rss_2.0Sustainable Multilingualism FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Sustainable Multilingualismhttps://sciendo.com/journal/SMhttps://www.sciendo.comSustainable Multilingualism 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005d725e797941b18f28eb6/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220519T190623Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20220519%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=04d5b590b7125e80192ca1ac98fc954407a55564c35d24ea6e5eb6655e9dd1cc200300Metacomprehension Awareness of Primary School Plurilingualshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This qualitative-quantitative study examines the level of metacomprehension awareness in international primary school students before, while, and after reading narrative texts. The first part of the study brings a short overview of theoretical background and previous research pertaining to metacognition and metacognitive strategies, reading comprehension, and plurilingualism in the context of formal education. The second part describes the participants, along with their diverse personal experiences regarding language and education. Two tests and a brief questionnaire were used for collecting the majority of information. A semi-structured interview was conducted to inquire about the participants’ attitudes towards reading narrative texts and the languages to which they give preference while reading such texts. The findings reveal that, at the age of ten, plurilingual students demonstrate a certain amount of metacomprehension awareness while reading narrative texts in English. No major differences were found between two language-specific groups defined by the students’ mother tongues, but certain differences occurred between boys and girls. Established reading language and language preferences for reading narrative texts seem to play an important role in effective reading comprehension, whereas age seems to be a more critical factor in the development of metacomprehension awareness of plurilingual 10-year-olds.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Translation of Proper Nouns During Periods of Interwar and Soviet Lithuania: The Case of “The Tartuffe” by Molièrehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Translation is not an isolated field of activity. It is closely related to the certain historical, political, ideological, socio-cultural, and sociolinguistic context of a country, i.e., translation depends on polysystems of a particular period of time. The article examines two different translations of Moliere’s play “The Tartuffe” into Lithuanian. “The Tartuffe” was first translated by Čiurlionienė-Kymantaitė in 1928 and later in 1967 by Churginas. This research is based on the polysystem theory of Even-Zohar and Toury’s theory of norms in translation. For the analysis of the translations of the theatre play, proper nouns were chosen as the object of the research. The analysis was done using comparative, linguistic descriptive and quantitative methods. These methods assisted in comparing decisions of translation used to translate proper nouns of “The Tartuffe”. Moreover, the analysis reveals the tradition of translation of proper nouns and the changes during the Interwar and Soviet Lithuania periods. In order to achieve the aim of the research, the objectives are as follows: to discuss the activity of translation as a part of the polysystems, to select and classify proper nouns of the research material according to translation decisions chosen by each translator, to review its validity and to discuss translation changes of Lithuanian translation tradition from the beginning to the end of XX century. After a comparative study of the translation of personal nouns in the research material, the author identifies and discusses five translation decisions: phonetic adaptation, omission, grammaticalization of the authentic form, replacement into another proper noun and actualization. Both translators mainly used phonetic adaptation, i.e., linguistic application of proper nouns. Looking towards both translations from the perspective of the social norms theory of Toury and the theoretical concept of polysystemical and binary oppositions of Even-Zohar, it can be assumed that translating Moliere’s play “The Tartuffe”, which belongs to the world literature canon, both translators (Čiurlionienė-Kymantaitė and Churginas) accepted the translation challenges of classical literature, understood the value of the work and the importance of maintaining the uniqueness of this theater play which belongs to Classicism. A comparative analysis of translation of the proper nouns allows identifying the dynamic formation of the tradition of proper nouns translation and its changes in Lithuania starting from quite diverse decisions of translation during the Interwar period, which was characterized by a free translation market, unrestricted selection of translations and their adaptation to the sociocultural and linguistic expectations of the readers, to the development of centralized and institutionalized norms in translation during the period of Soviet Lithuania, which was marked by unanimously applied rules of translation of the proper nouns and norms of the standard Lithuanian language. The results of the comparative research of the translation of the proper nouns allow us to confirm that the first translation, published in 1928, introduced Molière’s play to the Lithuanian culture of translation but became obsolete. Thus, almost forty years later, in 1967 there was a need for a new version of translation of “The Tartuffe” that would be adapted to a contemporary period in which cultural systematic knowledge and the usage of cultural elements and language differed from the first translation version.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Preparing Ell Writers for Becoming Multilingual Writers: Challenges and Strategieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The increasing number of international students enrolled in higher education in English-speaking countries has presented the growing need to support their academic writing development. It, however, has often led to the hasty assumption that English language learner (ELL) writers need to quickly adopt the dominant academic writing conventions in order to succeed in an English-speaking academic community. Even though the growing number of scholars have started to pay attention to ELL writers’ diverse writing styles and multiple identities, little research and discussion have taken place on how language practitioners could engage ELL writers in developing their voices as multilingual and multicultural writers. By analyzing a qualitative interview with ten experienced writing consultants and instructors, this paper explores major challenges that ELL writers experience and different strategies that could effectively help them develop their voices as writers in the academic context where English is dominantly used as the medium of instruction. Findings show that while many colleges and universities in English-speaking countries still adopt a monolithic view and label ELL writers as ‘a troubled non-native writer’, it is crucial for writing consultants and instructors to acknowledge ELL writers’ multilingual background and help them to develop their unique voices and achieve sustainable development and progress.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Peculiarities of Phonetic and Orthographic Adaptation of Latin Terms in English Clinical Terminology: On the Issue of Latin Terminological Competence Formation of Foreign Medical Studentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The article deals with the phonetic and orthographic adaptation of Latin terms in English clinical terminology in the context of Latin terminological competence formation of foreign medical students with English as the language of instruction. About 8,000 of the most common clinical terms selected from various lexicographic English sources have been studied on the basis of etymological and comparative approaches to demonstrate the grade of inconsistency in the reflection of Latin terms in modern English medical terminology. The quantitative analysis allowed us to determine and classify the main tendencies in the process of phonetic and orthographic development of Latin terms: (1) imitation of classical Latin spelling; (2) ‘simplification’ of classical Latin spelling; (3) syncretism of the first and second tendencies (parallel use of classical Latin and ‘simplified’ variants as synonyms). The analysis has also identified in some cases the phenomenon of ‘hypercorrectness’. The lack of a unified norm is reflected in all the analyzed reference sources, complicating the lexicographic description of medical terms as well as the process of teaching / learning the medical terminology. The proposed solution is to develop and implement some unified criteria for phonetic and orthographic adaptation of Latin terms in English. The possible ways to solve the problem are either to adhere to the etymological principle, returning <italic>ad fontes</italic> of medical terminology, and to use only non-monophthongized and non-simplified forms or to use monophthongized and phonetically and graphically simplified forms following the norms of modern English. Consistent adherence to one system of rules for the development of Latin terms is a needed requirement for the proper formation of terminological competence in medical students and correct use of terminology in their further professional activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The Influence of Family Language Policy and Social Networks on Language Attitudes and Language Use of Russian-Language Youthhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>An individual’s linguistic attitudes and language repertoire are influenced by a variety of environmental factors. Linguistic research has shown that language use is highly influenced by language policies and social networks. This article seeks to analyze how certain language policies and social relationships affect one’s linguistic behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the linguistic attitudes and language-use tendencies of Russian youth in Lithuanian cities. The participants of this study were Russians and Russian-speakers based in the three largest cities of Lithuania. Their ages ranged from 15 to 29 y.o. A total of 128 respondents participated in the survey. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to obtain the necessary data. The study revealed the main tendencies of language use of Russian youth, as well as the most distinct language attitudes in different cities. The results showed that the Russian community in Vilnius and Klaipeda is quite strong. The young generation tend to have stronger ties with other members of the group comparing to the Russian community in Kaunas. Russian remains the main language of communication in Russian families in Klaipėda and Vilnius. Meanwhile, in Kaunas, the Lithuanian language became the main language in both the public and private sectors. According to the collected data, school is one of the biggest influences in the formation of linguistic repertoire. A social network created in an educational institution might have even greater impact on a young person’s linguistic attitudes than family and its language policies. Other studies also showed that young individuals want to fit in, so they usually choose the language their peers use (Vilkienė, 2011; Geben, 2013 and others). Further linguistic research could examine larger groups, different ethnic minorities, observe the development of language use tendencies. Also, the information has to be updated periodically.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Deconstruction of the Discourse of Femininity: A Case of Thai Girls’ Schoolshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The study investigates the construction of femininity ideologies of girls-only school websites in Thailand and deconstructs them for analysis at the lexical level. Ideological beliefs underlying the custom of upbringing of young women in Thai cultural contexts are the focus of investigation. We pay a particular attention to how the schools communicate their key messages of <italic>vision</italic>, <italic>mission</italic>, <italic>core values</italic>, and <italic>about us</italic> on their websites and conduct a corpus-driven discourse analysis on the data. Findings from running tests of frequency and collocation reveal the traits of femininity constructed in the discourse, built the praising of obedience, submissiveness and lady-like features. We conclude that benevolent sexism is a common cultural practice evident in educational institutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Linguistic Identity: Between Multilingualism and Language Hegemonyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A priori accepting multilingualism as a value, we must understand that it is not permanent. It is empowered by our mother tongue, which creates an essential opportunity as well as a precondition for the acquisition of competences of other languages. However, the language itself, being a tradition, i.e., a living process, is affected by other languages, so the identity of a language cannot be understood without an understanding of its curriculum vitae. The historical path of the Lithuanian language comes from the world of multilingualism. Urban life in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania is unimaginable without the people speaking Polish, Belarusian, Ruthenian, Latin and Yiddish. Real multilingualism did not separate people into “us” and “other; this phenomenon emerged later, after some centuries, with the disappearance of urban multilingualism in the urban culture and manifesting as a certain opposition against the “others’, as efforts to create a natural for many people identity-divide which has impact and unities on the basis of a language. In the multilingual world the perception prevailed that we are all “us” but different. The real, conversational and every day multilingualism enabled the dissemination of contextual meaning, reception of different thinking and nuances of a global outlook rather than only communicating information. The emergence of one, the most important and rational, “global” language hegemony determines a new communication which does not require the competence of several languages (even the knowledge of the neighbors’ language), as communication proceeds through a certain mediator and in the long turn embraces various areas of life. However, bilingualism is not the final result; the hegemonic language trespasses the boundaries of the purpose of the lingua franca and aims at overtaking the functions of the native language. So, what is the role and destiny of the latter? This is what the study aimed at discovering.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00I Participate; Therefore, I Am (And I Learn): Researching Learners’ Multilingual Identity in the Multilingual School Contexthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This study examines the relationship between the participation of multilingual students in FAL (French as an additional language) classroom and language learners’ identities associated with the related community of practice. Classroom participation, a key concept of the study, is defined as a verbal form of learners’ investment in language learning, which can both enhance language learning and change the identity of language learners. The research was conducted in an international multilingual school in Croatia among eight 5<sup>th</sup> grade multilingual and multicultural students learning French as an additional language. For data collection purposes, French language lessons and twelve video recordings with a total length of approx. 480 minutes were observed and taped. A qualitative analysis of the participation of each student was conducted with the regard to the power relations among members of the classroom. The analysis revealed that, from the chosen theoretical perspective where an additional language is seen both as a tool of power and a tool for power, the identity of language learners can be described as a dynamic combination of some of the following identity positions: a language learner in a position of power, a language learner in a higher position of power than others, a language learner in a reduced position of power but eager for a position of power, a language learner in a reduced position of power but not eager for a position of power. The results of this study are consistent with the main assumptions about the identity of language learners made by other socially oriented authors in SLA (Norton-Peirce, 1995; Pavlenko &amp; Blackledge, 2004; Darvin &amp; Norton, 2015), according to which language learners’ identity is multiple, dynamic, discursively shaped and context-dependent.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Language Use Among Malaysian Tamil Youthhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Most studies on the language use of Malaysian Tamils focus on the upkeep of the Tamil language. There is, however, a dearth of investigations into language use in a multilingual context among the younger generation of speakers. The present study aims to fill this gap by using Fishman’s (1972) domain model to examine the language used by Tamil youth in intra-group communication in seven domains. Data were collected from 109 questionnaires, 42 audio-recordings of natural conversations and 40 interviews. The findings revealed that in four domains, which were the family, friendship, religion, and neighbourhood, Tamil is used more frequently. The highest usage of the language is predominantly among friends. However, there was a decreasing use of Tamil in the family domain among the younger generations with many married participants claiming to use English rather than Tamil as the home language. This does not bode well for the maintenance of Tamil as a first language in the future. The findings show how participants’ use of Tamil, English and Malay is linked to concepts of identity, solidarity, and their perceptions of these languages. The findings also point to the development of a localised variety of Tamil reflective of the Malaysian cultural landscape.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Plesionyms as a Vocabulary Teaching Tool: The Case of Estonian EFL Learnershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The present study investigated the effectiveness of using plesionyms, or near-synonyms, as a vocabulary teaching tool in the English as a foreign language classroom and attempted to determine at what level of proficiency this technique could be incorporated. 40 Estonian university students who were enrolled in three different ESP courses participated in the study. The students were divided into 4 groups according to their level of proficiency: one experimental and one control group consisted of B1 level students; and one experimental and one control group consisted of B2 level students. The experimental groups learned the vocabulary in plesionymic pairs by discussing the differences as well as the similarities between near-synonyms. Meanwhile, the control groups learned the same words non-adjacently, meaning that the words were taught independently and neither differences nor similarities between words were discussed. Based on the findings, it was concluded that teaching vocabulary through plesionymic pairs facilitates immediate recall and long term memory retention among B2 level students. This vocabulary teaching method could be considered more effective at more advanced levels of proficiency.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Translation Methods Applied to Approach the Incongruity of Terms in Polish and British Criminal Lawhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The research analyses incongruent Polish and British criminal law terms. British terms are the names of legal institutions characteristic of three independent legal systems: of England and Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland. The Polish terms that have been discussed come from the Polish Criminal Code Act of 6 June 1997 (Journal of Laws 1997 No. 88 item 553). Moreover, they are legal terms pursuant to their interpretation by Morawski (1980, p. 187). The English equivalents under analysis have appeared in four Polish Criminal Code translations into English. The research aims at a verification of whether or not the classification of translation methods applied in the Polish-English translation of incongruent succession and family law terms (called civil law terms) (Kizińska, 2015, p. 175–178) encompasses translation methods used in the process of translation of incongruent law terms characteristic of criminal law into English. In the paper the translation method is interpreted according to the definition by Hejwowski (2004, p. 76). In the theoretical part of the paper the following linguistic phenomena have been presented: a term (by Zmarzer &amp; Lukszyn, 2001, p. 9) and incongruity of terms (by Šarčević, 1989, p. 278). In the initial stage of the analysis the definitions of a given Polish term and its suggested equivalents have been compared. Next, the appearance of a given equivalent in the sources of British law texts as well as the English language has been checked to determine the translation methods used while forming a given equivalent. Finally, the list of translation methods applied has been drafted, to conclude, among other things, that the translation methods presented in the above-mentioned typology of translation methods applied in the translation of incongruent civil law terms from Polish into English are to be determined as exclusively primary or secondary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Culture-Specific Items’ Translation Into Lithuanian: “One Hundred Years of Solitude” By Gabriel García Márquezhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Growing interest in Spanish-speaking countries in Lithuania leads to the increased number of translations of Spanish and Latin American literature. Therefore, it is important to analyse translations from Spanish into Lithuanian and vice versa to improve the quality of translation work. One of the most difficult elements to translate are culture-specific items that reveal cultural uniqueness. The novel “One Hundred Years of Solitude” by Gabriel García Márquez contains many culture-specific items related to Colombia, that could be difficult to translate. This article aims to analyse and compare translation strategies of culture-specific items from Spanish into Lithuanian, which were used in 1972 by Elena Treinienė and in 2017 by Valdas V. Petrauskas, to translate the novel “One Hundred Years of Solitude”. Firstly, this article defines the concepts of cultural elements and culture-specific items. It also discusses the classification of culture-specific items based on the works of Eugene Nida, Peter Newmark, Sergej Vlahov, Sider Florin and Laura Santamaria Guinot. Furthermore, this article describes translation strategies of culture-specific items emphasized by Amparo Hurtado Albir, Eirlys Davies, Georges L. Bastin and Pekka Kujamäki. In this research, culture-specific items are counted and described using Santamaria Guinot’s classification, which allows to claim that there are 69 different culture-specific items in “One Hundred Years of Solitude” and they are reflected by 252 examples in the text. These culture-specific items are related with concepts of ecology, social structures, cultural institutions, social universe and material culture. The most common ones are culture-specific items from the category of ‘material culture’. The results of the research allow distinguishing six translation strategies, used in different frequency: transcription, equivalence of situations, actualisation, usage of exoticism, extension and explication, and omission. Both Lithuanian translators Treinienė and Petrauskas mainly used strategies of transcription and equivalence of situations. The analysis of the translation of culture-specific items was performed using the methods of quantitative, comparative, and descriptive translation analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Revivalistics is Not Documentary Linguisticshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This article introduces a new field of enquiry called revivalistics, and explores its trans-disciplinarity and various ethical, aesthetic and utilitarian benefits. Revivalistics is an emerging global, trans-disciplinary field of enquiry studying comparatively and systematically the universal constraints and global mechanisms on the one hand (Zuckermann, 2003; 2009; 2020), and particularistic peculiarities and cultural relativist idiosyncrasies on the other, apparent in linguistic reclamation, revitalization and reinvigoration across various sociological backgrounds, all over the globe (Zuckermann, 2020; Zuckermann &amp; Walsh, 2011; 2014). The article focuses on the crucial differences between revivalistics and documentary linguistics. It provides examples from the field that demonstrate the complexity of the revivalist’s work and how the revivalist’s work is distinct from that of the documentary linguist. Too many documentary linguists mislead themselves to believe that they can easily be revivalists too. But there are two crucial differences between revivalistics and documentary linguistics, which are at war between themselves: (1) Whereas documentary linguists put the language at the centre, revivalists put the language custodians at the centre. (2) Whereas in documentary linguistics the Indigenous/minority people have the knowledge of the language, in revivalistics the revivalist is the one with that knowledge. Given that the Aboriginal/minority people are the language custodians, and given that the language custodians are at the centre of the revivalistic enterprise, the revivalist must be extremely sensitive. A revivalist is not only a linguist but also a psychologist, social worker, teacher, driver, schlepper, financial manager, cook, waiter, babysitter, donor etc. A revivalist must have a heart of gold, “balls” of steel and the patience of a saint. Language revival is similar to co-parenting. But the revivalist is only a step-father. The important biological mother is the Indigenous/minority community. If you are the step-father and your spouse, who is the biological mother, makes what you perceive to be a mediocre decision with regard to your children, you cannot just disapprove of it. After all, the children are your spouse’s more than they are yours. You must work together for the best possible outcome. Similarly, if the community supports a decision that is not linguistically viable, the revivalist can try to inspire the community members, but must accept their own verdict. That would be difficult for a documentary linguist with poor social skills.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Linguistically Sensitive Teaching in a Multilingual Context: Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers of the Basque Autonomous Communityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Multilingual environments and migration have led to an increasing number of multilingual students, and consequently, to a need to take the varying linguistic repertoire of students into account in education. The aim of the present study is to explore Linguistically Sensitive Teaching (LST) as a possible linguistically inclusive approach and to examine how LST is perceived by pre-service primary teachers in the multilingual context of the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC), where the majority language, Spanish; the minority language, Basque; and the foreign language, English are included in the curriculum, all while some students might have other additional home languages that are not part of the curriculum. The methodological approach is a qualitative research study, in which data have been collected among a group of pre-service primary teachers from the BAC through written reflections, focus groups and observations. The results show the perceptions of the pre-service teachers on education policies in relation to linguistically sensitive teaching practices, good practices identified during their school placements, possibilities to promote Linguistically Sensitive Teaching in the classroom, the role of the minority language Basque in LST, and the threats, challenges and opportunities perceived in LST. It is concluded that despite some basic notions of LST, the lack of in-depth knowledge of pre-service teachers is visible, advocating for the need to include formation on LST in Initial Teacher Training.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Discourse Analysis of External Crisis Communication in : Lithuanian and Germany Casehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Quite many companies or organisations experience smaller or larger crises for an abundance of various reasons and yet a situation is not immediately named a crisis as such, even though the signs are rather clear. That was the case with the crisis communication of <italic>Vinted</italic>. The research aimed to analyse the external crisis communication in <italic>Vinted</italic> (as mother company in Lithuania) and <italic>Kleiderkreisel</italic> (as daughter company in Germany) for the topic is hardly analysed, especially linguistically. The material for crisis communication in <italic>Vinted</italic> was gathered from the articles in business news portal <italic>Verslo žinios</italic> (<ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="http://www.vz.lt">www.vz.lt</ext-link>) and the material for the analysis of crisis communication in <italic>Kleiderkreisel</italic> was gathered from the official <italic>Kleiderkreisel</italic> internet forum. It was noticed that the types of crises are different and because of that companies choose different ways for communication, meaning that <italic>where</italic> and <italic>how</italic> the company communicates with its community was influenced by the type of crisis itself. Communication of <italic>Vinted</italic> (statements in Lithuanian language) and <italic>Kleiderkreisel</italic> (statements in German language) was analysed and compared using the discourse analysis method which later led to recognition of different types of crises and the different crisis communication models that were applied. Due to the reason, that the data of Vinted covers 2016–2017 and the data of <italic>Kleiderkreisel</italic> covers 2014–2016, it allows to see the outcomes of both cases of crisis and further communication. In 2019 <italic>Vinted</italic> has received a new investment and became the first Unicorn in Baltic countries. Because the company grows further in the year 2020, it can be presumed that communication and managements strategies applied in the years of crisis were correct.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Acquisition of Object Pronouns in EFL in Germany by Heritage Speakers of Turkishhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>L3 acquisition has begun to attract the attention of many scholars in recent years. Heritage contexts are especially fruitful areas to understand how linguistic and nonlinguistic mechanisms interact with one another. The current study focuses on L3 English acquisition of object pronouns with L1 Turkish, L2 German speakers. We seek to find out whether the speakers could produce object pronouns accurately, whether L3 English proficiency has any effects on their acquisition, and finally, whether all object pronouns are acquired in the same way. Data for this study come from a corpus consisting of written and oral productions of 167 participants, who were students in four distinct grades, namely 5<sup>th</sup>, 7<sup>th</sup>, 10<sup>th</sup> and 12<sup>th</sup> graders at different schools in Berlin, Germany. The results reveal that participants were highly meticulous in their object pronoun use. Also, no clear L1 effect was observed, while L2 impact is implied. Lastly, proficiency and linguistic features are noted as significant factors that have an impact on L3 acquisition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Flipped Learning in Education: A Content Analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The continuously progressive education system of the 21<sup>st</sup> century requires the introduction of innovative teaching methodologies incorporating up-to-the-minute technology-oriented styles, which are capable of changing the traditional ways of conducting classes presenting teachers as the ultimate source of knowledge, with a new notion which considers teachers as facilitators and guiders in the world of information. A plethora of research has been conducted with respect to flipped learning, however, the number of research papers presenting content analysis is limited indicating the deficiency and lack of content analysis-based papers on Flipped Classroom in Education. Thus, to fill this gap in the literature, there is a demand for conducting a content analysis. In turn, the aim of this paper was to identify the importance and impact of the distributed documents on a Flipped Learning Model (FLM) in Education which was done by gathering data from the SCOPUS database with keywords ‘Flipped Classroom in Education’, within the range of ten years (2011-2020). All studies published in SCOPUS, were statistically analyzed and examined according to the year of publication, subject area, document type, country/territory, languages, source type, types of research and the research methods. It was found that the publications related to FLM in education had dramatically increased from the year 2011 to 2020. The findings of this study also highlighted the importance of FLM in education, especially in courses that require cognitive skills like social studies, medicine, and computer science.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00This is Not My World”. Essential Support Strategies for Newly Arrived Adult Immigrants Learning Swedishhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In Sweden, the state-sponsored language education, <italic>Swedish for immigrants</italic> (Sfi), provides language and cultural knowledge for the integration of newly arrived adult migrants in Swedish society. Sfi’s educational quality has sustained severe criticism. Through qualitative investigation of Sfi teacher work, this study aims to find out what pedagogical priorities guide the teachers’ classroom practices with linguistically and culturally diverse students. Furthermore, it aims to compare the contributions to Sfi learning environments of ethnically diverse teachers whose language experiences are different. Research into second language acquisition and native and non-native second language teachers contextualize the research aims. Bakhtin’s (1986) conception of human understanding as the meeting of two consciousnesses and García’s ideas about translanguaging in language education for adult migrants provide theoretical perspectives. Classroom observation alongside teacher focus groups generated data. Content analysis condensed the data into five <italic>essential support strategies</italic> that foreground students’ existential needs, their home languages as a learning resource, integration, learning challenge and instructional partnership between ethnically diverse teachers. Findings do not support the view that non-native language teachers are better equipped to teach second language students than their native counterparts but illuminate the unequivocal advantage of harnessing the pedagogical strengths of both teacher groups <italic>cooperatively</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00A Book Review: Language and Culture on the Margins: Global/Local Interactions S. Kroon, & J. Swanenberg (Eds.) (2019). Routledgehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The focus of this book, which is a collection of twelve studies, is sociolinguistic transformations in marginal contexts that are not usually covered by mainstream publications. The term ‘margin’ in these studies refers to smaller nations and communities located in the peripheries of global hubs. The book includes online margins as well, contemplating the impact of the internet and mobile devices on people’s lives, where standard programs and instruments employed in informal settings are often not applicable. The collection is published on time when the notion of margins and language needs rethinking and reinterpretation. The topics can be characterized as interdisciplinary, and as such the chapters are densely intertwined with both linguistic and social issues, including the impact of technology on the creation of language varieties, the effect of territorial administration on identity development, the role of media in spreading the languages of subcultures, the effect of mobile phones on the transformation of identities. The methods include linguistic landscaping, content analysis, interviews and conversations, and participant observation. Although some chapters employ a combination of several methods, most studies have used a dominant method to collect data. The editors have collected diverse topics of sociolinguistics in this book, which is a very helpful resource for educational institutions, where theories and methods of applied linguistics are a part of their curriculum. It is also a unique complementary literature useful for junior students of applied linguistics who are in the process of exploring research topics in less discussed contexts. The review combines both descriptive and critical approaches, and includes an overview of each case study and their research methods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Tense/Aspect Marking in Arabic-Based Pidginshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The earliest stages of pidgin formation show a preference for analytic and morphologically reduced grammatical constructions relative to their lexifier or substrate languages, where the apparent morphological marking, if found, seems to be fossilized. Structural relations, therefore, are mostly expressed externally. Tense/aspect categories are marked through temporal adverbials or inferred from the context. Creole languages, however, are said to develop such categories through grammaticalization. This study examines tense/aspect marking in five Arabic-based pidgins: Juba Arabic, Turku Pidgin, Pidgin Madame, Romanian Pidgin Arabic, and Gulf Pidgin Arabic. Using Siegel’s (2008) scale of morphological simplicity, from lexicality to grammaticality, this study concludes that tense/aspect marking is expressed lexically through temporal adverbials or inferred from the context in the earliest stages of Arabic-based pidgins, which only later—in stabilized pidgins—develops into grammaticalized markers when certain criteria are met.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1