rss_2.0Architecture and Design FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture and Design and Design Feed Understanding and Anticipating the User in Space Based on Neural and Behavioural Responses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main task of architecture has been and will be to create spaces for the user. Our experiment is based on an interdisciplinary study, combining knowledge from architecture, neuroscience, psychology and artificial intelligence. We think that these disciplines can better interpret the users’ perception to architects and designers, because how do we know what users want and how they react to the created matter? This fundamental question underlines the research, designates its direction and goals. The futuristic view and exploring the user is one aspect, complemented by the application of research results to today’s reality. Nowadays, in Slovakia (and in the world), urban development is funded by the private sector and is significantly limited by the financial aspect of architecture and development, it is necessary to look for a concept that reduces the importance of finance at the expense of quality for users.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial of Landscape and Settlement Structures in the Danube region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The importance of the identity and quality of urban spaces is currently one of the major professional problems - especially in relation to the rapidly developing urbanization of European settlements. The primary task of urban planners is to support and develop the potential of towns and cities and the quality of their urban structure. At the same time, the formation and transformation of urban structures requires an increasingly consistent approach in terms of sustainable development. A special area of research is the study of the cultural potential and uniqueness of the material and spatial structure of towns and cities and their surroundings. In this respect, it is important to monitor the optimization of the city’s macro and micro spaces through an extended analysis of the evaluation of urban and vegetation structures and their historical, cultural and environmental value. By monitoring these factors, we can optimize the processes taking place in the settlement structure, which affect the vitality and identity of urban spaces. A special area is also the monitoring of the projection and penetration of the landscape structure into the urban space. The harmonization of urban and landscape elements can also contribute to the sustainability of tourism. The evaluation of selected towns and cities in the Danube area and their surroundings in terms of the peculiarity of the image of the urban and landscape structure can help to better use the potential of individual settlements and their parts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Field of Sustainable Architecture: Current Knowledge<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Innovative technologies help automate the work of the designer. A 3D model of the building can be used to calculate the required values. This will also allow you to create associative sections that, when changing the geometry of the 3D model, automatically adjust the drawn elements on the resulting 2D drawing. Information technologies enable participants from all over the world to work on one project and, thanks to the BIM (building information modelling) method, to design buildings during their life cycle more efficiently. At present, critical studies are published on interoper-ability in BIM and its lack of coordination or amount of information that is misinterpreted, etc. However, working in BIM is the most effective way to use computer technology to design buildings. There is a lot of information about the building in the 3D model itself, which can also be used for purposes other than construction (building management, reconstruction). But how to process a large amount of information in a 3D model? Many buildings already have their 3D models shared on cloud platforms, these contain information that could help, for example, find solutions for green construction using artificial intelligence (AI). We meet with AI every day. It supports internet search engines, predicts auto-completion words as you type. AI can also be found in architecture – not only as visions at exhibitions, but also in research on process optimization in BIM.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00New Opportunities for Increasing the Renovation Rate of Buildings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper focuses on the long-standing problem of too low renovation rates of existing buildings and on practice-oriented solutions. The European Commission has set the goal of at least doubling the renovation quota with “The European Green Deal” and published the “Strategy for a Renovation Wave for Europe - greening our buildings, creating jobs, improving lives” on 14 October 2020. As in previous years, technical specifications have been defined even more strictly and limit values for energy consumption have been further reduced with the aim to reduce CO<sub>2</sub> emissions. The high quality of the renovation measures is ensured within the European Union and its member states. However, this has not yet been the case in relation to the quantity of implemented renovation projects. The thesis investigates which factors were neglected or were not taken into consideration sufficiently in the past, and, because of that, countries like Austria could not achieve their goals with regard to the renovation rates. This is done by identifying, selecting and verifying both specific and potential conflicting goals. On the basis of the description and analysis of the background to these potential conflicts, the actual obstacles are identified and approaches to their solutions are defined. The formulated approaches should form the basis for future in-depth discussion and further development of specific detailed solutions. The implementation of these results in a comprehensive package with technical regulations such as the “Renovation Wave for Europe” and “The European Green Deal”, opens up new opportunities for achieving the set goals. An increase in the renovation rate of existing buildings is the quantitatively measurable outcome.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Contemporary Food Markets within Budapest’s Large Housing Estates: Factors Influencing the Design Process<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Food markets provide a continuous urban function at the centre of urban quarters, and their structures are an important component of the local identity. Therefore, they could be crucial in the complex renewal process of a mass housing neighbourhood, indeed. The paper focuses on the contemporary markets within Budapest’s three large housing estates, in Újpest Centre, Békásmegyer, and Havanna, opened in 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. The research is based not only on the study of relevant literature, design documents, publications, fieldwork, but also on a survey conducted with three well-recognized Hungarian architects in order to understand and compare their views on the complex context beyond the urban and architectural solutions. The questions focused on the crucial or determining factors of the design process such as the budget, the main players, references, physical context (built and natural), social context, program, and technology. These public projects of varied scale were used for exemplary contemporary food market case studies from Budapest, in which the people involved took into consideration the existing social and material problems and the potential of the heritage of modern mass housing neighbourhoods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00From Construction to Deconstruction. The Heritage of Post-War Modern Mass Housing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study is to find out to what extent dominant ideologies of post-war decades shaped modern mass housing and to engage a discussion about potential heritage of the phenomenon. Analysis is based on the district of Lazdynai (Vilnius). The paper is committed to demonstrate that transition, considered by Tunbridge &amp; Ashworth as a factor of dissonance in heritage, made messages and meanings embedded in mass housing obsolete, and in some cases even undesirable.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Building Orientation as the Primary Design Consideration for Climate Responsive Architecture in Urban Areas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Orientation is a design parameter that plays a major role in climate responsive architecture and helps achieve comfort within the built environment. However, it is difficult to achieve an ideal orientation, especially in urban context. The main aim of this paper is to develop alternate strategies to overcome the challenges faced in designing as per preferred orientation and then derive a set of tools that can help decide the orientation of a building on site both under normal and congested site conditions. Thereafter, the inferences from the paper can act as references for choosing an optimum orientation for placement of buildings in warm humid climate. It can act as a significant pedagogical guideline for students of architecture in deciphering solutions for a climate responsive design in a simplified manner. The results can also be utilised for future research in formulating similar tools for other climatic regions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00“Build Back Better”: Between Public Policy and Local Implementation, the Challenges in Tohoku’s Reconstruction<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although Japan, because of its long history of natural disasters, has always been one of the most prepared country, the 2011 Great East Japanese Earthquake and tsunami caused unprecedented damages to the country. This paper introduces public policies for urban resilience from international level to national level, analysing Tohoku’s reconstruction. First, we will introduce the United Nations frameworks and guidelines for “Build Back Better” before confronting this theory with its practical application. Concluding remarks suggest that Japanese reconstruction policies provoked some challenges in the local implementation of urban resilience.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Identifying Key Criteria for Quality Assessment of Landscape Architecture Projects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>the question of quality of modified landscape is critical for the client and the users and depends on the quality of projects. After theoretical and empirical research, the paper proposes the framework for quality assessment criteria and corresponding indicators for assessing landscape architecture projects. By thorough analysis of the recent international research and design and implementation practices in Lithuania, the paper gives the flexible and universal set of environmental, socio-economic, and aesthetic quality criteria and relevant indicators in the context of sustainable performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Community Involvement in Participatory Process – Lessons Learned in the Baltic Sea Region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For exploring and discovering the main knowledge, experience and practices, four main issues were analyzed: what were the goals of the involved participants regarding the community involvement in the spatial and community planning; what methods were used to extend the involvement of community members; what problems and obstacles did the project participants face, and what were the main lessons learned. This study provides reflections (analysis, comparison and evaluation) on community involvement in participatory process in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea Region by investigating the methods, which were used in community involvement in project participating countries; and its influence in improving local governance of the local territory development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Human Behaviour Simulation Using Space Syntax Methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>City is a multi-layered structure of social, cultural, and economic aspects and their relationship through the physical space. Recognition of some patterns in those relationships is the essence for defining fragmentations in urban fabric and suggesting solutions on how those fragmentations could be solved.</p> <p>The article analyses how different <italic>space syntax</italic> methods can be used to find patterns in the chosen urban environment. <italic>Space syntax</italic> allows to find urban relationships between physical environment and human behavior. <italic>Space syntax</italic> suggests a few different approaches on how these relationships could be simulated: <italic>Segment Analysis</italic> perceives environment as a <italic>network</italic> of paths or streets, <italic>visibility graph analysis</italic> concentrates on inter-visual relationships, while <italic>agent-based analysis</italic> uses simple artificial intelligence for modeling movement in open space. Consequentially, the aim of this research is to find out what human behaviour aspects each of these <italic>space syntax methods</italic> are able to simulate.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Idea of in the Evaluation of Lithuanian Concrete Architecture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents a theoretical model for evaluating architectural works artistic novelty of which is associated with concrete – the medium of the 20th century architecture. The theoretical model reflects the idea of <italic>autopoiesis</italic> and works as a network parameter system, which promotes the constant renewal of knowledge in the field of concrete architecture. The theoretical scheme consists of two levels: at Level I the object’s aesthetic-technological type is identified; at Level II – specific features of interaction between artistic forms and reinforced concrete technologies in architecture are revealed through the net of aspects and indicators. Vilnius Palace of Culture and Sports as one of the iconic examples and the representative of <italic>solid</italic> aesthetic-technological type of the Lithuanian concrete architecture has been chosen to test the theoretical model.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The Importance of Brownfield Regeneration and Improvement<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>this research aims to explore the historical development, current situation, weaknesses and strengths of brownfield revitalization, as well as threats and possible solutions. Current situation in legislation and real life has been viewed, successful solutions globally and particularly in Latvia have been explored, innovation ideas, problems and recommendations for the improvement of the situations have been researched.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Heritage in a Globalised World: Pilot Study for Perception by Analysis of Buildings’ Potential<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Heritage connects the past and present, but at the same time it connects people with each other and with the place itself. The perception of heritage regarding the built heritage can be a problematic issue in the globalised world, since it might not be easy to relate to an artefact that is not necessarily one’s own, or an environment, which does not carry the characteristics that one is used to. This research aims to understand the constraints of the perception of built heritage by using the Modern Movement artefacts and tries to analyse the perception of different societies by a pilot survey. The pilot survey suggests that prior knowledge and public awareness has a colossal impact on the perception or evaluation of the built heritage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Participatory Planning in Post-socialist Cities: A Case Study of Riga<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>After three decades of socio-economic and political changes, participation in urban planning is still an emerging practice in post-socialist countries. Using Riga as a case study, the research aims to explore participatory planning practices in a post-socialist urban context since 1990. Employing meta-analysis as a methodological approach to combine information from various sources, the study identifies three phases of participatory planning in Riga characterized by changes in government-led participatory planning approaches, level of participation, outcomes as well as changes in the civic sector.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Experimental Harmonization of Shape Intuitive Interaction<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the increasing functionality and complexity of the material environment it is becoming important to universally improve the quality of its shape design for people with different knowledge. When the material environment shape does not match its value content or acquire unpredictable meaning, it creates disharmony between the function and user that requires intellectual and / or emotional effort for interaction. The intuitive design improves user’s interaction because the information is presented on the subconscious level, hence it is accepted as a natural part of our environment and demands less effort to grasp and evaluate it. In this study, the scientific context of intuition is examined to determine methods and values of shape intuitive expression modeling. The goal of the study is to assess the effectiveness of shape experimental intuitive harmonization methodology using qualitative and quantitative methods. Functional and interaction restrictions are integrated into the object’s shape by employing experimental modeling techniques. Surveys, controlled observations and MaxDiff analysis were used to monitor intuitive harmonization effects on car body split-line and box shape physical models. Experimental results show that the majority of participants consider conceptual shape models to be more intuitively attractive and informative. The study concludes that it is possible and viable to employ a proposed shape intuitive harmonization variable to achieve a universally positive effect.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital City as a Metaphor for New Experiences of Reality<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the era of already spent utopias and ideas about the city the experience of the city is transformed into a new perceptual grammar that is a consequence of the new virtual reality. With the revolutionary computerization of architecture a new architectural discourse was created that enabled virtual one – cyberspace, producing a new experience of transposed reality. The concept of a digital city does not exist without a virtual community, which on the other hand problematizes the issue of digital city ethics, bearing in mind that its use is conditioned by technical and technological possibilities, which are still not available to everyone. Digitalization of space communicates the newly created virtual dialogue between the user and space, outside of his physical and sensory experience and interaction with space, thus agreeing to the digitalization of the experience of space. By creating a new reality and a new era of the utopia of virtual architecture and virtual city, a new, cyberidentity of city was produced. Identity digitization policies in this regard will consciously use methods to promote virtual values, digitizing all aspects of identity, heritage, and even memory, and memory values of the city, producing a new, virtual identity, which largely leads to mutation of its original – existing – built identity. In this way, cities are positioned and valued in relation to the degree of their digitized representation, i.e., the extent to which their digitized identity is present and visible in cyberspace. The digital transition is one of the priorities of the “smart city” concept, which indicates that the future of cities is directed towards their digital transformation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Office-Nature Integration Trends and Forest-Office Concept FO-AM<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For sustainable development, it is important to ensure healthy life and well-being for all ages, promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, productive employment and decent work, take urgent action to combat climate change and its effects and protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems. Taking into account the negative effects of climate change, the degrading effects of contemporary conventional industrial scale agricultural practices, the declining everyday physical activity of the working age people in developed countries, and other problems related to indoor work, this research proposes the office concept entitled FO-AM (<italic>Forest-Office Administrative (function) Movement</italic>) that allows to gradually move from sitting to walking while working in purposefully created or adapted forest areas. Numerous studies have been conducted on the positive effects of the natural environment on human health and productivity. A study published by Australian researchers revealed that sitting time is directly linked to all-cause mortality. While research results call for effective innovations for reducing the amount of time spent sitting and encouraging people, especially urban residents, to connect with nature, no effective holistic solutions have been found yet. The article presents a literature review on the contemporary office-nature space integration trends and the existing technical and design solutions and contemporary re-naturalization practices of ex-urban areas and presents the conceptual idea of landscape technology FO-AM allowing to transfer the functions of administrative buildings to the semi-natural and natural environment, including partially anthropogenic environment, park, forest park and natural forest, and in this way to address public health and well-being, economic innovation and climate change issues, thus contributing to the long-term sustainability goals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Aesthetics of Sustainability and Architecture: An Overview<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sustainable development – development that meets the needs of the present-day societies without compromising the possibilities of the future societies to meet their needs – became the predominant paradigm of planning policies. This concept with its environmental, social, economic and cultural dimensions has been applied to the field of architecture since the end of the 20th century. However, numerous researchers still notice technological and ecological orientation of sustainable architecture and the lack of attention to its cultural, place-based and aesthetics aspects. The question may be asked if it is possible to distinguish the aesthetics of sustainable architecture. Thus, this research analyses the question of sustainability aesthetics and the ways that it is expressed in the field of architecture. In order to reach this aim: the quantitative and qualitative literature review on the questions of sustainability aesthetics and sustainability aesthetics in architecture was performed; the discussion of the notion of sustainability aesthetics and the aesthetic trends of sustainable architecture was developed based on the results of literature analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1