rss_2.0Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetorichttps://sciendo.com/journal/SLGRhttps://www.sciendo.comStudies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/605818f1f2bff81175a03c05/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20210927T131153Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20210927%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=2fbd7fb7c3270f04ce91bd795a2f63cfa52931e5f5ceb542f1df23eea82c1975200300Planting the Seeds of Artistic Subversiveness in : Godard’s Trailblazing Cinematic Languagehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2020-0046<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The following article frames a particular case study: Jean-Luc Godard’s <italic>À bout de souffle</italic> (1960), referenced in the paper with its American title, <italic>Breathless</italic>. Foraging through the dense and sophisticated thicket of narrative, visual and textual features, the present study will attempt to untangle the overall intrinsic complexity of Godard’s film, as it exceeds simple commonalities between genre conventions or traditional stylistic approaches.</p><p>The abrasive dialectical opposition that <italic>Breathless</italic> enacts against classical storytelling is indeed central to the specific cluster that can be examined under the labels of “experimental cinema”, “auteur cinema”, “art cinema”, predicated on Godard’s abundant departures from cinematic (mainstream) norms.</p><p>The methodology adopted in the article will encompass both a cultural studies approach and the visual strategies of textual analysis from the perspective of film studies. This will spur a close examination of Godard’s directorial style, paying attention to a rich plethora of technical devices inscribed within salient sequences and offset against the matrix of creative options presented by the French Nouvelle Vague.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The Roles of Women in the Lexicon of the Albanian “Code of Skanderbeg” ()https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2020-0045<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A lexical analysis of the so-called <italic>Kanuni i Skanderbegut</italic>, an Albanian collection of customary laws, provides an insight to understand women’s social role in traditional communities living in the northern area of Albania. In the use of specific terminology one can notice a clear separation between the two sexes which is reflected in the distribution of roles and in using a structured terminology that designates not only roles and conditions, but also other aspects of social life.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Interpretation of the Right to Privacy from the Perspective of the Use of New Technologieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2020-0049<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Today’s reality, largely based on the development of technology, carries with it many dangers for various spheres of our lives. One of the areas most at risk is our privacyand thus our right to privacy. It is one of the fundamental human rights, but unfortunately today it is exposed to many violations. This article is an attempt to interpret the right to privacy, and it shows selected threats to this right from the perspective of the development of new technologies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Interpretation of the Principle of Municipality Self-Reliance in the Context of Constitutional Principles of Lawhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2020-0050<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the science of administrative and constitutional law, administration science and many other sciences, including political science, it is widely accepted that the basic, inherent feature of a municipality, deciding the essence of the territorial self-government unit as an entity of public administration, is the self-reliance it is entitled to. The self-reliance of territorial self-government units is even defined as a constitutional norm.</p><p>In principle, self-reliance is perceived as a fundamental attribute of a decentralised public authority and constitutes one of the fundamental systemic principles of the Republic of Poland. It was formulated <italic>expressis verbis</italic> in art. 165 par. 2 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, which states that the self-reliance of territorial self-government units is subject to judicial protection, meaning that TSGUs can defend themselves against illegal attempts, not grounded in the law to interfere in their self-reliance. This protection seems to encompass both the private-law and public-law spheres of territorial self-government activity.</p><p>The essence and guarantees of territorial self-government units’ self-reliance also arise from other constitutional principles, including the aforementioned decentralisation principle, subsidiarity principle, separation of powers, supremacy of the nation and democratic state under rule of law.</p><p>The goal of this article is to interpret the principle of municipal self-reliance in the context of constitutional principles of law, in the light of the Polish Constitution. The studies were conducted based on analysis of normative acts, doctrinal views and case law.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Implementation of New EU Directives Coordinating the Procedures for Awarding Public Contracts in European Union Member States: The Example of Polandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2020-0052<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article concerns the implementation of new EU Directives coordinating the procedures for awarding public contracts in European Union Member States. In a number of countries, including Poland, the process of their implementation (Directive 2014/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on public procurement; Directive 2014/25/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on procurement by entities operating in the water, energy, transport, and postal services sectors; Directive 2014/23/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on the award of concession contracts) was delayed. In most cases, the modernization of EU regulations on public procurement required a thorough modification of national regulations in this respect. As a result of the introduction of the package of new Directives, the European Union public procurement market has undergone substantial changes. The need to adjust legal regulations to the changing political, social, and economic situations in a better way has resulted in the transposition of the modernized EU Directives concerning public procurement to the Polish legal system, affecting the final shape of the new Polish Public Procurement Law. The implementation of the package of new Directives has significantly affected the functioning of the Polish public procurement market. For the entities operating in this market, this means the necessity to expand their knowledge, so as to become familiar with the new legal solutions in this respect.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Summary Strategies for Literary Texts in Englishhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2020-0043<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>One of the problems when students go to university is that they are faced with insufficient skills (reading, summarizing and writing). These skills are not just an option for students – they are a necessity. One of these skills is text summarizing. Summarizing strategies may be called the gist of the literary text. Different summarization strategies may be required for different text types and lengths. The ability to summarize well means your reading comprehension and writing skill should be excellent. Summarization is a high-level comprehension strategy which is effective in improving reading achievement and text summary quality.</p><p>Several approaches have been developed to analyse summarizing skills which are required to teach and learn English at all levels especially at university level. The research was conducted among students of the second year English department at University of Vlora. The summaries reflect the major differences among the strategies used by skilled and unskilled students. The skilled students produce coherent linguistic and syntactic structures. Skilled (high-proficiency) students use semantic and prepositional phrases more than unskilled students (low-proficiency). Thus, the skilled students do not distort ideas of the original text but distort subject-verb order. When they summarize, we can easily distinguish the way in which they combine idea units across two or more paragraphs. The summaries reflect that students write very long sentences. The margin of errors is considerable due to the mother tongue influence and their level of English.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00When Worlds Collide in Legal Discourse. The Accommodation of Indigenous Australians’ Concepts of Land Rights Into Australian Lawhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2020-0044<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The right of Australian Indigenous groups to own traditional lands has been a contentious issue in the recent history of Australia. Indeed, Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders did not consider themselves as full citizens in the country they had inhabited for millennia until the late 1960s, and then only after a long campaign and a national referendum (1967) in favour of changes to the Australian Constitution to remove restrictions on the services available to Indigenous Australians. The concept of <italic>terra nullius</italic>, misapplied to Australia, was strong in the popular imagination among the descendants of settlers or recent migrants and was not definitively put to rest until the Mabo decision (1992), which also established a firm precedent for the recognition of <italic>native title</italic>.</p><p>This path to equality was fraught and made lengthy by the fact that the worldviews of the Indigenous Australians (i.e. Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders) and the European (mainly British and Irish) settlers were so different, at least at a superficial level, this being the level at which prejudice is typically manifested. One area where this fact is particularly evident is in the area of the conceptualisation of property and especially the notion of land “ownership” and “use”.</p><p>In this paper, we will focus on these terms, examining the linguistic evidence of some of the Australian languages spoken traditionally by Indigenous Australians as one means (the <italic>only</italic> one in many cases) of gaining an insight into their worldview, comparing it with that underlying the English language.</p><p>We will show that the conceptualisations manifested in the two languages are contrasting but not irreconcilable, and indeed the ability of both groups of speakers (or their descendants in the case of many endangered Australian languages) to reach agreement and come to develop an understanding of the other’s perspective is reason for celebration for all Australians.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The Non-Professional Judge as a Component of Civic Culture in Polandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2020-0051<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The objective of the paper is to present the role of the non-professional judge in Poland as an important manifestation of civic culture based on citizens’ activity in the sphere of justice among other things. The paper also highlights the importance of an appropriate selection of citizens who are to adjudicate and possibly place restrictions on access to judicial functions using the example of Polish law. The last part addresses the problem of the gradual reduction of the participation of lay judges in the Polish justice system and the controversial attempts to halt this trend, such as the introduction of lay judges to the Supreme Court and the start of discussions on the introduction of the justice of the peace to common courts.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Interreligious Dialogue in the Renaissance: Cusanus, https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2020-0047<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper examines the Dialogue <italic>De pace fidei</italic> written by Nicolaus Cusanus in 1453 to settle disputes arising from events that triggered religious unrest, such as the fall of Constantinople in May 1453, the invasion and massacre of the Turks led by Sultan Mehmed II and the defeat of the Christians. Following the disintegration of medieval Christianity, Cusanus, instead of promoting a crusade, as Cardinal Bessarione did, proposed a more suitable way to make the major exponents of different religions interact in a fruitful dialogue, hoping for the peace of a single universal faith. The arguments through which Cusanus claimed the concept of a concordance and pacification of the faith reveal the originality and topicality of the message communicated by the humanist, founded on the doctrine of peace in the faith, overcoming inter-confessional barriers and religious divergences.</p><p>The author contrasts the divergences, massacres and wars with a doctrinal comparison among different religions through dialogue. The paper invites reflection upon the religious struggles that still spread discord in the world.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Several Remarks on of 106 Bc in the Light of the Fragment of Cic. 24. 54https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2020-0048<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper includes an analysis of a fragment of Cicero’s address in pro Balbo 24.54, which contains interesting, yet highly laconic information regarding one of the <italic>leges de repetundis</italic> – i.e. <italic>lex Servilia Caepionis</italic>. The analysis of the fragment led to the determination that the basic purpose of issuing that act was to cover the issue of changing the personal composition of judges sitting on the <italic>de reptundis</italic> tribunal. Apart from that, it seems that the genesis of the institution of <italic>divinatio</italic> can also be found in that statute.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Market Basket Analysis as a Support Tool for The Management of Public Transporthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2014-0026<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this paper is to characterize a non-standard use of the method of market basket analysis in one of the areas of economy, i.e. public transport. Generally, one of the aims of the market basket analysis method is associating the consumer's market basket – in the case of public transport this being the choice of bus stops in the city area made by passengers. Owing to a new, practical use of this method, it was possible to build an efficient model characterizing the movement of flows of public transport passengers, and assess the degree of transferring (changing lines), thus making it possible to adapt the routes of buses to the needs of people using this particular means of transport, as well as to plot new communication lines.</p><p>The data analysis was performed using the Statistica statistical package and its SAL application, i.e. the algorithms used in Data Mining.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00How Firms Can Hedge Against Market Riskhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2014-0016<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article presents a problem of proper hedging strategy in expected utility model when forward contracts and options strategies are available. We consider a case of hedging when an investor formulates his own expectation on future price of underlying asset. In this paper we propose the way to measure effectiveness of hedging strategy, based on optimal forward hedge ratio. All results are derived assuming a constant absolute risk aversion utility function and a Black-Scholes framework.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimizing Firm Inventory Costs as a Fuzzy Problemhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2014-0019<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The fixed order quantity model of inventory management system is used in the deterministic part. Several elements of inventory cost, such as ordering cost, transportation and storing costs, frozen capital cost, as well as extra rebates, are taken into account in the model. Then the fuzzy optimization problem for the total cost function is formulated within the space of Ordered Fuzzy Numbers when all variables of the model are fuzzy. After the choice of a particular defuzzification functional an appropriate theorem is formulated which gives the solution of the problem.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00On Imprecise Investment Recommendationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2014-0024<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The return rate is considered here as a fuzzy probabilistic set. Then the expected return is obtained as a fuzzy subset in the real line. This result is a theoretical foundation for new investment strategies. All considered strategies result of comparison profit fuzzy index and limit value. In this way we obtain an imprecise investment recommendation. Financial equilibrium criteria are a special case of comparison of the profit index and the limit value. The following criteria are generalized here: the Sharpe's Ratio, the Jensen's Alpha and the Treynor's Ratio. Moreover, the safety-first criteria are generalized here for the fuzzy case. The Roy Criterion, the Kataoka Criterion and the Telser Criterion are also generalized. Obtained results show that proposed theory is useful for the investment applications.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Multidimensional Risk Management for Underground Electricity Networkshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2014-0017<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the paper we consider an electricity provider company that makes decision on allocating resources on electric network maintenance. The investments decrease malfunction rate of network nodes. An accidental event (explosion, fire, etc.) or a malfunctioning on underground system can have various consequences and in different perspectives, such as deaths and injuries of pedestrians, fires in nearby locations, disturbances in the flow of vehicular traffic, loss to the company image, operating and financial losses, etc. For this reason it is necessary to apply an approach of the risk management that considers the multidimensional view of the consequences. Furthermore an analysis of decision making should consider network dependencies between the nodes of the electricity distribution system. In the paper we propose the use of the simulation to assess the network effects (such as the increase of the probability of other accidental event and the occurrence of blackouts of the dependent nodes) in the multidimensional risk assessment in electricity grid. The analyzed effects include node overloading due to malfunction of adjacent nodes and blackouts that take place where there is temporarily no path in the grid between the power plant and a node. The simulation results show that network effects have crucial role for decisions in the network maintenance – outcomes of decisions to repair a particular node in the network can have significant influence on performance of other nodes. However, those dependencies are non-linear. The effects of network connectivity (number of connections between nodes) on its multidimensional performance assessment depend heavily on the overloading effect level. The simulation results do not depend on network type structure (random or small world) – however simulation outcomes for random networks have shown higher variance compared to small-world networks.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Decision Support System for Blockage Management in Fire Servicehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2014-0020<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this article we present the foundations of a decision support system for blockage management in Fire Service. Blockage refers to the situation when all fire units are out and a new incident occurs. The approach is based on two phases: off-line data preparation and online blockage estimation. The off-line phase consists of methods from data mining and natural language processing and results in semantically coherent information granules. The online phase is about building the probabilistic models that estimate the block-age probability based on these granules. Finally, the selected classifier judges whether a blockage can occur and whether the resources from neighbour fire stations should be asked for assistance.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Assorted Methods of Making of Pricing Decisions in an Enterprisehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2014-0028<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Decisions concerning price development are best visible in view of their direct impact on the market activities of the company and the general level of profitability. In every activity, the success is measured by an excess of sales revenue over the costs of used resources. In an ideal case, a determined price provides the highest margin resulting from an analysis of the sales volume, takes into consideration the customer's evaluation of the product/service, and allows to react to competitive threats and to fend off the competition's attacks. There is no single universal way to develop prices for various enterprise types, regardless of the conditions of demand, the specific character of the sector they operate in, or the competitive situation, even if we assume that the enterprise has only one goal of activity. That's why, Author recommends three price determination methods. The ways of price determination presented in this article are just the first step on the way to reach the optimal prices. The prices determined in such way, as well as product or service prices already functioning in the market, are subject to modification depending on the assumed goals, taking into consideration the character of demand for a given commodity and the behaviour of the competition.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Occurrence of the Day-of-the-Week Effects on Polish and Major World Stock Marketshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2014-0018<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this paper is to analyze the occurrence of the so called day of the week effects in market return time series from the period of January 2003 to September 2013 (and additionally January 1999 to December 2002). The study focuses on four indices of the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WIG, WIG20, mWIG40 and sWIG80) and additionally five indices of major world stock exchanges (NIKKEI 225, DAX, CAC40, S&amp;P 500, and IBEX). The main data sample was divided into three subperiods in order to determine whether or not the intensity of day of the week anomalies is constant in time. The study revealed a substantial number of the day of the week anomalies in earliest subperiods and very limited evidence of those effects in later ones, giving rise to the conclusion that the intensity of the day of the week anomalies is diminishing with time. The most common effect identified on the WSE was a positive Friday effect. The Monday effect often described in early literature on the subject matter seems to currently occur very rarely. The study also indicates that the day of the week effects were more persistent among stocks with smaller market capitalization on the WSE.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Distributive Justice: From Steinhaus, Knaster, and Banach to Elster and Rawls — The Perspective of Sociological Game Theoryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2014-0015<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article presents a relatively straightforward theoretical framework about distributive justice with applications. It draws on a few key concepts of Sociological Game Theory (SGT). SGT is presented briefly in section 2. Section 3 provides a spectrum of distributive cases concerning principles of equality, differentiation among recipients according to performance or contribution, status or authority, or need. Two general types of social organization of distributive judgment are distinguished and judgment procedures or algorithms are modeled in each type of social organization. Section 4 discusses briefly the larger moral landscapes of human judgment – how distribution may typically be combined with other value into consideration. The article suggests that Rawls, Elster, and Machado point in this direction. Finally, it is suggested that the SGT framework presented provides a useful point of departure to systematically link it and compare the Warsaw School of Fair Division, Rawls, and Elster, among others.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Number of Clusters and the Quality of Hybrid Predictive Models in Analytical CRMhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/slgr-2014-0022<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Making more accurate marketing decisions by managers requires building effective predictive models. Typically, these models specify the probability of customer belonging to a particular category, group or segment. The analytical CRM categories refer to customers interested in starting cooperation with the company (acquisition models), customers who purchase additional products (cross- and up-sell models) or customers intending to resign from the cooperation (churn models). During building predictive models researchers use analytical tools from various disciplines with an emphasis on their best performance. This article attempts to build a hybrid predictive model combining decision trees (C&amp;RT algorithm) and cluster analysis (k-means). During experiments five different cluster validity indices and eight datasets were used. The performance of models was evaluated by using popular measures such as: accuracy, precision, recall, G-mean, F-measure and lift in the first and in the second decile. The authors tried to find a connection between the number of clusters and models' quality.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1