rss_2.0Environmental and Climate Technologies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Environmental and Climate Technologies and Climate Technologies 's Cover of Energy Efficiency Measures in the Beef Cold Chain: A Life Cycle-based Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Circular economy and industrial symbiosis represent a production and consumption model involving sharing, lending, reusing, and recycling existing materials and products in the most efficient way to increase sustainability and reduce or eliminate waste. Beef production has a high impact on the environment in different impact categories, especially those activities related to livestock breeding and feeding. In this study, a life cycle assessment and a life cycle cost evaluation are carried out investigating potential energy efficiency measures to promote industrial symbiosis scenarios referring to a proposed baseline scenario. Three main potential measures are evaluated: energy recovery from waste via anaerobic digestion, integration of renewable sources at warehouses, including solar PV panels, and the replacement of auxiliary equipment at the retailer. It was found that energy reconversion of food waste through anaerobic digestion and cogeneration provides the most valuable benefits to the supply chain. From the economic perspective, using a conventional life cycle cost assessment, the energy production from the use of wastes for anaerobic digestion proved to be the best potential option.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-05T00:00:00.000+00:00What Will Be the Future of Biogas Sector?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Latvia, like many other European Member States, faces major challenges in achieving climate goals within the Paris Agreement – emission reduction for 50–55 % by 2030 and net-zero emission economy by 2050. Decarbonization of the energy sector is one of the main aims and sustainable use of biogas is one of the ways to reach these targets. Although the biogas sector in Latvia is now mainly based on the production of electricity and heat in cogeneration plants, often using specially grown energy crops, and payments of the mandatory procurement component have expired, biogas plants are preparing for reconstruction for the production of biomethane with the help of European fund investments.</p> <p>It means that the biogas sector is moving towards a completely different operating model, based primarily on the management of agricultural waste as a feedstock, the conversion of biogas to biomethane and it is used mainly in the transport sector, but its implementation in practical terms faces various challenges. In this context, this article offers a clear vision of the development of the biogas sector in the next decade in Latvia. It uses a sustainability SWOT analysis to clearly reflect the sector’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Life Cycle Assessment-Based Approach to Forecast the Response of Waste Management Policy Targets to the Environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Inadequate municipal waste management, associated with a dominance of waste landfilling and low efficiency of resource and energy recovery, is the major challenge towards circular economy targets for some European Union countries, including Latvia. The aim of the study is to evaluate environmental performance from implementation of waste management policy goals in waste management systems of Latvia applying life cycle assessment methodology. The waste management system in Latvia was evaluated for two scenarios: baseline situation (based on statistical data from 2016) and future scenario – 2030. Baseline scenario assessment results show the existing material and energy recovery potential from municipal solid waste generated in Latvia. Meanwhile, results obtained from the 2030 scenario demonstrated that boosting recovery rates of plastic by 20 % and organic waste by 20 % can contribute to the minimization of life cycle environmental impacts (human health, resources, climate change, ecosystems) by 1.8 % and organic by 3.6 % correspondingly.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The Importance of Science, Technology and Innovation in the Green Growth and Sustainable Development Goals of Colombia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Green growth and sustainable development goals (SDGs) are two strategies to improve the productivity and competitiveness of countries with respect to environmental protection. In these strategies, science, technology and innovation (STI) plays an important role in generating new knowledge. Colombia is a highly diversified country that is currently seeking to promote green growth initiatives and the SDGs through five axes: policy, new economic opportunities from the sustainable use of natural resources, the efficient use of natural capital and energy in production, business and human competences and capacities in STI. In this context, this study seeks to analyse the main contributions and adequate measures that determine the relationships between green growth, SDGs and STI in Colombia over recent years using different econometric models. The results of this study suggest the importance of STI in promoting green growth and achieving SDGs. In other words, higher investments in STI promote lower pollution and higher productivity, competitiveness and development, and new knowledge and technologies are found to be important to increasing the sustainable use of natural resources in productive processes. These results suggest policy implications with regard to energy use and conservation, resource efficiency, and the reduction of pollution. It is important to formulate and frequently measure the indicators of STI related to green growth and SDGs from a baseline, as this will allow us to analyse improvements in competitiveness and productivity from a sustainable development perspective.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Life Cycle Assessment of Apparel Consumption in Australia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study presents the environmental impact of apparel consumption in Australia using life cycle assessment methodology according to ISO14040/14044:2006. Available published references, the Ecoinvent v3 dataset, the Australian life cycle assessment dataset and apparel country-wise import data with the breakdown of apparel type and fibre type were used in this study. The environmental impact assessment results of the functional unit were scaled up to the total apparel consumption. The impact results were also normalized on a per-capita/year basis. The Total Climate Change Potential (CCP) impact from apparel consumption of 2015 was estimated to be 16 607 028 tonnes CO2eq and 698.07 kg CO2eq/per capita-year. This study also assessed the impact of acidification potential (AP), water depletion (WD), abiotic resource depletion potential (ADP) - fossil fuel and agricultural land occupation (ALO) using the same methodology. The market volume of cotton apparel in Australia is 53.97 %, which accounts for 45 %, 96 %, 40 %, 46 % and 79 % of total CCP, WD, ADP, AP and ALO impact, respectively. Apparel broad categories of cotton shirt, cotton trouser, polyester shirt and polyester trouser have a high volume in the apparel market as well as a high environmental impact contribution. These high-volume apparel products can be included in the prioritization list to reduce environmental impact throughout the apparel supply chain. It was estimated that from 2010 to 2018 the per capita apparel consumption and corresponding impact increased by 24 %.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Electronic Waste Generation Prediction in Bandung City, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) generation is increasing due to the increase in the number of users and the development of electronic products. In Indonesia, there are no specific regulations about WEEE even though it is identified as hazardous and toxic waste. This study aims to predict the WEEE generation from the most used and replaced electronic products by citizens of Bandung City. The data is collected by surveying 400 families in Bandung City. Based on the survey results, there are three types of electronic products that are most used and replaced by citizens of Bandung City, which are mobile phones, laptops and televisions. The Delay Model is modified by replacing the lifespan variable with end-of-life to project the mobile phones, laptops and televisions waste generation in Bandung City. The purpose of this modification is to adjust the pattern of electronic products used in developing countries. The projection results state that Bandung City will generate 0.61 tons/day of mobile phones, 8.66 tons/day of laptops and 3.16 tons/day of televisions at the end of 2020. Based on the results of the projection, WEEE management and recycling is important which can reduce WEEE disposal and increase the economic value of WEEE.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Energy and Thermal Conductivity Assessment of Dimethyl-Ether and its Azeotropic Mixtures as Alternative Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in a Refrigeration System<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Substituting Hydrofluorocarbons with natural refrigerants in domestic refrigerators will significantly reduce the direct contributions of fluorinated gases to global warming which will be of great environmental benefit. In this study, the performances of dimethyl-ether (RE170) and its azeotropic mixtures (R510A and R511A) in a refrigeration system were assessed theoretically and compare with that of conventional refrigerant. The study revealed that the three investigated alternative refrigerants exhibited significantly good heat transfer characteristics, low pressure ratio, high latent heat in the liquid phase which resulted in their high thermal conductivity and Volumetric Cooling Capacity (VCC). The thermal conductivity of the refrigerants reduces while the evaporating temperature rises and the value obtained for RE170 was the highest among the four refrigerants studied. The Coefficient of Performance (COP) for RE170, R510A and R511A were higher than that of R134a by 6.20, 10.06 and 3.02 % respectively while their power consumptions per ton of refrigeration were lower than that of R134a by 6.99, 11.04 and 1.47 % respectively. In conclusion, dimethyl-ether and its azeotropic mixtures performed better than R134a in that they have higher thermal conductivity, refrigerating effect, VCC, COP, lower power consumption per ton of refrigeration and hence, they can be considered as suitable replacements for R134a in domestic refrigerator.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Temporal Trends in Phosphorus Concentrations and Losses from Agricultural Monitoring Sites in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Baltic Sea is the youngest sea on our planet, the environment of the sea is considered to be unique and fragile. It is affected by various human activities resulting in the impairment of water quality. Riverine nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) loads are among the major causes of eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. This study examines temporal trends in water discharge, total phosphorus (TP) and orthophosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P) concentrations and losses from three agricultural runoff monitoring sites in Latvia including Berze, Mellupite, and Vienziemite. The annual datasets of TP and PO4-P concentrations and losses were tested for statistical trends using a nonparametric test - the Mann-Kendall trend test. The timeframe of this study was from 1995 until 2018. The results show a large variety of annual mean concentrations and losses of TP and PO4-P in the study period. No statistically significant trend was detected for TP losses. Meanwhile, statistically significant downward trends were observed for TP concentrations in four out of six study sites and in two study sites for PO4-P concentrations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Positive Energy District (PED) Selected Projects Assessment, Study towards the Development of Further PEDs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Positive Energy District (PED) is a relatively new concept from which many projects are planned, however, only a few cases are currently close to be materialized, therefore, in this study the PED projects in operation and in implementation process in existing districts are gathered in order to serve as a base for future PEDs. In this sense, certain points of each selected project are highlighted due to their relevance within the project development and their replicability potential. Furthermore, intending to learn from the experience of the assessed case-studies, this paper aims to understand the current situation regarding PED implementation to simplify the development of further PEDs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Purification of Oil-Containing Waste Using Solar Energy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Significant oil losses in oil-containing wastes and their adverse impact on the region environmental setting bring about the need to develop an oil-containing wastes treatment technology. To tackle this issue, the authors have set an aim of designing a helio device and creating an oil-containing wastes treatment method based on it to extract oil products. Considering a widespread in the composition and properties of potential oil sludge raw materials and their tendency for either formation of stable emulsions or phase separation, we have conducted in-depth modern physical and chemical studies and defined the need to develop a commercial oil-containing wastes purification method. We have designed the device, in which oil product hydrocarbons undergo thermal treatment using solar energy. Following oil-containing wastes purification using solar energy, the particulate load in soil does not exceed 6.65–6.79 % and the absolute molecular weight of hydrocarbons approaches that of bitumen. The developed oil-containing wastes purification method solves an important environmental issue of oil-containing wastes recycling, promotes recovery, and prevents degradation of natural complexes, and reduces soil and water pollution.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of CO Valorisation Options for Regional Development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mitigation of CO2 emissions has become a top-question in international and national arenas, likewise on the city level. Existing CO2 mitigation measures are primarily oriented towards wider deployment of low-carbon technologies of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency measures, focusing on energy production, distribution and energy use sectors, as well as the transport sector. Due to higher CO2 reduction efficiency and the cost aspect, the direct CO2 mitigation options currently applied are mostly oriented on large scale CO2 generators. Meanwhile the rural, sparsely populated regions already suffer from a lack of innovative industrial economic activities, inhabitant’s migration to urban areas and mostly involved in agriculture, land use and forestry activities. They are also “saved” by the public authorities from targeted CO2 emissions mitigation actions, therefore, the understanding of processes within rural CO2 economy sectors, factors, interconnections and effects to the environment and nature quality and finally guidelines to future actions are crucial. To analyse CO2 valorisation options for regional development, a multi-modelling approach combining literature review, an indicator analysis method and a multi-criteria decision-making analysis were used. As a result, CO2 valorisation options and key performance indicators were defined and multi-criteria analysis for regional decarbonization scenarios were performed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Energy Efficiency Benchmark in Textile Manufacturing Companies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Within the framework of the study a case study is performed, the data provided by a Latvian textile production company on their electricity and natural gas consumption, as well as production volumes over a three-year period have been analysed. The specific indicators of electricity, natural gas and CO2 emissions have been calculated and the obtained results are shown in graphs. The correlation of specific indicators with production volumes was analysed by correlation coefficient and linear regression methods. An analysis of statistical data for the calculated specific indicators over a three-year period has been performed. The obtained results show high seasonality of natural gas consumption and close connection between electricity consumption and production volumes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Long-Term Policy Recommendations for Improving the Efficiency of Heating and Cooling<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Targets set by the European Green Deal to increase efficiency, reach towards sustainable development and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have placed additional focus on necessary improvements in heating and cooling sector. This article aims to determine whether the objectives set at the EU and on the member state level for achieving climate and environmental goals are being implemented at the regional and local levels. The case of Latvia is considered. A keyword extraction text analysis method is used to identify whether improving the efficiency of heating and cooling is included in regional and local sustainable development strategies. Results are evaluated by using multi-criteria analysis methods TOPSIS and AHP, to determine how much attention in the strategies is paid to direct heating and cooling supply aspects and overall efficiency aspects. Results obtained while assessing the sustainable development strategies of cities and municipalities are compared with the climate index of their heating supply. Considerable differences can be seen in the inclusion of heating and cooling efficiency improvement plans in the strategies at regional and local levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-16T00:00:00.000+00:00How to Assess Policy Impact in National Energy and Climate Plans<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is the responsibility of each member state of the European Union, to prepare a national energy and climate plan and set achievable climate targets and meaningful measures and policies to achieve the targets set. Annex 4 of the Latvian National Energy and Climate Plan for 2030 (hereinafter – NECP) provides an overview of policies and measures to achieve the climate targets. The NECP does not provide information on the impact of the policies or which measures are more important and which are less crucial Similarly, the measures in Annex 4 of the NECP were not determined by industry experts but by ministry officials, therefore, it is not clear whether the proposed measures will achieve the set climate targets, a point also made by European Commission in its evaluation report on NECP. The aim of the study is to develop a tool for the early assessment of the impact of energy and climate policy measures. The study developed a methodology to pre-assess the impacts of the policies identified in the NECP, impacts were described by measures effectiveness and stage of development. With this methodology, it is possible to assess the impact of energy policies using indicators to characterize the effectiveness of the policy and the level of development. The study confirmed that both the multi-criteria analysis and composite index method can be used as methods. The results showed that high impact measures were related to the promotion of energy efficiency in buildings, but low impact measures were comprehensive horizontal measures such as measures related principle ‘energy efficiency first’ and review of energy efficiency obligation schemes. The indicators with the highest impact on sustainability rate were possible side effects and transparency of policies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Life Cycle Assessment of Reprocessed Cross Laminated Timber in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is expected that Cross-laminated timber (CLT) and other engineered wood products will experience rapid growth in the coming years. Global population growth is requiring more housing units, at the same time the negative impact of construction industry cannot stay in the same level as today. Alternatives for concrete and steel reinforced structures are being explored. CLT has proven to be an excellent substitution for concrete regarding construction of buildings up to eight storeys high. In addition to much lower environmental impact, construction process using CLT takes significantly less time due to pre-cut shapes required for specific project. Despite mentioned benefits, there are considerable amount of CLT cuttings generated in this process. Due to irregular shape and small dimensions of these cuttings they are useless for further use in construction. By applying re-processing technology described in this paper, around 70 % of generated cuttings can be re-processed into new CLT panels. In this paper we are evaluating the environmental benefits of re-processing these cuttings into new CLT panels versus business-as-usual scenario with waste disposal. Life cycle assessment results showed significant reduction of environmental impact for the scenario of CLT cutting re-processing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Examining the Impact of Different Technical and Environmental Parameters on the Performance of Photovoltaic Modules<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents an evaluation of the performance of PV modules with the variation of some technical and environmental parameters: The PV module tilt angle, and the impact of soiling on the power output of PV module, and the transmittance of the PV glass surfaces. The experiments were achieved in Helwan City (Egypt) at the premises of the Faculty of Engineering of Helwan University. For the soiling part, it comprises two experiments: Transmittance of PV glass surfaces, and the power output of PV modules. For the transmittance experiment, it has been achieved using a simplified method, where three PV glass surfaces were placed at three different tilt angles (0°, 15°, and 30°) and left exposed to the outdoor environment without cleaning for a period of 25 days during the summer season. For the experiment concerning the impact of soiling on the power output, a set of PV modules connected in series have been exposed for a period of 75 days to the outdoor environment without cleaning. Finally, for the PV module tilt angle experiment, another set of PV modules have been used for that purpose, where four different tilt angles were experimented: 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. The present research recommends that more studies are needed in the same context, taking into consideration correlating the technical and environmental parameters in one single experiment and during different times of the year. This would be helpful in having overarching perspective regarding the electrical performance of PV modules under different circumstances of tilt angles and soiling patterns within the area of Helwan (Egypt).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Industrial Energy Efficiency Towards Green Deal Transition. Case of Latvia.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Energy efficiency policy has been one of the European Union top priorities for decades and will continue to play a vital role in the next 10 years with the introduction of The Clean energy for all Europeans. Likewise, in Latvia energy efficiency has been given high priority; however, the energy efficiency targets for industry has lacked ambitions. This research focuses on evaluating the Latvian industrial energy efficiency policy using top-down approach and benchmarking energy intensity of Latvian industry to the average of the European Union’s. Results confirm that on average Latvian industry consumes 2.6 times more energy to produce the same amount of value added compared to the average in the European Union; however, every saved energy unit in Latvia would save twice less CO<sub>2</sub> emissions considering already largely decarbonized energy mix. In the spotlights of the Green Deal proposed by the European Commission, much higher contribution in terms of CO<sub>2</sub> reduction and energy efficiency will be expected from the industry. Nevertheless, energy efficiency targets for Latvian industry should be sector-specific, separately addressing CO<sub>2</sub> intensive sectors, and non-intensive CO<sub>2</sub> sectors with low added value.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00EU Municipal Organic Wastes Management and Its Implementation Prospects in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article focuses on the issue of the prospects of municipal organic wastes management in Ukraine in the context of the applicable EU practices in the field. The investigation was made according to the SWOT analysis. The general scientific and specific scientific methods were used at all the three stages of the investigation. The peculiarities of the Ukrainian legislation and their compliance with the EU directives and policies were analysed. The key problems of the Ukrainian wastes legislation, political and legal relations in the field were reviewed. The New Ukrainian Wastes Management Strategy was analysed. The main principles and priorities of the EU wastes strategies were presented. The best (and the most applicable for Ukraine) European practices were examined, including the five-step hierarchy and features of the national wastes collecting, sorting and disposal systems. Wastes composting technologies were discussed in detail. Possibilities of using wastes as bio fuel for refuelling municipal equipment, air transport, etc. were determined. The futility of expanding landfill areas for solving wastes management issues was noted. The main requirements to be met for regulating wastes management market in accordance with the Association Agreement with the EU were outlined. Recommendations on implementing circular economy principles and extended producers’ responsibility to encourage the public society to sort wastes, businesses to minimize wastes generation and draw interest to recycling were suggested.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Upgrade from SEAP to SECAP: Experience of 6 European Municipalities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Since 2008 many municipalities in the European Union have taken part in the Covenant of Mayors (CoM) initiative and have developed Sustainable Energy Action Plans (SEAP) to contribute to climate change mitigation. To respond to new policy goals for 2030, the CoM has expanded its focus and since 2018 requires municipalities to cover climate adaptation actions. The main aim of this paper is to analyse the first experiences of six municipalities from Spain, Portugal and Latvia in upgrading their existing Sustainable Energy Actions Plans to Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans (SECAP). SECAPs were developed through a participatory process involving all relevant local stakeholders, to gain maximum understanding and acceptance. Each municipality implemented climate adaption actions to demonstrate the need for adaptation and the ways it can be accomplished.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital Technologies as a Factor in Reducing the Impact of Quarries on the Environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The industrial development of mankind is based on the intensive use of natural resources of the planet. The development of the mining industry is a necessary and important factor for the successful development of the national economy. At the same time, mining has a significant impact on environmental degradation. Methods for assessing and minimizing the environmental impact of mining have only been developed in practice in the last 50 years and differ significantly from country to country. The article analyses the approaches and methodologies for environmental impact assessment (EIA) based on international and national standards. The methods used in Kazakhstan and the countries of the European-Asian Economic Union (EurAsEU) are critically evaluated. The developed mathematical models are implemented in the form of digital solutions and implemented in the module of the cloud system ‘3D Quarry’. The methodology proposed by the authors for use and the developed software product allow optimizing mining operations at quarries according to the parameters of minimizing their negative impact on the environment. At the same time, it is mandatory to comply with mandatory national and international regulations. The proposed 3D Quarry system and the EIA module are an alternative to commercial software products (and their pirated copies, often used by companies in the countries under study) and are aimed at small mining companies in post-Soviet countries. It is expected that the application of the proposed software product will allow, within the technological capabilities, to minimize the impact of quarries on the environment of Kazakhstan.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-23T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1