rss_2.0Structure and Environment FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Structure and Environment and Environment 's Cover Removal from Wastewater<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Currently, a significant problem of water and sewage management is the presence of human hormones, especially estrogens and progestagens, consumed by women in contraceptives and then excreted from the body. While other drugs are used by a small part of the population and rather sporadically, hormonal contraception is used by a large number of women, which contributes to their high concentration in sewage. Even relatively low estrogen concentrations (compared to other drugs) can have harmful effects on the body, disturbing the hormonal balance and leading to various endocrine disorders. In this paper the types of individual estrogen groups were characterized. Next, different methods of their removal from wastewater were presented. The parameters of estrogen removal efficiency depend on which parameters. Next, the effectiveness of each method was compared, also taking into account economic aspects. The work was summarized with appropriate conclusions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-12T00:00:00.000+00:00A Study of Thermal Comfort at Kielce University of Technology<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article presents the research of thermal comfort based on the Fanger model. The research was conducted in three educational rooms. The study involved 98 people whose age is between 19 and 23 years old. The study consisted in measuring the parameters of the thermal environment. During the research, students completed surveys regarding the thermal sensation. On the basis of the research, the predicted mean vote PMV score and the predicted percentage of dissatisfied PPDs were determined. This made it possible to compare the assessment of respondents with those indicated according to the standard, which showed that the Fanger model does not reflect the results of the respondents. The best solution will be to modify the Fanger model.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Reconstructing Airport Pavements Using the Technology of Prefabricated Concrete Slab<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article presents the construction and technical concept for the use of an innovative repair of the airport pavement. It consists in embedding a prefabricated concrete slab in place of the excessively degraded surface of the existing slabs. In addition, the introduced technology of connecting adjacent panels together increases the spatial stiffness of the entire functional element and significantly increases the load-bearing capacity of the pavement. The results of laboratory and field tests presented in the article confirm the effectiveness of the technology used. As a result, the application of the reconstructing technology ensures the safety performance of aircraft operations at airports facilities.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Some Methodological Principles of the Architectural Environment’s Objects Design<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article discusses the methodological principles of typology and design of architectural environment’s objects with the analysis of its system-structural foundations. According to them, hierarchical levels of formation and stages of environmental systems and objects’ design are revealed with some examples of author’s designs. The research is based on systemic and environmental approaches that make it possible to view the architectural environment’s objects as hierarchically subordinate.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Architectural Periods of the Ukrainian Non-Formal Education<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article considers three conditional formation periods of the extracurricular education in Ukraine (before the revolution of 1917, the Soviet era, the period of independent Ukraine). The features of extracurricular institutions of each period, the formation purposes, the main tasks of the periods, the implementation forms of extracurricular education are studied. The description of Ukrainian landmark buildings of each period is given. The modern problems such as the problem of moral and physical obsolescence of educational spaces, private establishments control system, the lack of regulatory documents for extracurricular institutions design, difficulties related to functioning of extracurricular education system in the structure of united territorial communities and the fate of abandoned cultural centres are reviewed. Development trends of extracurricular institutions of Ukraine are revealed. The question of the extracurricular educational system formation in foreign countries is touched upon and the specifics of foreign extracurricular educational systems are revealed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Lightweight Fillers on the Performance of Cement-Based Skim Coat<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Lightweight fillers are used in dry-mixed building mortars in order to improve thermal insulation properties, yield, and workability. In the case of thin layer products, used as a finishing layer, reduced thermal conductivity coefficient enables to restrain of water vapor condensation on walls – which inhibits mold growth. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of 4 types of lightweight fillers on the performance of cement-based skim coat – with emphasis on the economic aspect. Formulas reflecting typical commercial products were used. The dosage of different components -such as expanded perlite, glass and polymeric bubbles or expanded glass – was optimized for sufficient yield and workability, keeping the constant price of 1 kg of the final product. Mechanical parameters, capillary absorption coefficient, and thermal conductivity coefficient were determined. Observations by Scanning Electron Microscope revealed poor incorporation of polymer microspheres in the cement matrix, leading to loss of mechanical strength. With the addition of expanded glass, an increase of flexural and compressive strength thanks to the pozzolanic reaction was observed. Glass bubbles were found the most effective additive.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Application of the PHREEQC Program to Assess the Chemical Stability of Tap Water in Kielce<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The research was conducted on samples of water in Kielce from two intakes: Białogon and Zagnańsk. The results of selected indicators for these waters were presented, among others, the most important ones influencing its chemical stability i.e. calcium or magnesium. Then, using the PHREEQC program, stability indices were calculated for water in Kielce from the two shots in question. In the next stage, the correctness of the water test method was checked by means of a program through the ionic balance of the water and comparison of pH of the water determined with the value determined by calculation. For the above mentioned activities, tables and calculations were prepared on the basis of which appropriate conclusions were made.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Selected Technical Properties of Bitumen Binders Modified with SBS Copolymer and Crumb Rubber<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Good quality bitumen used in the production of bitumen-aggregate mixtures is a binder with high stiffness and elasticity at high operating temperatures occurring in summer and adequate flexibility during exposure to sub-zero temperatures. Currently, one of the best technological solutions to improve the viscoelasticity of bitumen and the resistance to ageing is their modification with various types of additives. The paper presents the results of penetration tests as a function of temperature, softening point (ring and ball method) and strain energy at various temperatures of road bitumen modified with SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene) copolymer, crumb rubber and simultaneous bitumen modification with SBS copolymer and crumb rubber. The obtained results allowed to assess temperature sensitivity, resistance to changes in selected technical properties of the tested binders as a result of technological ageing process with RTFOT (Roler Thin Film Oven Tester) method and to evaluate changes in their technical properties in relation to the 50/70 base bitumen. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyse the impact of the modification type on the test results of technical properties (significance of the impact of the considered factors on the level of technical properties).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Non-Formal Education Institutions in the System of Civic Buildings in Ukraine<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article presents individual positions of the author’s research on the integration of non-formal education institutions in the system of civil buildings of Ukraine. The following scientific views on the phenomenon of non-formal education from related industries are analyzed: pedagogy, sociology, psychology, economics and a systematic approach to education as a phenomenon. The prognostic positions of the development of a typological network of non-formal education institutions in connection with the system of public buildings are described. The links are revealed – system objects of a combination of non-formal education institutions with other public buildings. The stages of the study of this problem are briefly described. The proposal on the creation of a universal educational cluster, as a characteristic of non-formal education institutions, is presented, and an example of the formation of the educational block of the center of scientific and technical creativity based on such a cluster is given.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the Current State of the Concrete Structure of the Tribune<p>The paper is focused on diagnostics of reinforced concrete structure of the tribune of Závodisko Bratislava. The structure was realized by a combination of monolithic and prefabricated concrete elements as well as steel load-bearing elements. The complex state of the rough construction was evaluated, including the verification survey of the foundation of the construction. Non-destructive and destructive methods were used. Based on the results of the diagnostics and recalculation, it was decided to further progress the finish of the tribune.</p>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Agricultural Biomass Fly Ash Cement Substitution on the Carbonation of Cement and Polymer-Cement Composites<p>Practical use of a new type of combustion waste such as an agricultural biomass fly ash in the building materials requires an assessment of its performance. The paper presents the investigation results on the influence of cement substitution (5% and 30%) by this ash on the cement and polymer-cement composites resistance to carbonation. The composites resistance was assessed on the basis of carbonation process over time (up to 360 days) using the phenolphthalein method. It was found that fly ash from agricultural biomass increases the susceptibility to carbonation of polymer-cement composites to a lesser extent than cement composites compared to composites containing siliceous coal fly ash.</p>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Modern Teaching Methods and New Educational Technologies on the Creation of Educational Materials and the Formation of Teaching and Educational Complexes “Kindergarten – Primary School”<p>On the basis of use of modern research methods, the requirements for designing new types of teaching and educational complexes “Kindergarten – Primary School” were determined. It was established that the form and methods of kindergarten education have a certain analogy with the education in the first grades of primary school, which is one of the factors of feasibility of blocking and cooperation of the senior kindergarten groups with the elementary grades of general education schools and the formation of teaching and educational complexes on this basis, which enables receptiveness to demographic fluctuations and, if necessary, change of the function of kindergarten to the function of primary school, and vice versa – the flexibility and multivariance of the teaching environment is one of main conceptual provisions in building of network and typology of educational facilities at the present stage, on the basis of which the structural elements of school network in massive restrained urban development are formed.</p>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Pharmaceuticals in Water and Wastewater – Overview<p>The paper presents concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface water and sewage. Special attention was paid to the content of estrogens in municipal sewage and the method of their disposal. Concentrations of various pharmaceuticals in raw and treated wastewater were compared and the pharmaceuticals in different countries and waters were presented in tables. The most frequently identified drugs in sewage are sex hormones (etradiol, ester, ethinylestradiol, 17 β-estradiol) and the antiepileptic drug Carbamazepine. These drugs are difficult to remove from water and therefore appropriate treatment processes are used, such as: adsorption on active carbon, UV irradiation, etc. Contamination of water with pharmaceuticals has a negative impact on the development of aquatic organisms and can lead to serious human health problems.</p>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the Mobility of Heavy Metals in Sludge for the Sewage Treatment Plant in Daleszyce<p>Sewage sludge is a by-product of wastewater treatment processes. However, it has high fertilising and soil-forming properties, but it cannot always be used for this purpose. The two main criteria limiting their natural use are heavy metals and parasite eggs. Sewage sludge taken from the Daleszyce wastewater treatment plant has been analysed for heavy metals. For this purpose a space analysis was performed to divide the total metal content into four mobility fractions. The mobility issue determines the ability of an element, or one of its forms, to move in the environment. The studies were performed using a four-stage BCR procedure. The results were analyzed and compared to the limits applicable in Poland for sewage sludge intended for environmental use.</p>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1