rss_2.0Architecture and Design FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture and Design and Design Feed rack and pinion drive<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A typical rack and pinion drive set is comprised of a rack and a pinion. There is an inter-tooth clearance between the mating teeth of the rack and the pinion, which has advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantage of this clearance is the errors that occur in the positioning of the machine tool during set-up. Elimination of clearance between teeth is possible by using a pinion drive with two pinions. This ensures continuous contact between the teeth, regardless of the direction of machine movement.</p> <p>These are found on new machines, while older machines do not have such a solution. This paper presents a solution with two pinions, which can be used in such older machines and which makes it possible to achieve qualitative parameters that were not possible before.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Rzeszów as an example of a ‘new town’ tailored for the modern era<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The city life cycle is an issue that can be considered from many perspectives. Klaassen’s period cycle is the basic model of city life: urbanisation– suburbanisation–deurbanisation–reurbanisation. In each of these periods, cities develop by, building and transforming their structures. This article presents various approaches to shaping new urban spaces using the city of Rzeszów as an example. In the city’s history, three periods are distinguished during which structures referred to as the ‘new town’ were created in the 16<sup>th</sup> and 20<sup>th</sup> centuries and continue to be created now. After analysing the site-forming processes, the most important features of new-town urban systems are compared.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The formation of zinc coatings in nanocrystallised zinc powders<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The kinetics of and mechanism for galvanising low-carbon steel (0.2% C) were examined in powder media which were pre-treated to obtain a fine nanostructured ZnO layer on the surface of zinc powder particles. The effective diffusion coefficient of Zn atoms through the ZnO shell was estimated to be in the order of 1·10<sup>−10</sup> m<sup>2</sup>·s<sup>−1</sup>. The contribution of the Zn-gas evaporation/condensation microprocesses, which could occur in relation to the above diffusion through a nanostructured surface layer, was evaluated with numerical calculations in the temperature range of 550–950 K and for an average particle size of ZnO up to 100 nm. Our results suggest that the outward diffusion of metallic zinc takes place from the core of powder microparticles across the nano-grain boundaries of their modified surface layer, and can be further intensified by the presence of other inter-phase defects, such as nano-porosity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The application of topological data analysis to human motion recognition<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Human motion analysis is a very important research topic in the field of computer vision, as evidenced by a wide range of applications such as video surveillance, medical assistance and virtual reality. Human motion analysis concerns the detection, tracking and recognition of human activities and behaviours. The development of low-cost range sensors enables the precise 3D tracking of body position. The aim of this paper is to present and evaluate a novel method based on topological data analysis (TDA) for motion capture (kinematic) processing and human action recognition. In contrast to existing methods of this type, we characterise human actions in terms of topological features. The recognition process is based on topological persistence which is stable to perturbations. The advantages of TDA are noise resistance and the ability to extract global structure from local information. The method we proposed in this paper deals very effectively with the task of human action recognition, even on the difficult classes of motion found in karate techniques. In order to evaluate our solution, we have performed three-fold cross-validation on a data set containing 360 recordings across twelve motion classes. The classification process does not require the use of machine learning and dynamical systems theory. The proposed classifier achieves a total recognition rate of 0.975 and outperforms the state-of-theart methods (Hachaj, 2019) that use support vector machines and principal component analysis-based feature generation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of water price and the number of residents on the economic efficiency of water recovery from grey water<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents the results of an analysis of the economic viability of using an installation for the treatment of grey water. Economic indicators in the form of simple payback time (SPBT) and net present value (NPV) were used in the analysis. The use of a dual water supply system should theoretically enable the reduction of the costs of both water supply and sewage disposal, ensuring investment profitability. The article presents the impact of the number of residents as well as the impact of water and sewage on the profitability of using example water-recovery systems. It was found that both factors have a huge impact on the result of the economic analysis. For a small number of residents and at a low price of water supply and sewage disposal, it is not profitable to invest in a water-recovery system. This is due to the high price of purification devices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the possibility of employing 3D printing technology in crisis situations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Events related to climate change and the increase in the occurrence of natural disasters, as well as the increasing incidence of new diseases, have all caused the prominence of regional security and crisis management around the world to rise. Three-dimensional printing, which has seen noteworthy developed in recent years, both in terms of print parameters, and the magnitude of the production potential, may prove helpful in this matter. Enormous opportunities have arisen which, if properly directed, can save human life and preserve health in crisis situations, when traditional supply chains could be disrupted or even prevented. The use of additive technologies, however, has its limitations and in order to be able to take full advantage of the opportunities they offer, a legitimate functional system should be created and embedded within proper structures to support crisis management. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of using 3D printers and the possibility of their implementation as part of the current crisis-response systems. The article proposes a model for incorporating additive technologies into the crisis-management system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00A suitability assessment using an instrumented impact test of the use of selected structural steel grades on the basis of their changes in response to exposure to fire<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, changes occurring in structural steel after exposure to fire are described and discussed. The steel structure before and after fire determines its susceptibility to brittle cracking. The individual phases of cracking are described and interpreted on the basis of a load-displacement graph, directly obtained from the Charpy impact test. The relationship between the intensity of individual fracture energies and the type and appearance of the sample fractures are demonstrated. The program of planned Charpy impact tests and expected hazards after the exposure to fire of selected steel grades are presented. Standard simplified load-displacement graphs are assigned to the steel transition curve. The course of various cracking mechanisms occurring in the case of brittle fractures and plastic fractures are discussed. The aim of this article is to evaluate the possibility of the assessment of structural steel after a fire based on results obtained during the Charpy impact test.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Humic substances and significance of their application – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is based on recent articles regarding applications of humic substances (HSs). HSs are natural organic materials, which have a number of potential applications. Furthermore, HSs are cheap, widespread and obtainable from bio-waste materials. HSs can be used as organic compound sorbents or in detoxification. They are applied as organic additives due to their positive effect on soil and plants, even under stress conditions. HSs reduce water consumption and minimise environmental problems. HSs are utilised for the remediation of multi-metal contaminated soils and as substitutes for synthetic washing agents. From an environmental engineering point of view, it is beneficial to remove HSs from municipal management, where they are undesirable (by-products of disinfection) and to utilise them where they are valuable. The aim of this article is to provide a greater insight into research about the applications of HSs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00A review of modern materials used in military camouflage within the radar frequency range<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents an overview of materials which can be employed used to camouflage objects on the modern battlefield in the radar frequency range.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Mixing effects in the river downstream from pollution discharge point<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper follows the propagation of pollution in a river with a rectangular cross-section of the river bed and a variable cross-sectional velocity. The calculations were made for steady flows and steady pollutant concentrations. To approximate the velocity distribution in the river bed a set of equations for current and vorticity functions was solved. The distribution of pollutant concentrations in the river was calculated from a bidirectional advection and turbulent diffusion equation. Analysis of the distribution of concentrations leads to the conclusion that the effects of transverse advection associated with a lateral inflow of pollutants disappear relatively quickly. Therefore, the distribution of concentrations in cross sections further downstream from the point of pollutant discharge can be determined quite accurately just from an advection-diffusion model, with no transverse advection effects included. Such a level of accuracy is usually sufficient to assess the impact of a pollution source on the aquatic environment. The transverse mixing of pollutants in the stream proceeds slowly and creates a large mixing zone in which the concentrations of pollutants (low but still significant for water quality) can be detected in cross-sections that are remote from the pollutant discharge point. Transverse advection may be ignored while calculating concentrations in remote cross sections at straight watercourse sections and in steady state conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Small Historical Centres: an opportunity for the “smart” revitalization of Inner Areas in the Post (post) COVID Era<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Pandemic is forcing everyone to become aware of the need for a change in the cultural and socio-economic paradigms of recent decades.</p> <p>During the twentieth century, on the one hand, entire populations concentrated in urban areas with ever higher population densities, at the same time giving rise to the phenomenon of “urban sprawl” or “suburbanization”.</p> <p>On the other hand, entire territories have been abandoned (the so-called “inner areas”).</p> <p>Now, we can define territorial rebalancing strategies based precisely on the reactivation of “inner areas”. Strategies that, in the Post (post) COVID era will have to be not only resilient, but anti-fragile. And the key is precisely in the future of the smaller historical centres.</p> <p>This article aims to review the strengths and weaknesses of small historic centres, outlining possible scenarios for their “smart” revitalization and for a true sustainable and inclusive development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The new function of architectural monuments – a comparative analysis of two different cases: Palazzo Querini Stampalia and the Fondaco dei Tedeschi building<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper discusses the long-term vision of the historic city development, where buildings assume a new function over time. The discussion is based on the example of Palazzo Querini Stampalia and Fondaco dei Tedeschi – two monuments restored to Venice in a new, different role. In the comparative analysis of the transformation of the buildings, particular attention was paid to the cultural, social and economic context of the city. This article aims to review the strengths and weaknesses of the new-use scenarios, outlining the renovation of the monuments and its added value for cities. The author concluded that no matter what the new function of the building is, it is worth renovating them, because this way the heritage can survive and this should be the central objective of a long-term vision.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-10T00:00:00.000+00:00A historical study of utility gardens within the Klemensów palace and park complex<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main purpose of the research was the historical study of utility gardens, which are separate functional and spatial sections of the palace and park complex in Klemensów. These include a walled-off garden constituting a unique man-made landscape acting as a fruit and vegetable garden, as well as a tree nursery. The utility gardens in Klemensów were a place of acclimation and reproduction of seeds and saplings imported to Poland. Thanks to the expanding possibilities of obtaining and exchanging them from foreign and domestic garden nurseries, over time, the garden in Klemensów became a unique collector’s garden.</p> <p>The research introduces rarely discussed problems in the field of conservation, including the adaptation of historic utility gardens. The results include the analyses of archival materials which have not been previously developed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00HMM-based phoneme speech recognition system for the control and command of industrial robots<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, the integration of human-robot interaction with speech recognition has gained a lot of pace in the manufacturing industries. Conventional methods to control the robots include semi-autonomous, fully-autonomous, and wired methods. Operating through a teaching pendant or a joystick is easy to implement but is not effective when the robot is deployed to perform complex repetitive tasks. Speech and touch are natural ways of communicating for humans and speech recognition, being the best option, is a heavily researched technology. In this study, we aim at developing a stable and robust speech recognition system to allow humans to communicate with machines (robotic-arm) in a seamless manner. This paper investigates the potential of the linear predictive coding technique to develop a stable and robust HMM-based phoneme speech recognition system for applications in robotics. Our system is divided into three segments: a microphone array, a voice module, and a robotic arm with three degrees of freedom (DOF). To validate our approach, we performed experiments with simple and complex sentences for various robotic activities such as manipulating a cube and pick and place tasks. Moreover, we also analyzed the test results to rectify problems including accuracy and recognition score.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Architectural design quality and social sustainability in building certification systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main objective of the study is to examine to what extent the architectural design quality and social sustainability are taken into account in building certification systems. The following most commonly used building assessments in Europe (focus on Germany, Slovakia and Czech Republic) have been investigated: BREEAM, LEED, CESBA, LEVEL(s), DGNB, BNB, BNK, NaWoh, SBToolCZ and WELL. After extensive research of chosen certification systems and various sources on topics such as conditions of well-being, sociocultural indicators, assessment of social performance of sustainable buildings and design quality assessment, the main social and architectural design quality aspects were determined and used for further analysis and final evaluation. Studied aspects are divided into the following categories: user satisfaction and quality of life (building-related), sustainable and healthy lifestyle (building-related), architecture – design quality (building-related), innovation and social responsibility (external). The article contains a summary of results with overall evaluation and comparison of certification systems including weighting of studied categories in selected building assessments. Furthermore, indicators used in building certifications associated with the quality of life and the quality of architectural expression and their weighting are described and presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Temporary use of abandoned buildings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Temporary architecture is a way to produce an instant experience. It concentrates on a specific location and develops unique tactics to activate it. It adapts to the site, which is often abandoned and backward. Temporary use focuses on a single purpose and its influence at a given moment. It reflects the current economic state and situation in adjacent neighbourhood and community. It aims at becoming a catalyst for a permanent change. Empty buildings represent a valuable resource for urban development of an area. They belong to the category of areas suitable for reconstruction. Their activation contributes to the recycling of areas within the urban structure increasing the efficiency of land use and contributing to the sustainable development of the territory. A removal of abandoned buildings from a functioning urban organism has a negative impact on the integrity of the urban structure.</p> <p>Archipop is the author’s newly established database focusing on the topic of temporariness in architecture. Its aim is to map successful activations of abandoned buildings by the means of temporary interventions in Europe. Archipop deals with the subject of ‘pop–up’ in architecture. Its prime objective is to attract a target group of users over the shortest period of time possible by exclusivity of a presented activity, concentrating on temporary uses located in abandoned buildings in Europe. It examines successful projects of activation of unused objects by using temporary activity profile. Targeting at interested public, potential investors, and last but not least government and municipalities, Archipop was created to provide inspiration and opportunities of temporary use. Its ambition is to promote revitalisation of unused areas with the use of temporary architecture and to save historic heritage from its terminal destruction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Role of colour in ecological approach to product and material design<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this research paper is to map, document and classify new, progressive and perspective approaches to colour in product and material design. The purpose is to identify the impact and importance of colour in the creation of new materials and products from an ecological point of view. The majority of current progressive approaches to design creation and research is set in an ecological framework, taking into account their impact on the environment. The question is not whether colour is present in this process, but rather where it stands in this process, whether it can help it and how much it affects it. One of the objectives of this article is to raise awareness in this area and to arouse interest in and discussion on this topic. The theme of colours in design is often overlooked and relegated to the background. The results of several scientific studies on the impact of colour on product evaluation and consumer shopping behaviour suggest the potential of this topic and open up space for further research. In this research paper, we consider the approach of product and material designers and researchers to colour in an ecological context, as a stand-alone design and material creation group. Within this main group, individual approaches can be classified into four basic principles, which the paper defines and describes. They are analysed and researched in more depth through specific examples of the work of various designers. The principles have no fixed boundaries, they are not isolated. They influence or follow each other. This classification of the approach to colour in an ecological context allows us primarily to talk about it more professionally and attempt to define its importance and role in individual approach. Ultimately, it helps us answer the question of whether and how colour can affect the process of changing human interaction with the environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Pandemic as an impulse for the development of sustainable tourism along the Danube river<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a challenge to the world – primarily from the medical and economic point of view – but also to the search for new forms of tourism and the urban environment. Prior to mass vaccination, the main strategy to manage a pandemic were non-pharmaceutical interventions. Global travel restrictions and "home" regulations have caused the most serious disruption to the global economy since World War II. International travel bans affecting more than 90% of the world's population, widespread restrictions on public gatherings and community mobility have severely curtailed tourism since March 2020. Evidence of impacts on air transport, shipping and accommodation has been devastating. World tourism fell by 35-90% in 2020 compared to 2019. Yet, there are differences between countries. Tourism is particularly sensitive to measures against pandemics due to limited mobility and social distances. The paper compares the effects of COVID-19 with previous epidemics, pandemics or other types of global crises. It examines how a pandemic can change the society, economy, tourism and its projection into the territory. It discusses why COVID-19 is analogous to the ongoing climate crisis and why the mass growth tourism model needs to be questioned. The method to improve responsible access to our planet and ensure safe recreation for its population is sustainable tourism. The Danube Region has a great potential for the development of sustainable tourism in Slovakia with its transport accessibility, connection to the Danube River and through it to the surrounding areas. However, the potential of the region lies mainly in its hitherto underused cultural and natural conditions, as well as in the exploitation of the abilities of its inhabitants. The presented study analyzes the mentioned conditions and points out the possibilities of their development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial of community centre: Clarification of the relation between scale and multifunctionality of community buildings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Community architecture is becoming a contributing tool for community development. In recent years it has gained popularity for its potential to encourage interaction and strengthen community ties. Community architecture represents not only the final product of architectural design but also the design process. It covers many kinds of community interventions and efforts of different extent; from tiny public space interventions to a complex design of community centres or comprehensive urbanistic structures focused on community well-being. Irrespective of the scale, their goal is the same; to provide space for leisure activities, networking, and reinforcing a sense of community. The most apparent design concept representing community architecture is the community centre, which provides space for meetings and interaction, and its program derives from the needs of a specific community. Furthermore, the design considers urbanistic relationships, architectural appearance, materials, spatial and functional requirements, interior design, equipment, and furniture solutions.</p> <p>The community architecture theory is an under-explored phenomenon in Slovakia. Thus, there is a lack of methodical design recommendations or guidelines for designing community centres as individual typological forms. The article focuses on the examination of 100 selected community facilities, identifying their prevalent features and their interrelationships. Presented research aims to examine fundamental characteristics of community centres, particularly their multifunctionality related to the character of the space, and the scale related to size in square meters. In conclusion, research suggests new size categories considering the relationship between the two factors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1