rss_2.0Architecture and Design FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture and Design and Design Feed and Valorization of Sludge Generated in Water Treatment Processes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is a study on the problem of sludge formation in water treatment processes. Various physical and chemical processes used in technological systems of water treatment were described and those which are the source of sludge were indicated. The chemical composition of the sludge was presented, with particular emphasis on hazardous organic and inorganic pollutants. An essential part of the work was to consider the possibilities and ways of valorizing sludge. It was determined that the type of generated sludge depends on the applied process and its pollution degree depends on the type and quality of the water taken. Most of the sludge is formed during the coagulation process of surface waters, which may be contaminated with various heavy metals. Among the possibilities and methods of sludge valorization, an interesting way to use it is in construction, as an admixture to various building materials. It is also possible to use sludge as an unconventional adsorbent or reaction catalyst in the oxidation of organic pollutants present in wastewater.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Revitalization of Degraded Areas and Facilities in the Cities of Core of the Metropolis GZM<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of the paper is the revitalization of urbanized areas, considered in terms of the importance of degraded areas and objects that require adaptation, protection, and creation measures in this process. The research focuses on cities belonging to the core of the Metropolis GZM – Poland’s first metropolis whose industrial origin, history and dynamics of development make it necessary to carry out revitalization activities. To conduct the research, the available source materials were collected and analyzed, including planning documents, information portals, scientific articles and items, cartographic and photographic materials. The collected information was compiled according to the adopted functional criteria. The research aims are to identify the implemented and planned revitalization activities, analyze their distribution in the context of individual cities and the entire core of the Metropolis GZM, and as a result assess their impact on the direction of city development and the quality of life of the inhabitants of the post-industrial metropolis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the Effects of Using Classical and Modified Pool Water Treatment Technologies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Contemporary requirements on the quality of swimming pool water necessitate the improvement of the classical technology of its treatment. It is associated with the need to modernize installations or implement a new technology. The purpose of the analysis is to compare the effects of using classical and modified technologies for the treatment of swimming pool water in sports and recreational pools with similar characteristics. The research was carried out for ten pools, which were divided into two groups – pools with a classical water treatment system and a modified one. The conducted tests showed significant differences in water quality in terms of: pH, redox, permanganate index (COD<sub>Mn</sub>), total organic carbon (TOC), free chlorine, combined chlorine, chloroform and trihalomethanes (THMs), and no differences in terms of: temperature, turbidity, nitrates and ammonium ion. It was found that the modified swimming pool water treatment technologies made it possible to obtain water of better quality with regard to physical, chemical and bacteriological properties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00CHLORIDE CONTENT OF STREET CLEANING WASTE AND ITS POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>According to the data of the Central Statistical Office for 2017, the average amount of municipal waste generated per capita is 486 kg. Poland ranks last but one in terms of the amount of municipal waste generated. About 56% of municipal waste is processed, but still about 40% is landfilled. They may contain chlorides, especially those from the winter period, resulting from the use of deicing agents. Chlorides cause salinity of surface and ground waters and soil salinity, which in turn leads to deterioration of water purity and a decrease in biodiversity of aquatic organisms, changes in the microbiological structure and increased toxicity of metals. Chlorides also damage road surfaces and bridges, corrosion of plumbing pipes. Once the chlorine-containing sweepers are deposited in a landfill, this waste may contribute to an increase in chemical aggressiveness, which is important in the design of anti-filtration barriers, and in the rehabilitation of contaminated land and soil. The level of water and soil salinity has a significant impact on the critical infrastructure, especially in terms of water supply – the risk of corrosion of pipes and their decline in species biodiversity. An important role in the critical infrastructure is played by the storage of dustmuds – the risk of failure of security measures in storage yards. Therefore, it is very important to determine the salinity level in this stored waste. The salinity level of street sweeping waste from different street locations is not commonly studied. Therefore, such a study was conducted for a midsized city. The study shows that the highest chloride concentrations in street and sidewalk sweeping waste are found around manholes and the lowest concentrations are found on sidewalks.</p> <p>The aim of the research is to determine the amount of chlorides in sweepings in the annual cycle to determine the potential risk associated with their impact on selected aspects of the environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Ways to Overcome the Implementation Problems of BIM- Technology Related to the National Standards in the Architectural and Building Industry of Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper describes the problems of intentions of the rapid introduction of BIM technologies in the construction industry of Ukraine. The research methodology involves analysis of national building standards, BIM technologies that have already been partially tested and a new logical structure of design processes in the logic of BIM technology in Ukraine. It is proposed to introduce into the design practice a number of actions aimed at harmonizing the key stages of BIM-technologies development with the regulatory framework. The European LOD stages and Ukrainian stages of designing are compared; it is proposed to introduce and gradation enshrine it in state building standards. The correctness problem of competitive tender documentation form for the development of project documentation in Ukraine is highlighted. The issue of the need for a detailed review of European Union standards in terms of national specifics and their gradual implementation in the Ukrainian legal framework was raised. It is proved that the proposed measures will improve the quality of design solutions in terms of economic feasibility and environmental friendliness, and government agencies will be able to qualitatively control all design and construction processes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Urban Planning Features of Naukogrady (Science Cities) – Centers of Innovative Activity: The Case of Pyatihatky<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The authors of the paper examine the specifics of the design and construction of Soviet centers of innovation in the former Soviet Union “naukogrady” (science cities). Science cities are considered as an industrial and urban phenomenon, characterized by significant internal diversity in the nature and profile of scientific complexes. The geographical, town-planning, and planning features, the specifics of the functional structure of the Ukrainian science cities, which developed in the Soviet times, are studied on the example of the science city of Kharkiv – Pyatihatky. The history of the origin of the Ukrainian Institute of Physics and Technology and the main stages of the creation of the science city at it is covered. It is concluded that science cities are special urban formations, the population of which consisted mainly of people with higher education. They were distinguished by the high quality of infrastructure, social facilities, culture and services, housing, urban planning, and urban development, as well as advanced environmental thinking. The science cities which had two waves of development in the 20<sup>th</sup> century intended to rise to the crest of the third wave now.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Numerical Study of Conditions on the Staircase During a Fire in a Public Building<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fire is one of the most common risks to the environment and human health. Fire, depending on the conditions of combustion and the type of fuel, can emit many toxic products. The paper presents numerical analyzes of the conditions that can occur in a building during a fire. The conditions were analyzed in terms of the safety of the occupants and possible emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere. The temperature, propagation of smoke, and emission of pollutants were analyzed. A numerical model was created using Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software. The model represents a staircase and a corridor in a real building located at the Silesian University of Technology in Poland. The results show that safe conditions are only ensured for a limited time, and emissions can also be harmful to occupants and the environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of Sustainable Concrete Using Carbon Black Dust as an Additive Admixture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Concrete is the most essential and demanding construction material that is mainly used to develop structural and nonstructural elements. Along with the better engineering properties, concrete has its drawbacks like the presence of pores and micro cracks, and this affects its properties like permeability and water absorption which tend to reduce its durability and strength. Carbon black dust (CBD) is one of the industrial byproducts that can be effectively used as an additive in concrete. It is a necessity for us to reduce environmental pollution arising due to CBD. This research paper attempted an investigation to assess the effect of CBD as an additive material into the concrete. The chemical properties of raw materials were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy analysis and the mechanical properties of hardened concrete were carried out followed by destructive and non-destructive testing. Compressive strength of 150 mm concrete cubes was determined at 7<sup>th</sup>, 14<sup>th</sup> and 28<sup>th</sup> day of curing that contains various percentages (2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) of CBD. Concrete with 0% CBD served as the control specimen. On the basis of experimental investigations, the maximum compressive strength reported for concrete specimens containing 7.5% CBD as 17.23% was more than that of control specimen. At 10% CBD, strength got decreased but significant improvement with respect to control specimen was also noted. As per the chemical analysis, CBD contains substantial amount of fluxing and strengthening agents that improve the performance of concrete and it can be used as an additive admixture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Interactive Multimedia Objects in Public Interiors: Compositional Location Techniques<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The popularization of multimedia technologies and their active implementation into the process of the object-spatial environment organization is a pressing issue in scientific researches in the field of interior design. It was defined that the application of multimedia technologies, such as sensory touch objects, are fundamental in the process of the creation of an interactive interior for public use. The paper is devoted to revelation of the compositional location techniques of the interactive sensory objects in the interiors of public buildings. The complex of theoretical methods of scientific research has contributed to the analysis of the design of interactive public interiors through the prism of formal composition. The results of the study revealed the compositional techniques for interactive multimedia objects placed in the interior. We conclude that the location of sensory objects in the interior more often carried out by the use of composite grids: a rectangular mesh scheme and a radial scheme. Interactive multimedia objects add an adaptability and attractiveness to the interior, which is an important factor in the formation of public space.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Are Eco-Neighborhoods Health-Promoting Places? Case Study of ZAC Boucicat and ZAC Frequel-Fontarabe in Paris<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Eco-neighborhoods are constructed to answer the call to protect our planet, our common home. They were first initiated as a grassroots initiative by eco-enthusiast, and gradually adopted as national or regional strategies. Various methods for certification and labeling were created by international institutions and national governments which evaluate ecological, economical, and societal aspects of their design and functioning. The recognized gap in knowledge concerns the development of health-promoting places within eco-neighborhoods. In this paper, a comparative study of two small certified eco-neighborhoods in Paris – ZAC Boucicaut and ZAC Frequel-Fontarabe is presented. These neighborhoods were assessed with the universal standard for health-promoting places. The results suggest that within eco-neighborhoods it is possible to care for ecological aspects without compromising on health-promoting places.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Vibrations of a Low-Frequency Floor Under Various Pedestrian Loading Scenarios<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Contemporary floor vibration guidelines limit the discussion of walking-induced vibrations to single-pedestrian loading scenario. Nevertheless, the inclusion of more than one pedestrian in the vibration evaluation would result in a more realistic range of floor responses. In this paper, an attempt was made to experimentally and numerically investigate the combined effect of two persons walking simultaneously on an actual building floor. The floor fundamental frequency and damping ratio were obtained from physical heel drop tests and the footfall response was measured in a series of walking tests. A finite element model was created for prediction of floor responses under different walking scenarios. A probabilistic prediction was also performed where random variations in pacing rates, body weights and arrival times of the pedestrians were considered in a large number of Monte Carlo simulations. It was showed that the response due to a single person with resonant step frequency can be greater than that due to two persons walking at off-resonant pacing rates. However, the resonant response induced by two pedestrians can be 1.29–1.38 times greater than that caused by a pedestrian.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Reviewing Place Meaning via Users’ Emotional-Perceptual Experience<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>By recognizing different meanings of place as well as influential parameters on the perception of place, it is possible to create a pleasant environment. This study aims to measure the factors contributing to the conception of place meaning and emotional experience of place. Also, it seeks to understand the mechanism of perceiving the different meanings and qualities of place from users’ point of view. The qualitative and quantitative methods were applied. In this regard, the emotional evaluation model of Pleasure-Arousal, interview, and questionnaire have been used. The study has been conducted on 3 buildings of Selcuk University in Turkey. The statistical population in the different groups consisted of architecture students. Results show that along with the emotional assessment of place, the factors such as morphological, sensory, and individualones affect the user’s assessment, and there is a meaningful relationship between the emotional evaluation of place and factors forming the meaning of place. Furthermore, place quality and its aesthetic components play important role in individuals’ preferences and judgments and led to psychological pleasure and positive emotional assessment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Microplastics in Composts as a Barrier to the Development of Circular Economy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The philosophy of sustainable development imposes on waste management systems solutions that are technically correct, economically effective and socially acceptable. One of the elements of these systems is the management of organic waste in two streams: municipal organic waste and the so-called green waste. Their composition is different, but some properties and technological processing possibilities are identical. The possibilities of using organic recycling products are also completely different. However, in both cases, such treatment is necessary, regardless of the type of waste, to either use it as much as possible or to store only bio-stable waste.</p> <p>A big problem all over the world, not only for cities, is nano- and microplastics. It is estimated that 2–5% of all plastics produced are discharged into the oceans. High-density polymers settle to the bottom of water bodies, imitating food for bottom invertebrates. Conversely, low-density microplastics floating on the surface of the water pose a threat to zooplankton and smaller fish. However, the conducted research indicates that the pollution of terrestrial environments may be even 4 to 23 times greater than that of the ocean. While flowing through the sewage treatment plant, microplastics are accumulated in sewage sludge, and in the case of natural use of the sludge, they can end up in the soil and in the food chain of animals and humans. Composts are another source of soil contamination, especially from municipal organic waste and green waste. On January 16, 2018, the European Commission published the European Strategy for Plastics in a Circular Economy, which outlines how plastic products are designed, manufactured, used and recycled.</p> <p>The aim of the paper is to present the initial results of preliminary tests on organic waste in terms of the possibility of identifying microplastics in them [<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_acee-2021-037_ref_001">1</xref>–<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_acee-2021-037_ref_003">3</xref>].</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Historical Solutions in Buildings in the Context of Current Problems of Green Architecture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper discusses the current problems of green architecture in Poland, yet, its main purpose is to search for historical architectural solutions in the area of broadly defined users’ comfort, thermal comfort and ventilation. The aim of the work is to show an alternative development direction for energy-efficient architecture in relation to more and more strict thermal standards. The paper presents a number of interesting solutions, which, from the point of view of the current technological development, are examples of green architecture, where both energy-efficiency issues as well as thermal comfort and users’ health issues are crucial. The presentation of historic architecture examples is a pretext for a broader look at architecture and for showing contemporary rules, which do not always lead to the most important goal, that is, the creation of sustainable architecture focused on users’ health. The results of the studies cover the formulation of the most important, according to the author, solutions for the future of sustainable architecture. They can be used in the creation of new principles of truly green architecture, where energy efficiency will not conflict with users’ comfort and health.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Planning and Strategic Tools for Adapting Urban Areas to Climate Change in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Shaping the development policy of states, regions and cities, referring to broadly understood issues related to the climate change adaptation process, is connected with the necessity of creating new and constantly updated planning and strategic documents and adjusting their provisions to the current needs, global civilisation processes and challenges as well as regional and local specifics. One of the important elements of the adaptation policy is to take into account the problem of urbanised areas adaptation to climate change and management of the built and natural environment resources. The subject of this paper are the planning and strategic tools used in development policy to adapt urbanised areas to climate change. The aim is to indicate the possibilities and limitations of planning instruments in the context of adaptation to climate change and to indicate their coherence in the context of implementation activities. The research includes the planning and strategic instruments developed in the area of sustainable management of the built and natural environment in recent years in Poland, with particular reference to the example of the Metropolis GZM.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-04T00:00:00.000+00:00A Giant Avant-Garde Stadium Project in Ukraine: The Enigma of the 1930s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper is dedicated to the study of rare undeciphered documents: colorful architectural perspectives of a giant stadium of the 1930s with a caption in French, found by the author of this text in one of the Ukrainian archives. The authorship of the graphic images and the project itself, the name of the stadium, its localization on the master plan of the city of those years were established in the process of this research. The results of the study allow us to trace the fate of the project of a giant sports complex from its concept and design stages to the beginning of its erection; to reveal the reasons for the interruption of its construction and oblivion for many decades, as well as to restore the biographies of the architects involved in the found images. Features of the difficult historical period in the architecture of Ukraine: the violent transition from modernism to “socialist realism” in the 1930s are seen through the “lens” of the fate of this unique avant-garde unrealized project.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Climate Agreement. Race to Carbon Neutrality From Rio Via Kyoto and Paris to Glasgow<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper demonstrates an influence of the anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emission trend on climate talks aimed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The influence of commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, undertaken by the largest emitter countries within the framework of international treaties (the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement), on the fossil energy consumption and CO<sub>2</sub> emissions from the combustion of various types of fuel by these countries has been analyzed. Emissions from the European Union (EU), as well as consumption of renewable and alternative energy sources by countries are beyond the subject of this paper.</p> <p>The paper focuses on the obligations that the largest emitters of greenhouse gas emissions are ready to undertake in order to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. The impact of the country’s choice of the base year on its ambitious climate action to reduce emissions has been evaluated. Challenges that the countries may face in the implementation of the Net Zero by 2050: A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector, developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA), have been identified.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Design and Performance Parameters of Shear Walls: A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Reinforced concrete (RC) walls are used in buildings to provide lateral stiffness and strength against lateral forces like earthquake, wind etc. Shear walls are one of the most important lateral load-resisting systems in high-rise buildings. This paper provides an overview of not only reinforced concrete (RC), but also composite shear walls. The paper focuses on four inter-related review areas, namely i) conventional shear walls with rectangular cross section, ii) coupled shear walls, iii) composite shear walls, and iv) shear walls with opening(s). Behavior of shear walls which are the most damaged structural elements during earthquake and the parameters affecting this behavior are evaluated in this paper. However, this paper presents the available information about the design and performance parameters of shear walls.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-04T00:00:00.000+00:00New Approach for Calculation of Recycling Rates of Municipal Waste in the Circular Economy (CE)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In December 2020, new waste recycling targets were adopted for the functioning of municipal waste management systems, which are the result of the transformation of the Polish waste management system from a linear model into circular economy. Municipal waste management systems are very diverse, undergoing a constant evolution since 2013, i.e. since municipalities took over the management of the system, related to the collection, processing and disposal of waste, they must be effective, i.e. achieve the objectives of environmental policy. The assumptions of the European Union (EU) environmental policy, in particular new waste recycling rates set until 2035, determine the direction of development of waste management and at the same time the implementation of circular economy. The aim of the paper is to analyse the methods of calculating new recycling rates permitted by European law and to try to implement the methodology into national regulations. In addition, based on the available statistical data on the Polish municipal waste management system, the analysis was supplemented by simulation of solution enabling the achievement of high recycling levels in 2035.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Architecture for Children. Research of Selected Cases of Separated Play Zones for Kids in the Public Utility Interiors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The changing lifestyle makes that children become equal users of urban spaces and more and more often participate in social and business meetings. Shopping malls have long ceased have purely consumer functions, becoming places of entertainment and relaxation. This generates the need to provide child with at least a small recreational space and general adaptation of public spaces to their needs. The paper focuses on free children’s corners in the interiors of selected public premises, presenting the issues from the point of view of an interior designer, as well as based on interviews with their users, equipment manufacturers and owners of premises. The main aim of the study is to explore the issues of separate zones for children in public utility interiors and to define guidelines for the process of their shaping. For this purpose, field studies were carried out, on the basis of which the criteria for the evaluation of objects were prepared. Among others: safety, general impression, adaptation for children with disabilities, equipment, visual attractiveness, educational value, linking the play area with the location, the presence of modern technologies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-04T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1