rss_2.0Visegrad Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Visegrad Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development 's Cover Effect of Innovation on Small and Medium Enterprises: A Bibliometric Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Innovation plays great role in organizational competitiveness and sustainable business processes and it should be a key success policy for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) all over the world. To this effect, the purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive understanding of the scientific studies made on the field of innovation and its effect on small and medium enterprises performance. A bibliometric study was used to analyze articles published between 1976 and 2020 and create an illustrative map of innovation in small and medium enterprises; a sample of papers gathered through Web of Science Core Collection database. Accordingly, there were found 2219 documents which were published in 332 sources. VOS viewer was employed to portray network analysis of, authorship, keywords visualization, citations, and countries dealing with the subject. SCIMAT software was also used to do longitudinal thematic analysis. Even though many countries, universities, research institutes, funding agencies, and authors contributed for the growth of this field of study, almost all are from developed nations. This study is one amongst the very few studies made using bibliometric analysis in this field. Moreover, the thematic network diagram reveals two other new themes in the subject, which are taken as knowledge seed, and have high potential for a future study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Tax Policy on the Business Economy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Taxation and tax policy are relatively much-discussed topics within every society, and this has been so in the past, it is today, and it will be in the future. This is mainly due to the fact that no person or company is too fond of having to pay a certain part from their funds to the state in the form of taxes. Each state chooses its own tax policy and its own tax system so that the specified tax policy does not impede economy and economic development, but on the contrary, supports the business and economic growth. After the accession of the Slovak Republic to the European Union, Slovakia had to accept a certain state of tax regulations and rules that was valid in the European Union. This was mainly in order to use the common European market. The Slovak Republic has created its tax system in accordance with the rules of the European Union and has been trying to find a compromise between the amount of taxes necessary for the fulfilment of the state budget and the amount of taxes that would be most acceptable for the business sector and for people. Within the tax system, the Slovak Republic divides taxes into direct and indirect taxes, direct taxes imposed on labour, income and property, and taxes on consumption by indirect taxes. Recently, the prevailing opinion is that taxation should gradually shift from direct taxes to indirect taxes, to motivate people and businesses to achieve the best possible results, and subsequently raise the necessary funds based on the increased consumption. Recently, both in Slovakia and in the European Union, new excise taxes have been increasingly introduced. Traditional excise taxes such as taxes on mineral oils and fuels, tobacco and alcoholic beverages are complemented by energy, environmental, and electronic taxes. Slovakia and the European Union want to reduce the burden on the environment through these taxes on the one hand, and on the other hand, they must respond to the new challenges of globalization, information, and communication.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The Examination of Food Waste Behaviour in Hungarian Households<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Our current existence on the Earth raises a number of contradictions such as our relation to food. According to the FAO, a third of the food produced does not reach consumers; according to calculations by the World Resources Institute, even if we reduced losses by a quarter, 795 million people would have enough food to feed. This controversial situation gives topicality to the topic, which will only grow as the Earth’s population grows by about 80 million people a year and our resources for nourishment are finite. In our research we focused on households within the topic area of food waste generated in the supply chain. This focus of research is considered a difficult one because results could be found only with data logging and this method has several limitations which could distort the results. In our research, 20 households in Kaposvár were asked to log the amount of their food waste for 14 days. We set up five hypotheses before our research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Distribution of Adult Education Participants in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study presents adult education institutions and participants in adult education at the national level, highlighting the Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. It shows the decrease in the number of tasks and the change in the types of maintainers, the decreasing trend of the number of privately maintained institutions and the number of students. Thanks to public interventions, private-run institutions have completely shrunk in the last 7 years due to support for training. Private institutions receive little or no state support for the teaching of the professions listed in the National Training Register, which means that students can only study in private schools for a fee. This decision resulted in the dissolution of most privately maintained institutions, their merging into local Vocational Training Centres or church institutions. The main goal of the research was to get a realistic picture of the causes of institutional change.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Renewable Energy Investments from Public Financial Institutions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Renewable energy sources have become a compelling investment proposition, and investment into renewable power has grown in the recent years. Scale up renewable energy investment is critical to accelerate the global energy transformation and reap its many benefits, while achieving climate and development targets. Public finance institutions provide public money to support public and private sector projects as well as policies and programmes that serve the public good with economic, environmental, or social benefits. Several such institutions have been established and resourced with the aim of supporting renewable energy investments such as: international financial institutions, development finance institutions, local financial institutions, export credit agencies, and climate finance institutions. The main aim of this paper was to analyze the investments provided by this type of institutions in the renewable energy sector in the world with a specific focus on European Union member states in 2009–2016.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Directions for Ensuring the Equivalence of Exchange in Agri-Food Chains in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article examines the issues of intersectoral price relations in agri-food chains in Ukraine. It is proved that the imbalance of relations between different spheres of the agro-industrial complex due to price disparity causes the withdrawal of financial resources from one industry to another, without creating conditions for expanded reproduction. The factors influencing prices in agri-food chains are systematized: inflation, disparity, currency fluctuations, sales channels, etc. It is confirmed that the subjects of entrepreneurial activity of the agricultural sector of economy operated in conditions of price disparity during 2000–2019, which led to a relatively low value of their profitability. At the level of a participant in the chain of food industry entities, the price index for food industry products has been exceeded over the agricultural level, but there is a very low level of profitability – 1.4% in 2019. Analytically proved existence of a disparity between retail prices for food and agricultural products provides a profitability of wholesale and retail trade at 15.8–23.3%. Violation of the equivalence of exchange in supply chains at the level of wholesale and retail trade leads to the entry of agricultural enterprises into vertically integrated associations of the holding type. It is substantiated that ensuring the equivalence of exchange in agri-food chains requires the introduction of a set of value-added tools in the agricultural sector of antitrust regulation, market infrastructure development, rural cooperation and integration, and support for the development of small producers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Food Security in the Era of Sustainable Organic Farming: A Comparison Between the Visegrad Group and India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The agriculture industry has undergone many developments that embraced automation, agro-chemical fertilizers, genetically modified organisms etc that brought exponential growth in productivity post industrial revolution. This growth resolved the food availability issues on a global scale, but rapid climate change has brought about a shift in production practices to more sustainable organic farming techniques from the conventional methods. The climate change effects and increase in greenhouse gas emissions adversely affected the overall agricultural output. The widespread perception is that adoption of organic farming can reduce the harmful greenhouse emissions and be less damaging to the environment, although expecting the same level of productivity as conventional farming is challenging. This gradual shift can cause future food security problems such as availability and affordability of food in developing countries. This article compares and analyses such trend in the Visegrad group (V4) and India. The comparison between a group of developed nations and a developing nation is of exploratory interest because V4 countries are regarded as high-income countries and they are leaders in organic cultivation practices since the 1980s, whereas India as a developing country has seen substantial conversion of agriculture land area from conventional to organic farming in the past decade.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the Biogas Production Potential within the Slovak Spirits Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Slovak spirits industry has a stable position within the alcoholic beverages industry in the Slovak Republic. However, its production process causes significant environmental stress on nature. The industry can use roughly only 10% of the raw materials. This means a significant amount of waste is produced during the distillation process. We investigated the biogas production potential within the Slovak distilleries producing spirits for final consumption when we compared the production of spirits between the years 2010 and 2019. Biogas production potential is calculated as an ideal situation when all spent wash from spirits producing distilleries is used for biogas production. The potential energy gain is also calculated in kWh based on the already available research in the field of biogas production. We conducted that the total biogas potential of the Slovak spirits industry could reach 15,886,053 kWh in terms of electricity and 22,946,177 kWh in terms of heat energy if we calculate energy potential according to the spirits production in the year 2019. The total combined energy potential generated during the reuse of waste from distilleries could reach 38,832,230 kWh. The biogas production in these facilities has also a positive side effect. If distilleries use the heat energy for the distillation process, the amount of greenhouse emissions will also be declining.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Regional Disparities in the European Union from the Perspective of Environmental Context Indicators<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The agricultural sector is one of the most important sectors of the countries’ economies and agricultural production has a huge socio-economic importance. In the current conditions of globalization and diversification of production, agriculture tries to achieve continuous development, realization of the potential, growth of the quantity and quality of the agricultural production, ensuring food security of the country. The quantitative and qualitative development of the agricultural sector takes place within a certain system, which is created under the influence of economic, social, and environmental factors based on innovations associated with transformation. These components of the current development of the agricultural sector are undergoing constant transformations, leading to the imbalances and the emergence of destructive processes within the complex system of the agricultural sector. Exploring regional disparities in terms of environmental and economic context indicators of CAP is strategically important for the stable rural and regional development of countries, increasing the competitiveness of agriculture, and sustainable and integrated development of regions. Based on the results of the calculations, we confirmed the effect of catching up between poorer and richer EU countries and identified the future trends in the occurrence and reduction of regional disparities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Soil as an Irreplaceable Production Factor Under Conditions of Slovak Republic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The economic theory distinguishes mainly three production factors, namely labour, soil, and capital. Soil, as a product of nature, is not a free good – its amount is not unlimited. It can be used for agricultural purposes, as energy and non-energy source, and for minerals. Soil is one of the factors of production and at the same time the most important natural resource. We have used three indicators, namely the degree of plowing, the degree of agricultural use and area of agricultural and arable land per capita. The result of the work was the finding that in the observed period (10 years), the area of agricultural and arable land in Slovakia is decreasing. To improve the situation in agriculture, the following could be done: merging fragmented land into larger units, changes in the system of inheritance or a change in allocation of subsidies. Especially the inhabitants of the territory should support the state buy buying on the domestic market and supporting domestic production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The Case Study of Canvas Model of Rubber Tire Recycling in Turkey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays, problems related to waste tires are increasing. The worn-out vehicle tires are abundant, together with worthless waste. Besides, it causes environmental pollution and it harms human health. Nowadays, too many car tires are being produced and the old tires are beginning to become a problem. The old tires can be decomposed or burned to get energy or heat. One of the most effective ways to get rid of these problems is to recycle the waste tires and use them in a different area. In this paper, the study was based on basic information about the waste tires and its recycling technologies. Based on this study, the canvas model has been created to show how to run a business with recycling the worn-out tires.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Environmental Awareness in Different European Cultures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The 28 countries of the European Union represent a rather heterogeneous group regarding their geography, history, and national cultures. Their response to the current global challenges depends on their way of viewing the world, and that is largely influenced by their national values and beliefs. The research compares the environmental awareness in distinct country groups and identifies the components of national culture, which, by their different approaches to the environmental sustainability, influence the most. The time span of the analysis is seven years from 2012 to 2018. National culture is defined by Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, and the environmental awareness data were collected from the Eurobarometer surveys of the EU. The main findings show that the environmental awareness in the EU increases with time and is higher in indulgent, more individualistic, and more long-term oriented countries, while the level of masculinity and uncertainty avoidance or power distance did not matter. The Scandinavian countries are remarkably environmentally aware, while the other groups of countries do not differ in this respect.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Investment Support for Sustainable Development of Agricultural Enterprises in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article proves the need to intensify investment activities in agricultural enterprises, which is the main condition for the implementation of the principles of sustainable development. Factors that hinder investment processes and the reasons for their manifestation have been identified. The tendencies in realization of capital investments in the fixed capital of agriculture which have positive dynamics are defined, however, their insignificant reduction in 2019 was observed. The structure of sources of financing the activities of agricultural enterprises in 2019 is determined: own funds – 71.1%, loans – 14.1%, foreign investments – 14.4%, state budget funds – only 0.4% and highlights the obstacles to the formation of external and internal sources of investment. According to the results of the survey, the directions of investment activity of agricultural enterprises, restraining factors, and financial opportunities in the implementation of investment projects are determined. It is established that today, 52.7% of enterprises did not make investments that would be environmentally friendly, and only 28.2% invested in the development of social infrastructure and human capital. The main measures to intensify investment activities of agricultural enterprises are substantiated, which include: formation of elements of investment infrastructure in the region, improvement of depreciation policy at enterprises, development of public-private partnership, introduction of state programs for rural development, improvement of agricultural land lease and others.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Development Status in EU Biofuels Market<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper provides development status in the EU biofuel market by giving a comprehensive picture of production, consumption and production capacity of the first generation biofuels – biodiesel and bioethanol, while giving also insights into issues related to biofuel feedstocks such as crop production and harvested area. Development of crop production and harvested area for the crop products, used as a feedstock in the production of biofuels, have shown the changes in agriculture due to the growing trend of the biofuel sector. Additionally, the increasing production and consumption of biofuels may also affect the prices of agricultural commodities used as a feedstock for bioenergy production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Future of Oil and Gas Trade of Kazakhstan in the European Union Context – Application of Time Series Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Energy is a fundamental factor in cooperation between Kazakhstan and the European Union; both sides strive for energy security but understand it differently. For Kazakhstan, the European Union is the primary export market for energy resources, a source of investment and technology. For the European Union, Kazakhstani oil and gas are the most valuable energy resources of the Central Asian region. The relevance of the chosen topic is that oil and gas are of crucial importance for the economy of Kazakhstan. In the future, Kazakhstan is going to increase production with the European Union. Kazakhstan’s oil and gas industry can be attributed to one of the leading sectors of the country’s economy. The purpose of the scientific paper is to analyse the oil and gas trade between Kazakhstan and the European Union using a time series model to examine Kazakhstan’s oil and gas trade flow, in order to describe its top 5 trade partners in the European Union, also providing objective information on the results and prospects of development of cooperation between Kazakhstan and the European Union in the field of oil and gas trade.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The Potential Indemnification of Slovak Farmers with the Income Stabilisation Tool<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The risk management tools in agriculture enable farmers to anticipate, avoid and react to shocks and agricultural risks. The Common agricultural policy includes mechanisms to support risk management of the European farmers and respond to crises. An ambition of the recent CAP proposal is to increase the focus on risk management and stabilisation of farmers′ income. Under Pillar 2, the CAP offers the support for less favoured farms, which have experienced the production or income loss in the way of insurance premium, mutual funds, and Income stabilisation tool. However, only few European countries have been using these tools operationally. The risk management tools were subjected to criticism, mainly because of many obstacles in their implementation; therefore, since 2018, the risk management toolbox has been further extended. In the paper, we focus on one of the CAP tools from Pillar 2, the Income Stabilisation tool, and examine the potential effect on farmers′ indemnification in Slovak agriculture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Green Human Resource Management: An Empirical Study of India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Purpose: The broad over-arching goals of this work were to study the existing constituents of green human resource management (HRM), to understand the green HRM practices being followed by different companies in India (belonging to certain sectors) and to compare the different sectors in terms of adoption of green HRM. Methodology: A questionnaire was meticulously prepared by the authors to collect the data for this study and was sent to various Indian companies belonging to four sectors: IT/IT services, banking/finance, consultancy and engineering/technology. The questionnaire included a carefully selected collection of questions to gain rich insights into different aspects of green HRM implementation. Findings: most of the companies included in this study are following green HRM (though to varying extents). Green recruitment, green training and development &amp; green safety and health management are the most prominent green HRM functions while green performance appraisal is the least popular green HRM function among these organizations. The IT/IT services sector is most actively using green HRM practices while the banking/finance sector is the most reluctant to adopt green HRM. Practical Implications: a rigorous structure for companies to implement green HRM is provided.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The Utilization of Rapeseed for Biofuels Production in the EU<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Biofuels production has risen rapidly in the past decade. Growing tendency can be expected in the future if national governments will continue in achievement of higher share of ‘green energy’. Diversification and self-sufficiency in energy and environmental aspects should underpin national and international policy. Consumption of biofuels in the transport sector has been significantly increasing since 2000. Biofuels produced in the EU are mostly first-generation biofuels, mainly produced from agricultural raw materials. The aim of the article is utilization assessment of the main agriculture crop used in biofuels production in the EU, which is rapeseed. For achievement of the research objective have been used analysis methods, basic statistical indices, the share of rapeseed production used in industrial purposes estimation and self - sufficiency index. The results of the research confirm authors’ expectations concerning shifting of agricultural production primarily intended for food and feed production to industrial purposes due to continually growing demand for biofuels.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Difficulties in Sustainability and Land Utilisation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The aim of this paper is to show the economic importance of the land sustainability. This topic is very complex because it is relevant universally - the land utilisation has an industrial, agricultural production, energy and environmental security aspect. The focus of the analysis is the relationship between land usage, scarcity and sustainability.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Current State and Post-Crisis Develo Pments of EU-CIS Trade: Perspective Tools to Ensure Sustainability<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Global financial and economic recession had negatively influenced the dynamic of the international trade in 2008-2012. The post-crisis period of global market development can be described by the tendency of growing international trade flows. However, according to many experts, to ensure this tendency, the international trade policy within the frame of the WTO should be changed. The paper includes the analysis of current market of the EU-CIS trade, describes the main tendencies of its post-crisis development and major approaches and tools to ensure sustainability of such development. The analysis involved main exporting and importing countries for each analyzed product group. Sub-goals include an overview of the WTO threats and opportunities for Russian agriculture and trade with agricultural products globally, as well as comparison of main consequences of the WTO accession for the CIS countries, such as Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia and Moldova. This is also related to the state support of agricultural production in Russia and CIS and its influence on volumes, directions, structure and effectiveness of international trade with agricultural products.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1