rss_2.0Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism Journal of Sport and Tourism 's Cover Cardiorespiratory Fitness Parameters after 24 Weeks of Functional Training with and without Personal Protective Equipment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Firefighters’ (FFs) cardiorespiratory fitness is considered an important capacity for workability. To successfully complete safety standards and rescue protocols, FFs are required to accomplish minimum values of relative VO<sub>2max</sub>. Physical fitness programs for FFs must take into consideration physiological demands, being essential not only for professional tasks but also as a guarantee of their personal safety. This research aimed to investigate the influence of specific functional training (FT) with and without personal protective equipment (PPE) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) on the FFs’ cardiorespiratory fitness.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title><p>Sixty FFs were randomly allocated in three groups (EG1 training with PPE+SCBA; EG2 training with regular fitness equipment and the control group) and enrolled for a 24-week (two sessions/week) FT intervention program. FFs were assessed in anthropometric and 12-minute Cooper test, pre and post-intervention.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Both training groups demonstrated significant improvements from baseline to post intervention EG1 VO<sub>2max</sub> (39.8 ±<sup>−1</sup>.min<sup>−1</sup> and 41.2 ±<sup>−1</sup>.min<sup>−1</sup>, p &lt; 0.001, +3.5%; EG2 VO<sub>2max</sub> 41.5 ±<sup>−1</sup>.min<sup>−1</sup> and 42.5 ±<sup>−1</sup>.min<sup>−1</sup>, p &lt; 0.05, +2.4%).</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>The proposed FT intervention, considering the provided equipment in all fire departments, and even without running tasks, seems to be adequate for developing FFs’ VO<sub>2max</sub>. Regular FT with PPE+SCAB must be encouraged to improve adequate VO2max and fitness levels related to firefighting specific tasks.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Physical Fitness of Women From Biała Podlaska Aged 60 or Older<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>The ongoing process of aging in the Polish society generates the necessity to take interest in the problems and needs of the elderly population. Age-appropriate fitness is an important factor contributing to an optimal level of seniors’ life quality and maintaining their independence in everyday life. The aim of this research was to evaluate the level of physical fitness of elderly women from Biała Podlaska with respect to their age and body build.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>The research included 38 women attending activities in culture centers in Biała Podlaska. Measurements of basic somatic parameters were used to evaluate their body build on the basis of BMI. The Fullerton Test was applied to determine the level of physical fitness.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>In all trials of the Fullerton tests, most of the seniors achieved normal or above normal results. Statistically significant correlations were found between BMI and the test results in most trials. Correlations between age and test results were observed only in the endurance test.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>The female respondents present a high level of physical fitness in relation to American standards. Due to the high percentage of respondents with excessive body weight, there is a need to develop relevant physical activity programs for this age group of women.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Purpose in Life During COVID-19 Confinement: Effect of Physical Activity and Meditation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>The pandemic caused by the COVID-19 virus has led states to issue orders for confinement and suspension of activities such as education. The purpose of this study is to interpret the Purpose in Life Test (PIL) and its relationship to physical activity and mental relaxation/meditation in confinement.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title><p>A survey was conducted in an online form on 533 individuals (39 ± 11 years) using the Purpose in Life Test (PIL) and an ad-hoc questionnaire regarding physical activity time (PA), mental relaxation/meditation time (RM), hours of sleep (HS), number of people in confinement (NPC) and concerns and satisfaction during confinement.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The overall mean of the PIL test was 114 ± 16, indicating a strong life purpose, and there were no differences by sex or by levels of physical activity, but for RM and age levels. The scores of the PIL test were positively correlated with the age, PA and time of RM. On the other hand, the main concern is the economy (50%) and health or getting sick by COVID-19 (37%), and what gives the greatest satisfaction is the family (40%) and sharing and spending time with the family (33%). People who perform RM activities at least 30 min/week have significantly higher PIL test scores.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>Despite the drastic changes caused by confinement, individuals have a strong life purpose. Family companionship, home PA and RM act as a protective factor during confinement and in maintaining physical and mental health.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Physical Activity and Parameters of Body Posture in the Frontal Plane in Children<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Physical activity may have an impact on the parameters of body posture. Scientific reports suggest that levels of physical activity are declining among society, which may result in incorrect changes in body posture. This study aimed to assess the relationship between physical activity and the parameters characterizing posture in the frontal plane in children.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>Sixty-seven primary school students aged 9 were enrolled in the study, including 29 girls and 38 boys. The posture was evaluated with the photogrammetric method. Also, anthropometric measures and the level of physical activity were investigated.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The highest percentage of examined children was characterized by a moderate level of physical activity. Children with a high level of physical activity were characterized by the greater asymmetry of position between the right and left shoulder as compared to those with a low and a moderate level of physical activity.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>There were statistically significant differences only in the height of shoulders in children with a high level of physical activity. This study should be repeated in adolescence, characterized by changes in development and a reluctance to physical activity.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Biomechanics of Rotational Movement in Off-Ice Figure Skating Jumps: Applications to Training<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>The aim of this study was to characterize kinematic parameters of the rotational body movement during the office figure skating multi-revolution jumping exercise and to propose applications to training.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>Six elite Polish female junior singles figure skaters were examined performing single and their respective maximum total rotation vertical jumps in off-ice conditions. Measurements of the ground reaction force were performed with a KISTLER (500 Hz) piezoelectric sensor platform with BioWare Software, synchronized with the cinematographic analysis using the Vicon T-Series motion capture system.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The analysis revealed positive linear relations between selected jump parameters of the pre-take-off phase and after the landing. Two moments of countering torque were also noticed: the first in the landing phase, and the second before reaching the stabilized position.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>Applications of the findings for off-ice training were discussed.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Development of Government Policy in Tour Ship Route Tourism Management in Karimunjawa Island, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Tourism has a major role in economic and social interests. Karimunjawa is one of Indonesia’s tourist destinations, making the Karimunjawa Island a national park area for tourist destinations. Indonesia must have policies to support tourism, transportation, and infrastructure. This research aimed to identify the role of the community, tourists, NGOs, and district governments in implementing the Karimunjawa National Park management policy.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title><p>The descriptive quantitative method (questionnaire and path analysis) was used in this research.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The test results showed that there was a direct relationship between the role of the community and the Central Java provincial government with a Path Coefficients value of 0.515; the role of tourists in government policies was −0.230, the role of NGOs in Central Java Provincial Government policies with a Path Coefficients value was 0.292 and the role of district governments against the Provincial Government policy was −0.332.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>The value of Path Coefficients showed that there was still a lack of policy implementation from the provincial government to the community and NGOs. Collaboration between the district and provincial governments in managing was an effective way of monitoring tourism sustainably.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Impact of Aerobic Training on Some Brain Neurotransmitters and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Addicted Women<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Addiction is a chronic disease that needs time-consuming treatment. The medicines used to stop or reduce the tendency have not been successful so far. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of six weeks of aerobic training (morning and afternoon) on some brain neurotransmitters, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and quality of life in addicted females.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods.</bold> Thirty subjects were selected and divided into intervention (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. The aerobic training program consisted of six weeks of aerobic training, 3 sessions per week, and each session lasted for 45 to 60 minutes with a maximum intensity of 50-70% of the maximum heart rate. Paired sample t-test and ANCOVA were used to compare between- and within-group variance changes.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> Weight levels, body mass index and body fat percentage significantly decreased (p &lt; 0.05), while the serum levels of serotonin, dopamine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) increased significantly. The maximum oxygen consumption and quality of life increased significantly at the end of the period. Changes in intra-group mean in weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, dopamine, BDNF, maximum oxygen consumption, physical limitation, general health, vitality, social activity, physical and emotional function and life satisfaction are significantly different between experimental and control groups (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> Six-week aerobic training performed in the morning and afternoon reduces body composition indicators and increases brain neurotransmitters, quality of life and maximum oxygen consumption in addicted females. Therefore, it can be effective in improving physical and mental health.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Kinesiophobia in Skiers with Knee Injuries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Alpine skiing is one of the most dangerous winter sports that entails a high number of injuries, most commonly affecting the knee. Kinesiophobia is a condition in which an individual experiences fear of physical movement and activity as a result of feeling susceptible to injuries or recurrent injuries. The objective was to examine the level of kinesiophobia in skiers who have sustained knee injuries.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> The sample consisted of 22 female and 11 male professional skiers, with the average age of 24 ± 7.391 years. For the purpose of the assessment, the Tampa scale for kinesiophobia (TSK) was employed.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> The number of knee injuries in skiers totals at least 1 and 11 at most, on average 2.45, most commonly involving the anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus. There were no significant differences between the left and the right knee or bilateral injuries. The average score in the TSK totals 36 points, which is close to the critical threshold of 37 points. 36% of the participants possess a high level of kinesiophobia. With respect to the general level of kinesiophobia, no significant differences were found in relation to gender, with regard to the number of surgeries or whether one or both knees were affected by injuries. Older skiers have also been found to have significantly lower fear of recurrent injuries.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The number of knee injuries in skiing is high and aggravating, in such a way that almost one third of skiers that have sustained knee injuries experience a critical level of kinesiophobia, and that requires intervention. During rehabilitation, psychological support should also be provided to athletes in order to prevent or reduce kinesiophobia and thus prevent recurrent or new injuries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Relationship Between Passing and Ball Control in Soccer: Analysis of Variations of Kinematic Measures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> A soccer player with good ball control is the one who is able to perform complex coordinated situational motor actions in a certain space and in as short time period as possible. The analysis included variations in the angle of the knee joint of the leg receiving a ball (AKLR), angle of the knee joint of the supporting leg (AKLS), angle between thighs (ABT), trunk bending angle (TBA), hip joint point height (HPH), and ball distance after controlling the ball (BDAC) between effective and ineffective passing in soccer.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods.</bold> A total of 12 university soccer players (age: 20.8 ± .83 years old, experience: 4.7 ±.78 years) voluntarily participated in the study. The players made five attempts to control the ball with the inside foot. The best attempt was analysed for each case (effective and ineffective).</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> The degrees of AKLR, AKLS, ABT, TBA and HPH were significantly greater in effective passing than those in ineffective passing; the observed effect sizes were 4.87, 2.53, 1.77, 3.98, and 3.40, respectively. BDAC was meaningfully greater at ineffective passing (effect size: 2.03).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> There were significant differences in the values of kinematic variables used to test ball control by effective and ineffective passes (p &lt; 0.05). The research sample, in terms of the values of kinematic variables, achieved noticeable progress during the performance of ball control for effective passing, which showed its effectiveness in reducing the distance after controlling the ball.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Reliability of a Reactive Agility Test for Youth Volleyball Players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> This was a cross-sectional study aiming to test the reliability of a new reactive agility test designed for youth volleyball players to improve both reaction time and hand-eye coordination.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> Twenty-four youth volleyball athletes (15 girls and 9 boys) were recruited to participate in this study (age: 11.58 ± 2.20 years old). This study used a FitLight Trainer (FITLIGHT Sport Corp., Ontario, Canada), a wireless system using interconnected light-powered sensors, to measure reaction time and hand-eye coordination. The subjects performed the hand-eye coordination test twice, exactly one week apart, for 30 seconds, with three trials performed for each test. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test the variation of the six trials performed during the two sessions.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> The analysis comparing the sessions revealed significantly longer reaction time in session 1 than in session 2 (mean difference: 47.85 [95% CI: 10.86 to 84.84]; p &lt; 0.012; ES = 0.128). Across the different trials, the greatest single ICC measure (ICC = 0.645) and average ICC measure (ICC = 0.784) were achieved in trial 3. Across the sessions, the greatest single ICC measure (ICC = 0.951) and average ICC measure (ICC = 0.863) were achieved in session 2.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>. FitLight Trainer is a valid and reliable tool for developing reaction times of youth volleyball athletes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-29T00:00:00.000+00:00EMG Activity of Transversus Abdominis, Multifidus and Co-Contraction Index in Different Phases Amongst Varied Level Archers: A Cross-Sectional Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Core muscle activity is a necessary requirement in most sports. However, its role in archers has not been studied. Therefore, this study sought to determine muscle activity of Transversus abdominis (TA) and Multifidus (MF) and co-contraction index (CCI) using surface electromyography (s EMG) during different phases of shots in archers with different levels of training.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods.</bold> It was an observational study with a cross-sectional design. Twenty-eight healthy male archers were recruited and grouped according to their level of training: Group A (Beginners (n = 9)), Group B (Trained (n = 10)), Group C (Elite (n = 9)). The muscle activation (%MVIC) for MF and TA for 10 successive archery shots (distance: 10 meters in 200 seconds) was recorded using s EMG for all the phases of the shots along with CCI.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> Three-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference for TA activity within groups (p ≤ 0.001) and phases (p = 0.002), A significant difference for MF activity was found within groups (p ≤ 0.001). A significant difference for CCI was found between groups (p ≤ 0.001) and in the interaction between phase × shot (p = 0.001).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The findings of the study showed that elite archers had more activity of the core muscles (TA and MF) and their CCI was found to be much higher with respect to the trained and beginner archers. Therefore, it is essential to incorporate dynamic stabilization exercises into archery training.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Cooperation with Universities on the Innovativeness of Tourism Enterprises<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Tourism enterprises operating in a dynamic environment mitigate the erosion of competitive advantages by introducing new products, processes or marketing activities. Universities may serve as one of the essential sources of knowledge, enabling tourism enterprises to implement innovations. The article aims to identify the importance of cooperation with universities in driving innovation in tourism enterprises.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> To achieve the aim of the paper, an empirical study was carried out on a sample of 383 hotels and tour operators.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> As a result, it was found that universities play a relatively minor role in innovation implementation and for inspiring innovative activity. However, the role of universities is highly diversified. For almost one-third of the entities, universities are important for innovative activities – they play a greater role in large entities, belonging to chains and operating longer on the market. It has also been identified that incremental and marketing innovations are most frequently created due to cooperation.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> Results indicate that for increased universities’ role in innovation, companies’ resources and absorption capacity are required. The article also suggests further directions of research on relations between universities and tourism enterprises.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Gene Polymorphisms in Antioxidant Enzymes on Oxidative-Antioxidative Status in Young Men<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between SOD1 +35A/C, SOD2 Val16Ala and GPx1 Pro198Leu gene polymorphisms and baseline level of oxidative-antioxidative status in blood.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold>The study included 154 male students of physical education who participated in practical classes included in the study curriculum. Genotyping was carried out on genomic DNA using real-time PCR reaction with TaqMan assays. Also, fasting blood samples were analyzed for biochemical parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in erythrocytes and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in whole blood, as well as serum concentration of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of serum.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> SOD2 polymorphism had a significant effect on serum LOOHs concentration. Individuals with Val/Val genotype presented a significantly higher level of LOOHs than Val/Ala genotype carriers (p &lt; 0.05). In addition, no significant differences in SOD and GPx activity or TAC were found between SOD2 genotypes. Apart from the SOD2 polymorphism, no significant influence of both SOD1 and GPx1 polymorphisms on measured biochemical parameters was found, probably due to the lack of mutant homozygous genotypes in the study group.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>. In young, healthy and physically active men, SOD2 polymorphism has an influence on the resting level of oxidative stress marker in the blood without affecting both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defence. In turn, SOD1 and GPx1 polymorphisms do not seem to affect oxidative-antioxidative status. However, the absence of SOD1 CC and GPx1 Leu/Leu may indicate that these genotypes are disadvantageous, and thus underrepresented in young, healthy and physically fit population.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of High-Velocity Low-Amplitude Thrust Manipulation of Upper Cervical Spine on Pulmonary Function Test and Headache Disability Index in Patients with Migraine Headache<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Migraine is a common debilitating disorder of neurovascular origin which affects younger adults, especially women.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods.</bold> It was an experimental study design. A convenience type of sampling was used for recruitment of the subjects. A total of 21 participants diagnosed with migraine (6 males and 15 females) fulfilling the inclusion criteria were taken for this study and assigned to one of the two groups (experimental or control group). PFT measured with PFT apparatus (Spirolab 111, Serial No. A23-053 13974) and HDI score were calculated before the start of the intervention and after the intervention. Afterwards, PFT was performed by each participant followed by HVLA thrust manipulations to the migraine patients and an equal period of rest to the control group.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> There are no significant differences between baseline and post-intervention outcome variables and in mean changes between the two groups. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the change in HDI score which was calculated three times (pre- prior to intervention, post- after the intervention and 1 month after the intervention). The experimental group showed a significant reduction in the score after the manipulation. It was found that FVC and PEF were positively correlated to FEV1, and FVC was also positively correlated to PEF.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The findings of the study revealed that high-velocity thrust manipulations of upper cervical spine were not effective in improving pulmonary functions of migraine patients although it was found effective in improving subjective symptoms of the patients evaluated through HDI.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Self-Administered GH or IGF-1 Hormones on Resting Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Markers in Men with or Without Resistance Exercise<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Some athletes and non-athletes use peptide hormones to increase lean body mass and fat loss, but those effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant markers are unknown. The aim of this study was to show the physiological profile of oxidative stress and antioxidant markers in athletes and non-athletes following long-term self-administration of GH or IGF-1</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods.</bold> Seventy-five healthy young men with the history of peptide hormone (i.e., GH or IGF-1) use for at least 1 year (i.e., 3 to 4 times a year) or resistance exercise (RE) experience for at least 3 years volunteered to participate in this study and were divided into 5 selected groups including 1) GH use plus RE (GH+RE, n = 15), 2) IGF-1 use plus RE (IGF-1+RE, n = 15), 3) GH use (GH, n = 15), 4) IGF-1 use (IGF-1, n = 15), and 5) RE only (RE, n = 15). Blood sample was obtained one time in order to evaluate the resting concentration of oxidative stress markers including 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidant defense systems (i.e., glutathione peroxidase [GPx], catalase [CAT], and glutamate [GLU]).</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> There were no significant (p &gt; 0.05) differences among the groups in the 8-OHdG, MDA, NO, GPx, CAT, and GLU levels.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> Self-administration of peptide hormone and RE for at least 1 year is not accompanied by alterations in resting oxidative stress and the antioxidant system in male athletes and non-athletes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Acute Changes in Energy Expenditure and Heart Rate Variability During and Right After One Hour of Hatha Yoga Practice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> This study purposed to examine energy expenditure (EE) of one-hour hatha yoga (HY) practice and to compare changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during and right after HY practice.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods</bold>. A total of ten experienced female HY practitioners participated in the study voluntarily. Daily EE on a weekday and during a one-hour HY session was measured using a metabolic holter. The ECG holter was applied to record HRV variables 5 minutes before, during, 5 minutes after and 10 minutes after the one-hour HY session. The HY session included HY asanas for the first 55 minutes and meditation during the last 5 minutes.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> Participants showed 2201.40 kcal of total EE, and 421.70 kcal of active EE during the weekday. Active EE was 109.70 kcal (26% of daily active EE) during the one-hour HY session, and the mean MET was recorded as 2.57. HRV measurements showed crucial changes. Increased sympathetic activity observed in SDNN, RMSSD, NN50, pNN50, LF/HF, and HF did not reach the initial level after 15 minutes of total recovery time.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> One hour of HY practice provided moderate EE. Moreover, 10 minutes of supine rest in addition to 5 minutes of the meditation phase of HY practice is not seen as completely effective in improving parasympathetic activity and returning the practitioners to their initial level. Extending the meditation phase at the end of the HY session by more than 10 minutes and measuring the recovery process of HRV could add more detailed results to the literature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Surface Type on Balance Control Strategies in Handstand<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> A proper manner of maintaining body balance in handstand requires high levels of motor and coordination skills and, first and foremost, specialist training. Therefore, this study sought to determine the effects of surface type on body balance strategies in handstand.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods.</bold> The study included twelve Polish National Team artistic gymnasts with training experience of 16.5 ± 2.12 years. Pedagogical experiment was used as the research method. Body balance assessment of gymnasts was carried out using three tests on different types of the surface. In the first test, the study participants performed handstand on the hard surface. The second one involved executing handstand on canes, whereas the third test consisted in performing handstand on the soft surface.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> An increase in ground reaction forces (Fx, Fy) was noted in the handstand tests performed on canes (SNS) and on the soft surface (SNA).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The analysis revealed that the surface type exerts an influence on the effectiveness of balance control. The findings may constitute the source of knowledge for athletes and coaches about changing conditions of maintaining a stable position when performing handstand during gymnastic training.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-05T00:00:00.000+00:00A Comparison of the Effects of Resistance and Endurance Training Protocols on Serum Irisin Level and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Sedentary Obese Women<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Studies have revealed that the anabolic effect of irisin on bone is mediated by an increase in alkaline phosphatase. However, few studies have investigated the interactive effect of irisin on alkaline phosphatase after exercise training. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the impact of endurance and resistance training protocols on serum irisin concentration and total alkaline phosphatase activity in sedentary obese women.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> Forty-five sedentary obese women (age: 48.96 ± 5.2 years, body mass index 32.24 ± 3.76 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to control, endurance, and resistance groups. Endurance (45 to 75 minutes at an intensity corresponding to 50 to 80% of heart rate reserve) and resistance exercise training (3 sets, 10-15 repetitions at an intensity corresponding to 50 to 65% of one-repetition maximum) were conducted for 8 weeks, 3 days per week. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was estimated using the modified Bruce protocol treadmill test. Fasting blood samples were taken before the first and 48-hr after the last exercise training sessions. The serum concentrations of irisin and total alkaline phosphatase activity were measured using the sandwich ELISA method and photo-metric method, respectively.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> Both endurance and resistance exercise training protocols caused a significant reduction in BMI and BFP of obese women. In contrast, VO2max significantly increased after both exercise training protocols. However, neither endurance nor resistance training protocols had a significant impact on the serum concentrations of irisin and total alkaline phosphatase activity. No significant inter-group differences were observed between the subjects’ BMI, BFP, VO2max, total alkaline phosphatase, and irisin at the end of protocols.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The finding of the current study revealed that neither of the training protocols had a significant impact on bone anabolic parameters. However, performing these types of exercise is suggested for weight management in obese women.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Intellectual Capital Determinants of Football Clubs in Europe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction.</italic></bold> Existing research on football economics mostly focuses on some key performance indicators’ influence on the profitability of clubs. This assumption is a bit misleading in the context of football business models which deliver various benefits other than profits to its stakeholders. In this research, the opposite question was asked: what can determine the intangible value delivered by a football business? This is asked in light of the fact that most of the value created by the football industry belongs to the category of intellectual capital.</p> <p><bold><italic>Material and Methods.</italic></bold> The study was based on the financial data of 33 European football clubs. Basic statistical analysis was carried out and regression analysis of chosen drivers influencing intellectual capital of football clubs in Europe was performed.</p> <p><bold><italic>Results.</italic></bold> Three of the four assumed hypotheses were not confirmed: higher value of intellectual capital is correlated with higher profitability, higher values of IC efficiency (VAIC) are associated with higher levels of player value and values of IC efficiency (VAIC) are significantly associated with levels of sports performance. Just one hypothesis was confirmed that values of IC efficiency (VAIC) are significantly associated with salary efficiency (S/R). Additionally, the study revealed that there are two important factors influencing the value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC): debt and salaries.</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions.</italic></bold> If we assume that VAIC is the goal of the managers, then the only two drivers which are significant for this value are salary ratio and leverage ratio. Moreover, we know that profit orientation of the football business in Europe is not the key goal in order to develop intangible values for the stakeholders.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Strategic Entrepreneurship in the Development of Active Leisure Industry Organizations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction.</italic></bold> In the context of strategic entrepreneurship, the problem of corporate strategy is of special importance in the organizations of the active leisure industry. Active leisure activities are entrepreneurial processes in which innovation and change are key elements in exploiting an opportunity to gain a competitive advantage. The aim of the article is to present the concept of strategic entrepreneurship as one of the key factors of the development of active leisure organizations.</p> <p><bold><italic>Material and Methods.</italic></bold> The study is theoretical and methodologically based on a review of literature in the field of strategic entrepreneurship and active leisure industry as well as a review of selected empirical studies.</p> <p><bold><italic>Results.</italic></bold> The individual parts of the study present the importance of the active leisure industry in the market economy, the specificity of sports enterprises and the concept of strategic entrepreneurship resulting from the theoretical foundations presented.</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions.</italic></bold> The conclusions are based on the literature of the subject and examples of active leisure industry organizations operating in the commercial area. The dynamically developing sports market may be one of those areas of the economy that give an opportunity to examine how strategic entrepreneurship shapes and develops organizations through innovation, proactivity and competitive advantage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1