rss_2.0Production Engineering Archives FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Production Engineering Archiveshttps://sciendo.com/journal/PEAhttps://www.sciendo.comProduction Engineering Archives 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/61368c0c1000020b549d653d/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20210923T234531Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604799&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20210923%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=4b46cdb049a88e25bcf18eff5292e1c2a3efc9548b657f2a34b1e8cb7dacfe4c200300Recertification of a Quality Management System based on ISO 9001 - is it a must for a modern manufacturing company?https://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.29<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The ISO 9000 series of standards are among the best-known standards developed by the International Organisation for Standardisation ISO. They provide guidance and guidelines for companies and organisations that want their products and services to satisfy customer requirements and their quality to be continuously improved. However, the need for recertification of the Quality Management System (QMS) based on ISO 9001 is increasingly being discussed by managers. The questions asked are: is it necessary to have such a certificate in order to maintain high product quality and customer satisfaction? What is the balance of benefits and losses for maintaining a certificate of this standard? The authors of the paper will try to answer these questions based on the experience of a medium-sized metal manufacturing company.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The importance of telematic information and logistics indicators for the management of the quality of transport serviceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.23<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Transport companies, whose activities have a significant impact on the economy of the whole of Europe, constantly face new market challenges. The high demand for transport services, even in the time of the Covid-19 pandemic, and the introduction of new regulations by the European Union authorities mean that these enterprises have to increase their efforts on competitive foreign markets. Telematics systems play a crucial role in this battle as they enable the acquisition and processing of data characterizing processes in road transport. In this article, the author undertakes the issue of logistic indicators in theoretical frames, as well as their classification and characteristics as the main source of information about processes. This is followed by the analysis of data obtained from a transport company using a telematics system to manage transport processes in the context of ensuring the quality of services. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the significance of selected logistics indicators in terms of improving the quality of transport services. Statistical analysis is used to study the relationships and impact of individual measures in 2019-2020 as a forecasting tool. The result of the research is finding an appropriate link between the measures and using this knowledge as an opportunity to improve the quality of services.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Management optimizing the costs and duration time of the process in the production systemhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.21<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article proposes a method to support decision making from a cost management perspective in the initial stage of production planning. In a research analyzed the problem of selecting production resources for order realization. The research was based on computer simulation. The developed model focuses on the planning of the production process in the event that the products have not yet been produced and it is necessary to decide where to produce it (with what production resources) so that the total production costs are as low as possible. In this concept, the FlexSim simulation environment with a built-in optimization module was used to solve the problem. The basic steps of simulation model built were discussed, taking into account the necessary information and input data. The results show the impact of the application of selected simulation scenarios on the level of use of production resources, due to the minimization of the total production costs and the duration time of the production process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Enhancing of energetic and economic efficiency of air distribution by swirled-compact air jetshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.22<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is devoted to solving the urgent task of increasing the efficiency of air distribution by swirled-compact air jets to ensure the normative parameters of indoor air. The dynamic parameters of the swirled-compact air jet during its leakage in the alternating mode and the formation of a dynamic indoor climate in the room are determined. For improvement of comfortable conditions in the room and design of energy saving circuits of air distribution it is suggested to use swirled-compact air jets, which flow from the inflow and exhaust heat recuperators with heat recovery of the exhaust air. An energy audit of the ventilation system reconstruction with a recuperator using was carried out. The method of taking into account the fact of application of several measures, which cannot be carried out simultaneously, and discount rate dynamics is proposed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Ranking of management factors for safe maintenance system based on Grey Systems Theoryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.26<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The maintenance system is a key system that provides continuity and safety of the operation of production systems and that affects the safety of people working in these systems. At the same time, the maintenance system is a set of work processes carried out by people under specific environmental conditions, using specific equipment and within a specific organizational and management structure. The purpose of this article is to identify the main management factors that affect occupational safety and to rank these factors in terms of their effectiveness in ensuring safe maintenance, using the grey systems theory. Based on the literature analysis, 12 key management factors were identified and then subjected to expert assessment. In order to rank the factors, a decision model based on the grey systems theory (GST), i.e. systems with incomplete and uncertain information about structure and behavior, was developed and verified. The use of GST in the area of ensuring safety in maintenance is original. The findings of the article will be very useful for managers in implementing safe maintenance systems in various sectors of the economy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimization of oil extraction process from blended sludge and algae for biodiesel productionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.27<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sewage sludge is one of the most polluting wastes that affect the environment, which contains organic and inorganic pollutants released into the surroundings. Using non-renewable energy for the engine also releases large amounts of pollutants results from combustion products was other issues to the environment. The decline of non-renewable energy sources, such as natural gas, fossil fuel, and petroleum made the world increase the production of alternative fuels like waste-derived fuels. Recently, biodiesel production developed from edible oil to cover the depilation of non-renewable energy supply. But it has also become a significant challenge for food security. Therefore, finding other potential opportunities for lipid extraction is crucial. Algae and sludge conversion presented by recent studies seem to be a promising method. The paper presents the extraction and optimization of lipids from blended sludge and algae for biodiesel production. The procedure of the study was a characterization of algal and sludge wastes, the extraction of the lipid component by Soxhlet extraction, and the parameters optimization for maximum oil yield obtain. Temperature, extraction time, and solvents were the basic factor affect oil extraction yield. In the optimization 80 temperature, 6hrs time and hexane solvent results in 61% oil extraction yield which maximum point. Algae and wastewater sludge high potential of lipid and can be substitute edible oil supplies for biodiesel production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Quick-traffic slurry surfacing mix with orthophosphoric acidhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.25<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bitumen emulsions for slurry surfacing mix technology using oxidized bitumen and hydrochloric and orthophosphoric acids on laboratory DenimoTech bitumen-emulsion plant are made in the work. Methylene blue adsorption index of granite aggregate for use in slurry surfacing mix was investigated. Comparatively mix time and cohesion strength build-up of selected compositions slurry surfacing mix with hydrochloric and orthophosphoric acids depending on the variable content of bitumen emulsion. The advantage of using orthophosphoric acid in slurry surfacing mix according to the cohesion strength build-up criterion has been proved. The importance of correct distribution of bitumen drops in the emulsion was confirmed using a sedimentograph Mastersizer 2000. Two emulsions of the same component composition were compared, which differed in particle size. It has been established that it is not possible to design a slurry surfacing mix using the mix time criterion with the help of coarse bitumen emulsion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Green logistics - modern transportation process technologyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.24<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Green logistics is the part of the activities of an enterprise aimed at measuring and minimizing the impact of logistics activities on the environment. Such actions are dictated by the possibility of achieving a competitive advantage in the market, because clients require it. Transport is a particularly important area with a huge impact on the environment, because it is identified as the fastest growing source of greenhouse gas emissions. Green transport is low-emission and ecological travelling mode. The goals of green transport are not only to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, noise and space use, but also to reduce poverty and promote economic growth. Transport is considered green when it supports environmental sustainability, but also supports the other two pillars of sustainable development, i.e. economic and social. This paper discusses the application of the concept of "green" logistics and "green" technologies in transport in the transportation process. The modern requirements for transport in the field of environmental safety and compliance with environmental requirements both on the part of customers and on the part of states are considered.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Development and Performance Evaluation of a Pulverizer for Plantain Flour Process Planthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.30<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Diabetes, adjudged a risk factor for coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), can be managed through consumption of plantain and its associated products. Plantain is usually processed into flour and other storable/value-added products due to its very short shelf-life. To process unripe plantain pulps into flour, there is a need for size reduction after drying. This paper presents the development and performance evaluation of a size reduction unit for pulverizing, sieving and conveying material to the next processing stage in a plantain flour process plant. Its model was developed using solidworks application software. After design analysis, the model was simulated to establish its suitability/adequacy for fabrication. The pulverizer was fabricated using locally available materials. Its performance evaluation gave 400kg/h throughput, 96% crushing efficiency and 96% efficiency based on the required particle size. The average particle size of flour obtained was 236μm using 500μm screen. Effect of cyclone control-valve on the pulverizer’s overall efficiency was also investigated by allowing it to operate when the valve was completely closed, partially closed and fully opened. It was observed that the control-valve’s positions significantly influenced the machine’s performance/efficiency. It can thus be inferred that the position of cyclone control-valve has significant effect on a pulverizer’s efficiency/performance. Hence, leaving control-valve fully opened during operation would help a pulverizer perform with optimum efficiency, as the pulverizer was able to convey material, efficiently in that position, to the next processing stage during performance evaluation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of the percentage of reinforcement by unstressed rebar on the deformability of pre-stressed RC beamshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.28<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents the materials of deformability studies of pre-stressed steel-concrete beams reinforced with a package of reinforcement with different ratio of tape and rebar in the pure bending moment zone. The aim of the research was determination of the reinforcement percentage influence, for pre-stressed reinforced concrete beams reinforced with a package of reinforcement on their deformability. Also, the aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of using pre-stressed rebar in combined reinforcement. The practical significance of the experimental research is to study the deformability in pre-stressed bending elements with external tape and rebar reinforcement, taking into account the influence of different ratios of reinforcement areas within the combined reinforcement and development of proposals for such structures` calculation and design. The scientific novelty of the research is in obtaining the deformability characteristics of reinforced concrete beams reinforced with a package of reinforcement (tape and steel bars with periodic profile) with different ratios in the case of static loads` action.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysing the machines working time utilization for improvement purposeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.18<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is a case study of the use of snapshot observation to analyse the factors causing time losses at selected laser burner stations, and to propose changes that will increase the effective utilization of working time. The purpose of this paper is to determine the best and worst utilization of working time at the examined workplaces, analyse the amount of time lost and identify the causes of losses, and propose solutions that will improve the utilization of working time. According to the snapshot observation, procedure 2 main - work and non-work - time fractions and 10 detailed time fractions in the working day were distinguished, and their percentage share for the analysed workstations was calculated. Analyses of the working day time utilization depending on the type of machines, days of observation, single shifts were done and selected results were averaged. The paper indicates that organizational and technical aspects, as well as the employees’ faults, were the main reasons for time losses. Research has shown that the generally examined group of workstations was characterized by a high utilization level of working time. An unfavourable phenomenon was the ratio of the main time to the auxiliary time, the high share of the maintenance time fraction of the workstations, and incorrect organization of the interoperation transport, low workers motivation, rush, and routine. It was found that further improvement of work efficiency and reduce time losses requires paying attention to the optimization of employees’ working conditions, training, motivation systems, and implementation of lean concept tools and MES/CMMS solutions into production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of laser texturing on tribological properties of DLC coatingshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.15<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The work presents the use of laser texturing of DLC coatings to improve tribological properties. The coatings were applied by the PVD method to the rings made of 4H13 steel. The surface texturing was performed with the TruMICRO 5325c picosecond laser with the radiation wavelength λ = 343 nm. The surface microstructure analysis, surface microgeometry and microhardness measurements and tribological tests were carried out. The problem presented in the paper can be used to extend the knowledge of the areas of application of DLC coatings, especially in sliding friction pairs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The concept of operation and production controlhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.12<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The theoretical aim of the paper is to analyses the main function and concept of production control in operation management. The empirical aim of the paper is to investigate polish production firm opinion about factors affecting production planning and control and also functions of production planning and control. Production control is very important in every factory, and every aspect of operation and production management especially in times of Industry 4.0 conditions. In the paper we presented all classical seven task of production management control. Also there is in the paper an analysis of main factors affecting production control in industrial organization. In the paper we analysed the problems connected with production control. Nowadays in the conditions of Industry 4.0 this is very important concept because the increasing level of digitalization of all industrial processes leads to possibility of detailed analysis of all processes and better level of control. Operation managers should have good level of knowledge about production control and especially quality control. They can use in this many new information tools like statistical methods and artificial intelligence. Especially we think that in the future many function of production control would be assisted by artificial intelligence. We also in the paper give results of research conducted on example of 30 polish production organizations located in Silesia region.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00An investigation of wire offset and surface morphology of Die Steel D-3 on Wire EDM by using RSM-CCDhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.14<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The work investigated the effect on wire offset and surface morphology, with input process parameters as peak current, pulse on time, wire tension over Die Steel D3. Some of experiments were performed by using response surface methodology (RSM) as the design of experiment with central composite design (CCD) technique for the analysis. The ANOVA results annotate that the model is significant. Wire Tension and peak current are observed to have major impact on wire offset during machining operation and surface morphology. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images confirmed that the thermal stresses produced during the machining of the workpiece resulted in the development of microcracks, craters and spherical module. Due to higher thermal gradient i.e., higher peak current and pulse on-time larger cracks and melted deposits were observed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00ISO 9004 - A stimulating quality management standard for the creative leaders of contemporary sustainable organizationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.19<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>International management standards can provide organizations with challenging opportunities only if they understand the intended aims and features of those standards and apply them creatively and integrated into their business management. For that to happen, the business leaders of the organizations play the key role. For this subject, this discursive article focuses on the ISO 9004 quality management (QM) standard, which is one of the international management standards, which can be applied to all kinds of organizations. In addition to the opportunities, this article discusses difficulties and pitfalls associated with the ISO 9004 standard, and their possible solutions in practical implementations.</p> <p>The authors highlight aspects of how ISO 9004 can be considered as the most challenging standard in the ISO 9000 series of the QM standards. However, many organizations, which have not acknowledged the differences and relationship of the ISO 9004 and ISO 9001 standards, often apply the ISO 9000 standards in inadequate ways and hence have not the ability to exploit the potential opportunities of the standards. Especially, ISO 9004 considers QM from the entire business point of view and aims at the quality of the whole organization. ISO 9004 standard can provide QM guidance to achieve sustained success even in complex, demanding and ever-changing contemporary business environments, including the challenges of the 4th industrial revolution.</p> <p>This article gives ideas and creative theoretical and practical views for the ISO 9004 implementations. The aim is to emphasize that, according to ISO 9004, the organization’s identity and its differentiating competitive advantages are the bases for the quality of the organization and its sustained success. In this context, each organization has its own and always existing QM realization, which cannot be separated from business management and which can be continually improved according to the organization’s business development strategies and practices. In this respect, the ISO 9004 can be seen as flexible and challenging. Based on the authors’ experience, QM targets can be achieved and developed in the most natural way through the principles and practices of the learning organization. In addition to the ISO 9000 standards, organizations also use other well-known managerial references, including performance excellence models and many various management system standards of the specific disciplines. All these may be seen as sub-domains within the ISO 9004 framework. ISO 9004 also can be used for diverse TQM and sustainability implementations.</p> <p>This article is based on the authors’ long experience in the practical promotion and application of the ISO 9000 standard in different kinds of organizations. The first author of the article has involved in the international drafting process of the ISO 9004 standard-editions since the 1980s. He also was a co-writer of a similar ISO 9004 article about twenty years ago. That article has been publicly available on the Internet, and its over one thousand recent readers evidence a growing interest in this standard. Moreover, after 2000, ISO 9004 standard has been revised twice and rewritten completely recently. Hence, it is well-founded to re-examine this subject again in this article.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of corrosion rate of X55CrMo14 stainless steel at 65% nitrate acid at 348 Khttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.13<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A number of factors determine the mechanical, but also physical and chemical properties. One of the most important are the steel microstructure and its working conditions. A few corrosion processes in crevices and awkward corners can be avoided at the design stage (low roughness parameters, round-section and other). But still the construction material is exposed to corrosion. These steels often come into contact with an aggressive environment based on nitric acid. Stainless steel is more and more often used in many sectors of industry.</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to investigate corrosion resistance in different time (48, 96, 144, 192, 240, 288, 336, 384 and 432 hours) using weight loss and profile roughness parameters of martensitic steel in grade X55CrMo14 in nitric acid 65% pure-basic at temperature 348 K. Corrosion tests show that the tested steel in nitric acid as a corrosive environments is characterized through continuous corrosion process whose measure may be surface roughness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Barriers to the implementation of innovations in information systems in SMEshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.20<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Information management and information flow is an important element in the strategy of developing and running a company. The need to supervise information makes it necessary to implement numerous innovations that improve the method of information management correlated with the proper reception, selection and analysis - in both external and internal information flow. This paper presents the results of research that allowed for the assessment of barriers that arise during the implementation of innovative solutions in small and medium-sized enterprises (service MSEs). On the basis of the conducted research, it was found that the mental barrier is not always crucial from the point of view of modern technologies implementation. And the determination to implement information management innovations may be forced by the necessity of the document exchange acceleration. The success of innovative solutions e.g. in the financial services industry (in SMEs) is closely related to the technological capabilities of the enterprise - the technological barrier is crucial in this type of enterprises. Especially, taking into account the assumption that employees are highly motivated to implement new products.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Production potential of biodiesel, methane and electricity in the largest steamed rice industry in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: case studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.17<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The potential for energy production from effluents and husks generated in grain processing in the rice parboiling industries in Brazil is capable of promoting energy self-sufficiency in the sector, through the production and use of syngas and biogas. However, the production of methane from residues of the rice parboiling industries is still little explored by academic studies, in general studies on the potential of methane production by this same type of effluent are found in the south of the country, however, the same is not true for the production of biodiesel from rice bran oil. The objective of this study was to determine the production potential of biodiesel, methane and electric energy of the largest parboiled rice industry in Rio Grande do Sul, located in the southern region of the country. According to this study, the rice parboiling industry located in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, has a production potential of 1.2∙10<sup>2</sup> m<sup>3</sup>/day of biodiesel, 2.93∙10<sup>4</sup> Nm<sup>3</sup>/day of methane and 1.89∙10<sup>5</sup> kWh/day of electricity. Despite being a significant and high potential, which may reduce the financial expenses of the industry regarding the purchase of energy from concessionaires, it is not able to promote its energy self-sufficiency. At the same time, it would be necessary to add the energy production potential of the rice husk gasification syngas highlighted in other studies</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Economy and energy analysis in the operation of renewable energy installations – a case studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.11<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the paper an economic, ecological and energy analysis of a home photovoltaic on grid installation was presented. The increase in ecological awareness of the Polish society contributes to the continuous growth of interest in green energy. However, many people haven’t been aware of the ecological, economic and energy benefits of photovoltaic installations yet, so the following analysis is made. The analysis concerns a photovoltaic installation with a capacity of 3.96 kWp located in Ościęciny near Włocławek. The photovoltaic installation consists of 11 monocrystalline panels with a power of 360 Wp, a 4 KTLM Sofar Solar inverter and other necessary components. The first part presents basic issues related to photovoltaic installations. Parameters related to the proper functioning of the photo-voltaic installation were replaced. The analysis of the literature will help to understand the essence of the proper functioning of the photovoltaic installation. In the practical part, an analysis of a selected home photovoltaic installation was carried out. Based on the available data, it has been calculated that the installation will have a payback period of over 9 years. The photovoltaic installation will produce approximately 3 582.61 kWh of electricity and will contribute to the reduction of 70 tons of carbon dioxide during the entire operation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of changing graphitization temperature toward bio-graphite from Palm Kernel Shellhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2021.27.16<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper focuses on the relationship between heat treatment temperature toward structural transformation from amorphous carbon to highly graphitic carbon material during a production stage.The following report discusses a simple strategy to convert the palm kernel shell (PKS) into highly crystalline, high quality graphite via simple two-step process. The production involves impregnation of catalyst followed by thermal treatment. Both XRD and Raman spectroscopy allowed the observation of microstructural change of the prepared sample at temperature ranging from 1000°C to 1400°C using Ferum catalyst. From XRD pattern it can be observed that as graphitization temperature increased, the degree of graphitization also increased. Overall sample prepared at higher temperature 1400°C shows a higher degree of graphitization. PKS sample graphitized at 1400°C with the aid of Ferum catalyst shows a sharp intensified peak at 2θ = 26.5° reflecting formation of highly crystalline graphite structure. Raman spectrum also suggests similar results to XRD in which PKS-1400 shows the presence of large amount of graphitic structure as the value of (Id/Ig) ratio is lower than in other samples. HRTEM analysis visibly shows define lattice fringe, which further confirms the structural transformation from amorphous to highly ordered graphitic carbon structure. Overall, good quality graphitic carbon structure from Palm Kernel shell was succesfully synthesised via utilization of PKS, Ferum catalsyt and heat treatment method.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1