rss_2.0Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica Agriculturae Bohemica 's Cover of Laying Hens to Aqueous Extracts of Root and Leaf<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the response of laying hens to aqueous extracts of <italic>Petiveria alliacea</italic> root and leaf. A total of 288 eighteen-week-old Isa brown pullets were used for the 25-week study. The pullets were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial experimental layout in a completely randomized design. The pullets were distributed into two groups administered root extract or leaf extract. Pullets in each group were allotted to four subgroups administered aqueous extracts of <italic>Petiveria alliacea</italic> at 15, 30 and 45 g l<sup>–1</sup> concentration levels making eight treatments in total. Each treatment was replicated three times with twelve pullets per replicate. <italic>Eimeria</italic> oocyst counts and intestinal bacteria counts were lower (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.0001 and <italic>P</italic> = 0.0028, respectively) in hens administered 15, 30 and 45 g l<sup>–1</sup> of <italic>Petiveria alliacea</italic> extracts than the control. The highest (<italic>P</italic> &lt; 0.0001) antibody titre against Newcastle disease vaccine was recorded in hens administered 30 and 45 g l<sup>–1</sup> concentrations of root (9.06 and 9.10 log<sub>2</sub>, respectively) and leaf (9.08 and 9.18 log<sub>2</sub>, respectively) extracts. The liver sections of hens in all treatments appeared normal. In conclusion, aqueous extract of <italic>Petiveria alliacea</italic> root and leaf at 30 and 45 g l–1 concentrations performed best as antimicrobial and immune stimulating agent without impairing liver health.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Lacticaseibacilli and Lactococci from Slovak Raw Goat Milk and their Potential<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Strains potential such as bacteriocin activity, biofilm formation ability, growth in skim milk, susceptibility to antibiotics, tolerance to bile and low pH as well as enzyme production was tested in the species <italic>Lacticaseibacillus paracasei</italic> and <italic>Lactococcus lactis</italic> detected in Slovak raw goat milk. The strains showed mostly low-grade biofilm formation ability, susceptibility to antibiotics and sufficient tolerance to oxgall/bile. <italic>Lacticaseibacillus</italic> (<italic>Lcb.) paracasei</italic> ZM-1, ZM-2 and <italic>Lactococcus</italic> (<italic>Lc.</italic>) <italic>lactis</italic> PD MO 1/8 showed high tolerance to pH 3 (67 %, 83 % and 63 %, respectively). The strains showed bacteriocin activity against the principal indicator <italic>Enterococcus avium</italic> EA5 (inhibition zone ranging 5–24 mm). A concentrated substance of <italic>Lcb. paracasei</italic> LPa ML 12/1 (pH 6.3) inhibited EA5 strain (inhibition activity 100 AU ml–1). <italic>Lcb. paracasei</italic> ZM-1 and ZM-2 also produced a high amount of β-galactosidase (40 nmol). Although the strains indicated their beneficial potential, additional testing is needed; some tests are in processing for further possible application of selected strains in dairy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Early-Season Effects of Wildfire on Soil Nutrients and Weed Diversity in Two Plantations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study assessed early-season effects of spontaneous wildfires on soil fertility and weed diversity in two managed plantations – cashew and teak – in Ilorin, Nigeria. Soil pH and nutrients in the topsoils and subsoils of burned and unburned plantations plots after a spontaneous wildfire were analysed. Species diversity and similarity were determined based on the composition and abundances of weed flora two months post-fire. The fire effects on soil nutrients and weed composition in the plantations were evaluated using the canonical correspondence analysis. Burns incidence significantly improved the organic carbon, organic matter, and Ca contents while reducing total N and Mg in both plantations. Twenty-eight weed species were distributed in 9 angiosperm families. Fire differently affected weed composition, abundance and diversity in the plantations. Burning improved soil organic carbon and organic matter contents and restricted <italic>Tephrosia bracteolata</italic>, <italic>Desmodium tortuosum</italic>, <italic>Daniellia oliveri</italic>, <italic>Senna obtusifolia</italic> and <italic>Zornia latifolia</italic> to the burned cashew plantation. The occurrence of <italic>Euphorbia heterophylla</italic>, <italic>Eriosema psoraleoides</italic> and <italic>Crotalaria retusa</italic> in the burned teak plantation was associated with a direct fire effect on soil Na and Ca contents. Burning influenced soil nutrients in the studied plantations, but weed diversity increased in the teak plantation and was reduced in the cashew plantation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Lipid Globules and Fatty Acids in Milk of Lactating Raccoon ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, milk samples (<italic>n</italic>=52) from nine healthy female raccoons at 3–45 days of lactation were manually collected at a regular morning hour from all active teats and used to investigate the changes of lipid globules size, fatty acids (FAs) profile and fat content.The results indicated that raccoon milk is characterized by a high fat content. Small lipid globules sizing up to 6 µm prevailed with their greatest share in milk during lactation phases I and III. The milk fat content was increasing with the proceeding lactation, whereas the content of free FAs had a decreasing tendency. Totally eighteen FAs were identified in raccoon milk. The unsaturated long-chain C18–C20 FAs were dominating (over 60%). The individual FAs contents in raccoon milk did not exceed 1%, except for palmitic, vaccenic and linoleic acids representing over 20% of the total FA content.The study results can be used for establishing the energy requirements during the suckling period for proper growth and development of puppies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Means of Staff Number Reduction and Outplacement<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The paper focuses on staff number reducing in Czech organizations because it is an important issue due to adaptation to changing economic conditions and ongoing financial crisis. The number of organizations reducing their staff number goes up in all sectors of economy including agriculture and the problem is associated with financial costs. The objective is to present the ways of staff number reduction in Czech organizations and outplacement for the laid-off workers and a partial objective is to compare the results with those in the Slovak Republic. Moreover, the paper discusses the recommendation in the sphere of knowledge continuity for organizations and it also examines the cost level of employees’ turnover. The results were obtained by implementing quantitative research with the help of questionnaire data collection (n = 109) which were analyzed by the tools of descriptive statistics. Results show that 52.3% of organizations have reduced their staff number. However, outplacement was used by only 10.1% of the addressed Czech organizations, out of which 28.6% were agricultural. </p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-11-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Littorella Uniflora (L.) Ascherson: A Review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Littorella uniflora (L.) Ascherson, a member of Plantaginaceae family, belongs to a group of isoetids - small, slow-growing, evergreen aquatic plants. They are characterized by strong and stiff basal leaves and a large amount of root biomass. Oligotrophic and mesotrophic freshwaters are typical habitats for this plant. L. uniflora is a boreal subatlantic European species. It is spread over whole western and northern Europe including the United Kingdom and Ireland. Austria, Czech Republic, and Poland lie on the southeast border of L. uniflora distribution. In the Czech Republic, as well as in the Netherlands or Ireland, the number of suitable habitats is rapidly decreasing. Therefore it is important to understand the needs of this macrophyte in order to propose quality rescue management to restore its population. This paper gives brief information about biology and ecological adaptations of L. uniflora. It also focuses on threats, distribution, and management at some of its current localities in the Czech Republic.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-11-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Long-Term Degradation of Composites Exposed to Liquid Environments in Agriculture<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Polymeric particles composites with hard inorganic particles are abrasion resistant materials which can be used in the sphere of agriculture - e.g. for functional areas in renovation or as resistant layers. Silicon carbide waste particles were used in the present experiment, replacing the primary filler with waste without significant changes in the mechanical properties. The present paper describes the effect of immersion of polymeric particles composites with epoxy matrix in liquids on selected mechanical properties. Overall, it explains the change of hardness and resistance of abrasive wear, a typical kind of wear in the sphere of agriculture.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-11-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Storage on Briquettes Mechanical Properties<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The effects of the storage place, placing manner, and storage time on mechanical properties of briquettes made from birch chips were laboratorily tested. A unique methodology developed by the present author enabling a relatively easy assessment of mechanical properties of the briquettes is described. The briquettes properties were evaluated by their density and rupture force determination. From the test results it follows that if the briquettes are stored in a well closed plastic bag, neither the place nor the storage time influence significantly their life time. When stored in a net plastic bag, the briquettes get seriously damaged, namely depending on their storage place and storage time. </p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-11-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Deformation Curve Characteristics of Rapeseeds and Sunflower Seeds Under Compression Loading<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The deformation curve characteristics of rapeseeds and sunflower seeds compressed using the equipment ZDM 50-2313/56/18 and varying vessel diameters (40, 60, 80, and 100 mm) were investigated. Maximum compressive force of 100 kN was applied on bulk oilseeds of rape and sunflower of measured height 20-80 mm and deformed at a speed of 60 mm∙min-1. The compression test using the vessel diameters of 40 and 60 mm showed a serration effect while the vessel diameters of 80 and 100 mm indicated an increasing function effect on the force-deformation characteristic curves. Clearly, the increasing function effect described the region with oil flow and that of serration effect described the region without any oil flow. However, it was observed that the serration effect could be due to the higher compressive stress inside the smaller vessel diameters (40 and 60 mm) compared to those with bigger vessel diameters (80 and 100 mm). Parameters such as deformation, deformation energy, and energy density were determined from the force-deformation curves dependency showing both increasing function and serration effect. The findings of the study provide useful information for the determination of specific compressive force and energy requirements for extracting maximum oil from oilseed crops such as rape and sunflower. </p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-11-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Biochanin a and Daidzein Influence Meiotic Maturation of Pig Oocytes in a Different Manner<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of phytoestrogens biochanin A (BIO A; 20, 40, 50μg ml<sup>-1</sup>) and daidzein (DAI; 10, 20, 40, 50μg ml<sup>-1</sup>) on the course of meiotic maturation of pig oocytes. After a 24-hour cultivation, a stage of nuclear maturation was achieved and the areas of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), as an indicator of cumulus expansion, were evaluated. The effects of both contaminants on oocytes were mani - fested from the lowest concentration used. Nuclear maturation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in the case of BIO A. Effects of DAI reached a plateau at a concentration of 20μg ml<sup>-1</sup>.Possible relationship to limited solubility of DAI was excluded because limits of DAI solubility in culture medium were confirmed at 50 μg ml<sup>-1</sup>.The cumulus expansion was also influenced in a different manner - reduction of the COC’s area by BIO A was dose-dependent, whereas DAI had the strongest effect on CCs in the lowest and highest concentrations used. Both phytoestrogens negatively influence the meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes but there are significant differences in their concrete effects which could relate to the diverse mechanisms of their acting on target cells. </p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-11-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) Feed Supplement on Milk Production and its Composition in Tunisian Holstein Friesian Cows<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> A 105-day feed trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic feed supplement containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk yield and its composition in Holstein Friesian cows. The trial was conducted in the region of Sidi Bouzid in the west of Tunisia. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been investigated on eight Holstein Friesian cows randomly divided into two groups of four animals on the basis of age, body weight, average milk yield, and lactation number. The first group was supplemented with 2.5 g/cow/day of probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.5 10<sup>10</sup> CFU/day) and the second group (control) was without the yeast. The study showed that supplementation with 2.5 g of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae per cow per day or 2.5 10<sup>10</sup> CFU/day tended (P &lt; 0.06) to increase milk production by 1.1 kg/cow. By cons, there was a significant increase of fat (P &lt; 0.01; 52.8 and 46.9 g/cow/day) and protein (P &lt; 0.05; 41.7 and 38.7 g/cow/day) content both for treated and control group, respectively. It is concluded that supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 2.5 10<sup>10</sup> CFU/day in the diet of dairy cows may have positive influence on milk fat and protei n yield (g/cow/day). </p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-11-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Feeding with Algae on Fatty Acid Profile of Goat’S Milk<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The study was conducted to determine whether the inclusion of algae Chlorella vulgaris in dairy goats’ diets would change the fatty acid profile and increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in goat’s milk. White short-haired dairy goats on 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> lactations were fed 5 and 10 g of dried algae supplementation for six weeks. The fatty acids profile of milk was analyzed using gass chromatography (flame ionization detector (FID)). The addition of dried algae caused changes of the profile of fatty acids in the milk. The more algae were added to the diet, the greater the changes in the fatty acids profile of milk were found. A statistically significant effect (P = 0.0390) was found between the control group and the group supplemented with 10 g of Chlorella vulgaris per goat per day. The greatest effect of dietary treatment was seen in the relative reduction of palmitic acid content and increased oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids content. Results suggested that the addition of algae also increased the nutritional quality of goat’s milk. There was a positive change in the ratio of SFA:MUFA:PUFA in terms of reducing the proportion of saturated fatty acids, as well as a change in the ratio of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-11-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Canahua and Quinoa Wholemeals on Properties of Non-Fermented Wheat Dough<p>The study compares the influence of wheat flour replacement by 10 or 20 wt% of quinoa and canahua wholemeals on wheat dough technological quality and rheological properties. The technological quality of wheat flour was affected in terms of protein quality and amylases activity, associated with a high dietary fibre content of both tested non-traditional materials. A farinograph test revealed that quinoa partially increased water absorption; a higher amount of water resulted in the shortened stability of dough consistency during mixing and its weakened cohesiveness at the end of the test. The effect of canahua was unequivocal – water absorption decreased, stability was prolonged properly, but dough softening increased. An extensigraph test confirmed a positive effect of alternative crops on dough elasticity, but in general, the composite dough with 20% of canahua or quinoa showed worsened machinability. Multivariate statistical methods proved a stronger effect when quinoa was analysed solely than when added at complete samples a set, while for canahua-wheat samples the result was opposite.</p>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Future Agriculturists: Czech and U.S. Agricultural Students’ Attitudes Towards Agriculture<p>The future of agriculture in the EU is endangered by a constantly diminishing number of young skilled agricultural workers starting their career in agribusiness. The problem of not pursuing in the agricultural career after the university graduation forced us to compare different attitudes of students from the USA (Ohio State University) and the Czech Republic (Czech University of Life Sciences Prague). The article deals with the attitudes towards agriculture in two groups of agriculture university students (<italic>n</italic> = 201). The data were collected with the use of a standardized Questionnaire on Measuring the Affective and Cognitive Properties of Attitudes. The results of Man-Whitney test indicate that both groups of students show significantly more the affective than the cognitive base of their attitude. Furthermore, U.S. students display more positive attitudes towards the agriculture workers than Czech students. Authors bring forward the issue of attitudes in an attempt to find a way to influence the decision making of skilled agri-graduates to prefer the field of agribusiness over other careers and propose to focus on a change in attitudes, for example by the increase of the level of practical experience with agribusiness in school farm estates.</p>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Calcium Chloride and Drought Stress Changed Grain Yield and Physiological Traits in Sesame ()<p>Water deficit or drought stress is one of the most significant abiotic stresses that induce reduction in plant growth and crops yield. Calcium chloride has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of drought stress on many plants. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of calcium chloride in drought resistance and its effect on some physiological characteristics in sesame. Calcium is essential for good growth and structure of plants. In sesame (<italic>Sesamum indicum</italic> L.), the foliar application of calcium chloride (C<sub>1</sub>=0 (control), C<sub>2</sub>=5, C<sub>3</sub>=10 and C<sub>4</sub>=15 mM concentration) significantly affected on grain yield under drought stress (W<sub>1</sub>= 7 (control, no drought stress-plants irrigation at a 7-day interval), W<sub>2</sub>= 12 (severe drought and plants irrigation at a 12- day interval) and W<sub>3</sub>= 17 (the most severe drought and plants irrigation at a 17-day interval). Drought stress reduced grain yield and 1000 seed weight, but these were enhanced by foliar application of calcium chloride when drought levels increased from W<sub>1</sub> to W<sub>3</sub>. Although the increasing calcium chloride concentration reduced the content of photosynthesis pigments in leaves, the drought treatment until W<sub>2</sub> increased the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll “a” and carotenoids) in leaves. The foliar application of calcium chloride increased the seed weight in plant, the number of capsules per plant, plant height, and the concentration of potassium and phosphorus in leaves and seeds. The greatest amount of potassium in leaves and seeds were measured under the W<sub>1</sub>C<sub>3</sub> treatment. Sesame plants under W<sub>3</sub>C<sub>3</sub> and W<sub>2</sub>C<sub>3</sub> had the highest amount of phosphorus in leaves and seeds, respectively. Overall, although drought stress reduced the growth and grain yield in sesame, the foliar application of calcium chloride at the concentration of 10 mM, prevented the drought-stressed sesame plants from damage by improving their physiological parameters.</p>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Canopy-Dwelling Arthropod Response to Rynaxypyr and Lambda-Cyhalothrin Treatments in Maize<p>The technology of grain corn production has recently been continuously changing due to spreading of insecticidal in-crop treatments in Europe. The aim of these interventions is to prevent damage caused by serious lepidopterous pests in maize. We carried out in-maize field experiments using two different active ingredients of insecticides in four consecutive years (2014–2017). A field experiment was conducted to compare the effect of applications of rynaxypyr (ANT) and rynaxypyr + lambda-cyhalothrin (PYR) on the canopy-dwelling arthropod community in commercial maize grain acreage. The effects of both ANT and PYR treatments against <italic>Ostrinia nubilalis</italic> Hübner (Lep.: Crambidae) were tested through four-year field experiments. The quantitative and qualitative assemblages of the perished arthropods and diversity alterations measured by canopy netting and grounded tarpaulins greatly differed in the different insecticide treatments. A significant number of dead arthropods was recorded after PYR treatment. Populations of other natural enemies (Coccinellidae, Chrysopidae, etc.) and endangered species (<italic>Calomobius filum,</italic> Rossi) were also negatively affected. The arthropod community of the examined maize plots was drastically altered by sprayings, which, among other factors, may account for the mass appearance of the other non-target pest organisms (Aphidae: <italic>Rhopalosiphum</italic> spp., Miridae: <italic>Trygonotylus</italic> spp.).</p>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Truncated Non-Nuclear Transposable Elements in Grapevine: A Mini Review<p>In this mini-review we present insight to the non-nuclear transposable elements and <italic>in silico</italic> analysis of miniature inverted transposable elements (MITEs) in the grapevine mitochondrial genome. Here we report the identification of 17 truncated sequences in grapevine (<italic>Vitis vinifera</italic> L.) mitochondrial genome which expectedly belongs to the four ancient transposon families (hAT, Tc1Mariner, Mutator and PIF/Harbinger). Some sequences with a high rate of homology in chloroplast and nuclear genomes were also identified. Thus, it suggests the intercellular gene transfer between these three organelles. These partial sequences showed a high level of similitude with full MITE sequences, and they were found in their inner region, supporting their MITE origin. Further analysis revealed these sequences in other life kingdoms (including eubacteria and archaea), which indicates their ancient origin. Further research showed that 13 out of the 17 sequences are conserved domains of the genes where they are located, suggesting their contribution to gene evolution. Therefore, we suppose that more studies of nature, origin and functional meaning of these sequences and their fusion with genes are necessary. In the light of our observations it will be useful for further studies of <italic>V. vinifera</italic> genome organizing and systematics, as well as for other species.</p>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Chromium in Anthropogenically Polluted and Naturally Enriched Soils: A Review<p>Chromium (Cr) is a very important element examined for last decades on many expert fields. Its toxicity, mobility and bio-availability are strongly dependent on its oxidation state, Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Hexavalent form Cr(VI) is a known carcinogen with many harmful effects on living organisms, on the other hand trivalent Cr(III) form is an important micronutrient necessary for lipid metabolism. Contamination of the environment by Cr may come from anthropogenic industrial pollution or from naturally enriched sites, especially ultramafic rocks and their derived soils. Environmental conditions of soils and water represent a very complex system, which makes reliable assessment of its fate and potential toxicity and transport a really difficult task. A number of studies have been performed to describe Cr behaviour in these systems, as well as to optimize its determination, especially speciation methods. The main objective of this contribution is to summarize and present the today’s knowledge about the occurrence, speciation, and behaviour of Cr in soil environment, with a specific emphasis to description of differences between naturally enriched and anthropogenically contaminated soils.</p>ARTICLE2018-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Localization of Estrogen Receptors in Male Reproductive Tissues and Sperm Cells – A Review<p>The effect of endogenous estrogens on the male reproductive tissues and development of gametes is an essential for the reproductive success. Estrogens affect the target cells via estrogen receptors (ERs) by both genomic and non-genomic pathways. The ER localization in the testis, epididymis, and sperm cells is a key to understanding the effect of estrogens on the sperm development, maturation, and function. The ER detection in male reproductive tissues and sperm cells at different development stages is described in representative mammalian species (human, mouse, rat, horse, and pig), in which the ER localization has been most described. According to various authors the ER occurrence in the male reproductive tissues and spermatozoa is quite distinct. Discrepancy in the published results is probably caused either by the application of different tissue preparation methods, or the choice of specific antibodies. Inconsistent findings should be subjected to further investigation to better understand the role of ERs in the male gamete development and mammalian reproduction</p>ARTICLE2018-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Stream Level Stabilization by Algae of the Genus<p>Investigations in the Pryský brook experimental catchment revealed that the vegetation of the stream channel stabilizes water level depth in the measured profile. The explored brook has been heavily overgrown by algae of the genus <italic>Cladophora</italic> due to a strong pollution by nitrates. It seems that if the algae average length exceeds the midsize of the stones paving the bed (ca. 30 ± 7 cm in diameter, escribed circle to pentagon or heptagon), the water level stagnates in the flowrate range of 60–180 l s<sup>−1</sup>. This totally blocks the streamflow daily oscillation (in summer months in a purely stone bed reaching up to 15%, along with tidal phenomena). The article analyzes one of possible explanations of this effect due to the dependence of the algae thickness layer modifying the channel bed cross-section on the speed of flowing water.</p>ARTICLE2018-02-20T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1