when eudaimonic motives were lower. Overall, the findings suggest that when intrinsic regulation is the central concern, youth athletes should focus more on seeking enjoyment while putting self-development aside to maximize the positive impact of BPNS.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of the influence of participation in screen golf on self-esteem, loneliness, depression, social isolation, and life satisfaction between people with and without disabilities in Republic of Korea<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Screen golf is a product of the combination of modern technology and leisure. This new form of sport can provide people with disabilities opportunities for positive life experiences through sport participation. This study aimed to investigate differences in the effect of screen golf participation on psychosocial factors (self-esteem, isolation, depression, loneliness, and life satisfaction) in people with and without disabilities. With 293 survey respondents in this study, the Multivariate Analysis of Variances (MANOVA) was performed twice to measure differences between groups after ensuring the validity and reliability of the instrument. Participation in screen golf demonstrated a positive effect for all factors for people with disabilities. Results also showed a more positive effect on self-esteem and life satisfaction for people without disabilities with screen golf experience than for those without any screen golf experience. This study demonstrated that screen golf, as a physical leisure activity, was helpful to all study participants, with greater positive effects observed for participants with disabilities. This finding suggests that ubiquitous leisure activities such as screen golf made possible by advancements in modern technologies offer desirable benefits to many. This study is highly meaningful since it demonstrated how technologies could be helpful to people with disabilities who historically have has less access to leisure activities than able-bodied people.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Football Talent-Nurture after the 1989-1990 Political Transformation in Hungary<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Football Talent-Nurture after the 1989-1990 Political Transformation in Hungary</title><p>Hungarian football used to be in the first line of the international arena but for the last five decades a steady and strong setback has been a characteristic feature. The main purpose of this paper is to discover the major problems related to the education of young players and to make suggestions to improve the current situation. The study is based on a research in which three different but complementary methods, called "triangulation" were used: fieldwork, content analysis and in-depth interviews. The results show that although sport had always been the area which served political interests, this situation has dramatically changed after 1989-1990. Since then moral and economic crisis could be observed and this has resulted in the collapse of the Hungarian football. Concerning the talent care program there is no a common educational project for young players. This could be explained by the lack of cooperation between professionals who believe that they have different professional and financial interests and act accordingly. In conclusion it can be stated that success could only be reached if politics and the central budget were be independent and the cooperation between decision makers and experts in football were stronger. The unskilled managers and coaches responsible for the education of young players should be exchanged for real professionals.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2009-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Class or Mass: Sport (for All) Politics at a Crossroads<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Class or Mass: Sport (for All) Politics at a Crossroads</title><p>Hungarian sport politics has long tradition not to accomplish the — otherwise ideal — objectives declared in the overall sport conception for the same period. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the contemporary National Sports Strategies, the contradictory character of their realization and some major conditions of the improvement of all Hungarians' involvement in sport. By way of introduction the notions of sport policy, sport politics and sport for all politics are clarified. Then the methods for collecting information (analysis of documents, in-depth interviews and participant observation) are presented. The main body of the contribution consists of three parts. Firstly a brief overview is given on the legacy on the grounds of which the current sport politics had to start from, with great emphasis of the changing role of the state, civil society and the business sector in the process of planning, developing and supporting the population's sporting activity. Secondly the today's sport policy and the true situation in sport for all are discussed according to the following dimensions: (1) the underprivileged position of sport for all; (2) the lack of the necessary co-operation between sport and other sub-systems, such as education, public health; (3) the low proportion of state aid to be given for sport; (4) the disparity of state financing between the individual fields of sport: (5) the reinforcement of the increasing social inequality in sport. Thirdly the author makes attempts to outline a developmental trend state responsibility in sport for all by answering a crucial question: Whose responsibility is it? In conclusion it is stated that historical opportunity for changing radically the traditional sport politics was missed during the last 15-20 years. The political approach to sport by the individual governments might have been different, but the very essence of their sport politics was rather similar. The core values guiding their sport politics were very positive all the time; however they have not been realized in either period. The author is of the opinion that the vision of a "sporting nation" suggested by the present-day National Sport Strategy seems to be attractive, but she calls the attention to the missing political and financial garantees that would enable to approaching it and urges to promote a more democratic, a m ore just and a truly modern turn in sport politics</p></abstract>ARTICLE2009-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1