rss_2.0Perichoresis FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Perichoresis 's Cover Jesus Need the Spirit? An Appeal for Pneumatic Christology to Inform Christological Anthropology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A central claim of the Christian faith is that Jesus is not only fully human (and fully God), but that he reveals true humanity to us. This requires that all of our anthropologies, in some way, ground themselves in Christology, providing a ‘Christological anthropology’. Consequently, any Christological anthropology requires some formulation of Christology proper. In light of this, the main contention of the present paper is that one cannot adequately formulate a Christological <italic>anthropology</italic> without including a <italic>pneumatic</italic> Christology. The justification for this necessity can be articulated through the concept of fundamental need. The incarnate Logos, Jesus of Nazareth, fundamentally needed the Spirit in the same way that all human persons fundamentally need the Spirit. ‘Fundamental need’, as a technical concept, can help to clarify both the continuity and discontinuity between Jesus’ likeness to all humanity. This does not collapse the ‘who’ of the incarnation into the many ‘who’s’ of humanity since the incarnate Logos always possessed this Spirit as his own Spirit of Sonship, as opposed to how non-divinely hypostasized human persons must receive the Spirit of Sonship by adoption. The distinctiveness and similarity between Jesus and all of humanity can be most clearly seen by paying special attention to the difference between incarnation and indwelling. Thus, by examining incarnation and in-dwelling, as well as introducing fundamental need into theological discourse, the significance of the Spirit for informing both Christology and anthropology will be made clear.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00The Body in Jesus’ Tomb as a Hylemorphic Puzzle: a Response to Jaeger and Sienkiewicz and an Application for Christological Anthropology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In a recent paper, Andrew Jaeger and Jeremy Sienkiewicz attempt to provide an answer consistent with Thomistic hylemorphism for the following question: what was the ontological status of Christ’s dead body? Answering this question has christological anthropological import: whatever one says about Christ’s dead body, has implications for what one can say about <italic>any</italic> human’s dead body. Jaeger and Sienkiewicz answer the question this way: that Jesus’ corpse was prime matter lacking a substantial form; that it was <italic>existing</italic> form-less matter. I argue that their argument for this answer is unsound. I say, given Thomistic hylemorphism, there was no human body in Jesus’s tomb between his death and resurrection. Once I show their argument to be unsound, I provide a christological anthropological upshot: since there was no human body in Christ’s tomb, there are no human bodies in <italic>any</italic> tomb.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00The Elements of a Christological Anthropology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Human beings exist in one of two sorts of solidarity, according to St. Paul—the solidarity of sin or alienation ‘in Adam’ or the solidarity of life-giving mutuality in Christ. There can be no Christian theology of the human that is not a theology of communion—which converges with the conviction that our creation in the divine image is creation in relationality. The image of God is not a portion or aspect of human existence but a fundamental orientation towards relation. This understanding of the divine image in turn points to the way in which—as the Orthodox theologian Vladimir Lossky stresses—a proper understanding of the nature of <italic>personal</italic> being depends upon a proper grasp of the divine image, including the fact that it is always an image of the divine ‘filiation’—the eternal relation of Word to the Father in the Trinity. Our personal flourishing is a filial dependence that liberates and empowers. And what is ‘empowered’ is the human vocation to make reconciled sense of the material world of which we are part, articulating and serving its Godward meaning, so that we may see our humanity as essentially a priestly calling within the reconciling priesthood of Christ, in whom all things cohere.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00‘Begin at the Beginning’: Method in Christological Anthropology and T. F. Torrance’s Fallen Human Nature View<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This essay argues that unlike many contemporary christological anthropologies that begin with protology or eschatology, T. F. Torrance’s christological anthropology begins with the incarnate Christ as he confronts us in the midst of God’s redemptive act. This approach is labeled <italic>Soteriological-Christological Anthropology</italic>. Torrance himself does not develop this anthropological method in a sustained manner, therefore, this essay attempts to develop Torrance’s method by examining his doctrine of Christ’s fallen human nature and his epistemology. After developing Torrance’s <italic>Soteriological-Christological Anthropology</italic> the challenges and prospects of this view are addressed</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Pairing Problems: Causal and Christological<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Trenton Merricks has objected to dualist conceptions of the Incarnation in a similar way to Jaegwon Kim’s pairing problem. On the original pairing problem, so argues Kim, we lack a pairing relationship between bodies and souls such that body A is causally paired with soul A and not soul B. Merricks, on the other hand, argues that whatever relations dualists propose that do pair bodies and souls together (e.g. causal relations) are relations that God the Son has with all bodies whatsoever via his divine attributes (e.g. God the Son could cause motion in any and all bodies via his omnipotence). So if we count these relations as sufficient for embodiment, then dualism implies that God the Son is embodied in all bodies whatsoever. I shall argue that while the original pairing problem might be easily answerable, the Christological pairing problem is not and that dualists must shift some of their focus from the defense of the soul’s existence to explicating the nature of the mind-body relationship.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Colin E. Gunton’s Christological Anthropology: Humanity’s Relationships in the Image of Christ<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The anthropology of Colin E. Gunton begins with the Trinity and specifically, the person of Christ. From trinitarian persons, Gunton deduces the ontological definition of what it means to be a person, that is, a being in relationship and in distinction, or ‘free relatedness’. To be a person is to be in the image of the personal God, which is christological language, for it is Christ who bears the image of God in its fullness. As the true image bearer, Christ’s humanity is paradigmatic of what it means to be in relationship: with God, with the world and with other human persons. Gunton’s christology is also thoroughly pneumatological, borrowing Irenaeus’ metaphor of God’s ‘two hands in the world’: The Son and the Spirit. Not only do the Son and the Spirit mediate God’s presence to creation according to Irenaeus, but Gunton builds on this metaphor to include the Spirit’s mediation of the eternal Son to the Father as well as the Incarnate Son to humanity. The Spirit also reshapes humanity to be in the image of Christ, through his relationships with God, with the world and with other human persons. This is an eschatological project, for in this reshaping, the creation is recreated toward its teleological perfection. The article concludes with a potential direction for future study within Gunton’s christological anthropology. To conceive what it means to be human <italic>theologically,</italic> Gunton insists that we must look to Christ’s own person.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Bishop Albert Bereczky (1893-1966) and the Revival Movement: Albert Bereczky’s Conversion<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This original research paper discusses Bishop Albert Bereczky’s (1893-1966) first contacts with revivalism, especially his spiritual conversion experience during his adolescent years. Albert Bereczky, Bishop of the Danubian Church District from 1948 to 1958, was one of the most significant, and yet controversial persons of the Reformed Church in Hungary during the 20th Century. From a popular preacher of the Revival Movement of the 1920s, church planter of the 1930s, rescuer of Jews during the War, he became the tool of state interest of the Communist regime in the 1950s. This paper sorts out the origins of his turn to the revival movement, like his troubled childhood, the emotional and financial insecurity of an illegitimate child, his troubled relationship with his biological father, the positive example of his stepfather, and his deviant adolescence behavior. By showing examples of his personal accounts the paper discusses whether Bereczky went through a ‘sudden’ or a ‘gradual’ conversion experience.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00An Encounter and Its Impact: The Visit of John R. Mott in Cluj-Napoca/Kolozsvár and His Impression Upon László Ravasz<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper I examine one of the effects of László Ravasz’s (1882-1975) theological thinking, former professor of Practical Theology at Protestant Theological Institute, Kolzosvár-Cluj-Napoca, namely the development of his spiritual life and its impact on his theological scientific position. Due to the limitations of the scope of this paper, I could present the less well-known views of Ravasz’s work on the mission. John R. Mott’s lecture in Kolozsvár-Cluj-Napoca provides, among others, the certainty that in the modern theoretical approach of the young Ravasz he approached the tasks of pastoral ministry, preaching, dissemination of the gospel, theological education in a modern and actual way. This notion was not perfect, but it helped to bring about a new impetus for the Hungarian Protestant worldview that was stuck in rationalism and liberalism, and for the value theology to constitute a positive transition to the dialectical theology. Ravasz was an authentic representative of this transition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The Defenders of Faith. The Correspondence Between Ferenc Balogh, Father of the New Orthodoxy Movement, and Eduard Böhl, Reformed Pietist Professor of Dogmatics from Vienna<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study examines how two famous professors in Central Europe decided to network together in order to promote traditional Christian faith through New Orthodoxy of Debrecen and Reformed Pietist of Vienna which became the source of renewal in the Reformed Church of Hungary. Their correspondence bears a witness to the endeavour to train, teach and guide young students enabling them to become persons of influence in the church. This research paper examines contents of the exchange of letters between Ferenc Balogh of Debrecen and Eduard Böhl from Vienna with a particular view on how they educated the future generation along the evangelical-pietist faith that both professors adhered to.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The Beginnings of Bible Mission of the British and Foreign Bible Society in Early Nineteenth Century Hungary<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper examines the very beginnings of Bible Mission in Hungary within the Habsburg Empire in the first part of the nineteenth century. It divides the first thirty years into two major epochs: the one before Gottlieb August Wimmer, Lutheran pastor of Felsőlövő (Oberschützen) and agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society (BFBS) and the one characterized by his work until the revolution of 1848. In the paper, I summarize the main obstacles of Bible Mission both political and religious as well as the main achievements and formations of policies and practices that still define Bible Mission of the Bible Societies in all around the world. The work of BFBS in Hungary in this period was also intertwined with the formative period of the Budapest Scottish Mission, a topic that I also touch in the paper.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Academic Relations Between Debrecen and Vienna: Exemplified By Eduard Böhl and Sándor Venetianer<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study seeks to investigate the relationship between Theological Faculty of Debrecen Reformed College and the Protestant Theological Faculty at University of Vienna. The counter-movements against modern, or so-called liberal theology brought Eduard Böhl from Vienna and Ferenc Balogh into a shared theological camp. The former followed the German-Dutch confessionalist Pietist of Reformed faith the letter became the leading figure of New-Orthodoxy movement of Debrecen. Both professors were keen on educating and training students with a view to respect and love the traditional doctrines, faith expressions of the church. Their endeavoured to put their students into significant jobs where influence could be exerted. This paper shows light on how Böhl sought to manage a former student, Sándor Venetianer’s carreer so as to continue the kind of theology that the famous professor of dogmatics also promoted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The Ambiguous Beginnings of the Modern Mission Movements in the Reformed Church of Transylvania Between 1895 and 1918<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study looks at the ways how the Reformed Church encountered the new modern mission movement in Transylvania with the arrival of Dr. Béla Kenessey and Dr. István Kecskeméthy to the newly established Reformed Theological Seminary at Cluj in 1895. By the time being, some theologians expressed grave concerns about the dangers of theological liberalism to the Confessions. The paper argues that these young professors, touched by the mission movement and revival also sought to encompass those who had an evangelistic fervor to reach unbelievers and to serve those people in their personal and social needs. As a result, Christian Covenant was established in 1896, with official recognition in 1903 as the Christian Endeavor. It is hoped to unfold the major shifts regarding the attitudes to mission in the Reformed Church of Hungary and throw lights on ambiguous beginnings of mission movements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Revivalism, Bible Societies, and Tract Societies in the Kingdom of Hungary: A Multi-Ethnic, Multi-Cultural, and Multi-Denominational Work for Spreading the Good News of Jesus Christ<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current research paper seeks to investigate how Evangelicals and Pietist, the most fervent of Protestants sought to ‘educate’ the masses outside the educational framework of ecclesiastical and state structures within the Hungarian Kingdom. More specifically the study intends to offer a concise overview of the history of Protestants who spread the gospel through the distribution of affordable Bibles, New Testaments and Christian tracts. It shows how various denominations worked together as well as directs attention to their theological outlook which transcended ethnic boundaries. It is a well-known fact in mission and church history that such undertakings were carried out to stir revivalism. The study also throws light on how influential role the Scottish Mission as well as Archduchess Maria Dorothea played in stirring revivalism through the aforementioned means. The history of these kinds of endeavours, especially that of the most significant ones like the work of the British and Foreign Bible Society and Religious Tract Society has not been treated adequately by historians of religion and education, intellectual historians and social historians. This research output is a contribution to give an account of the multi-ethnic and transdenominational work of Hungarians, Jews, Germans, Slovaks and Romanians working for a common goal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The Royal Components of Melchizedek in Hebrews 7<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>The Royal Components of Melchizedek in Hebrews 7</title><p>The royal component of Melchizedek in Hebrews 7 has often been disregarded. This study investigates the royal component of Melchizedek in Hebrews 7 through the research of the divine kingship in the Ancient Near East and the royal components of Melchizedek in Genesis 14, Psalm 110, and the Second Temple writings. The images of divine kingship in the Ancient Near East continue in Psalm 110 and Hebrews 7. There is not only the priestly but also the royal image of Melchizedek in Genesis 14, Psalm 110, and the Second Temple writings. Based on the research, the royal components of Melchizedek in Hebrews 7 can be drawn. It is evident that the author of Hebrews focused on the superior priesthood of Christ by using Melchizedek as a model for Christ in Hebrews 7. As the priesthood of Melchizedek is a <italic>royal</italic> priesthood, the priesthood of Christ is also a <italic>royal</italic> priesthood. Therefore, the <italic>royal</italic> priesthood should not be neglected in Hebrews 7.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-09-20T00:00:00.000+00:00The Use and Abuse of John Calvin in Richard Hooker's Defence of the English Church<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>The Use and Abuse of John Calvin in Richard Hooker's Defence of the English Church</title><p>At times Richard Hooker (1554-1600), as an apologist for the Church of England, has been treated as “on the Calvinist side”, at others as an “anti-Calvinist”. In fact, Hooker and his Church were dependent on John Calvin in some ways and independent in others. Hooker used recognized sources to paint a picture of Calvin and his reforms in Geneva that would negatively characterize the proposals and behaviour of those he opposed in the Church of England, and yet he adopted Calvinist positions on several topics. A judicious treatment of Hooker’s attitude to John Calvin requires careful reading, and an understanding of the polemical use of the portrait of Calvin. Calvin was indeed grave and learned, but he was human and, as an authority, inferior to the Church Fathers, who were formally recognized as authorities in the Church of England.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-09-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Confrontational Apologetics versus Grace-filled Persuasion<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Confrontational Apologetics versus Grace-filled Persuasion</title><p>Too often Christian apologetics has been conducted in a confrontational manner that alienates people and undermines apologetic effectiveness. Christian apologists must be attentive to both their message and how they communicate it. Grace-filled persuasion can flourish as Christian apologists recognize the growing contemporary suspicion of aggressive styles of behavior. The apologetic enterprise involves ideas, but it is also profoundly relational. The great challenge before Christian apologists is to speak and live in ways that combine uncompromising faithfulness to revealed truth with a generous spirit of loving service and civility. Grace-filled persuasion always trumps smash-mouth apologetics.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-09-20T00:00:00.000+00:00The Theophoric Element in Ancient Phoenician Inscriptions<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>The Theophoric Element <italic>Ba'Al</italic> in Ancient Phoenician Inscriptions</title><p>The following study analyzes the usage of the name Baıal in ancient Phoenician inscriptions. The analysis starts with the premise that the deity named Baıal played a major role in Canaanite religion, including the religion of the people of Israel. First of all, in order to understand correctly this phenomenon, our study sketches in broad lines the historical and religious context of the ancient Near East. Second, the study takes into account a series of corollary issues, like the concepts of “fertility” and the “Sacred Marriage”, in order to obtain as clear a picture as possible of the identity and character of the god Baıal. Third, the study focuses on a number of inscriptions from Phoenicia. A number of scholars have argued that these inscriptions represent our best evidence from Phoenicia to reconstructing the identity of Baıal.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-09-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Tolerance and Intolerance. Contemporary Attitudes withing Religious, Racial, National, and Political Sphere<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Tolerance and Intolerance. Contemporary Attitudes withing Religious, Racial, National, and Political Sphere</title><p>Tolerance is an often debated topic in the contemporary global village. It is permanently invoked and accusations of intolerance are equaly frequent. It is said that when a word is too much used it loses its deep meaning, its essence, its initial purpose, so that it becomes nothnig ore than a meaningless word among other meaningless words making up a discourse. The word <italic>tolerance</italic> is not an exception. We hear it every day in the street, at school, in debates, and especially on television. We might ask ourselves what tolerance stil means in the contemporay world. Is it a virtue or just a convention used at international level? These questions start, on the one hand, from Fethullan Gulen’s words who says that tolerance is forgiveness, forgiveness of all sins, compassion and mercy for the whole Creation, the hiding of people’s shame and mistakes, and on the other hand from the realities of the 21st century, the global world ordered by laws, rules, conventions. The present paper is an attempt to define and to comment on the concepts of tolerance and intolerance.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-09-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Christian Theological Interpretations of God's Grace in the Binding of Isaac<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Christian Theological Interpretations of God's Grace in the Binding of Isaac</title><p>Typological exegesis, practiced by the early church fathers, enables us to catch spiritual meanings in the promise to Abraham, namely, that through him “all the nations of the earth be blessed” (Genesis 22:18). Christian interpreters caught a divine truth when they discerned an ecclesial meaning. God had just revealed to Abraham that he was not alone, that a church was in the future. His typological interpretation accounts for the seeming repetition of the promise in Scripture: it contains new revelation. The promise to Abraham has always involved a multitude of descendants through Isaac. But after his near sacrifice as a Christ figure, the multitude is the church which emerged after Christ’s death and resurrection.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-09-20T00:00:00.000+00:00‘Divine Offspring’: Richard Hooker’s Neoplatonic Account of Law and Causality<p> Richard Hooker’s (1554-1600) adaptation of classical logos theology is exceptional and indeed quite original for its extended application of the principles of Neoplatonic apophatic theology to the concrete institutional issues of a particular time and place-the aftermath of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559. Indeed, his sustained effort to explore the underlying connections of urgent political and constitutional concerns with the highest discourse of hidden divine realities-the knitting together of Neoplatonic theology and Reformation politics-is perhaps the defining characteristic of Hooker’s distinction mode of thought. Hooker’s ontology adheres to a Proclean logic of procession and reversion (processio and redditus) mediated by Aquinas’s formulation of the so-called lex divinitatis whereby the originative principle of law remains simple and self-identical as an Eternal Law while it emanates manifold, derivative and dependent species of law, preeminently in the Natural Law accessible to human reason and Divine Law revealed through the Sacred Oracles of Scripture. For Hooker, therefore, ‘all thinges’-including even the Elizabethan constitution in Church and Commonwealth, are God’s offspring: ‘they are in him as effects in their highest cause, he likewise actuallie is in them, the assistance and influence of his deitie is theire life.’</p>ARTICLE2015-05-15T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1