rss_2.0Arts FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Arts Feed of Jewish Artists in Interwar Lithuania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The main subject of this paper is the Jewish artists of interwar Lithuania and their efforts to unite. It analyses the aspirations of Jewish artists to unite into groups, to represent and present their art, and to maintain their national identity. The article introduces the main organisers, participants, circumstances and goals of the artists’ gatherings. It discusses three cases: the cultural policy pursued by National Jewish Council’s Section of Culture at the institutional level; Jewish artists who gathered on a social basis; and the <italic>Art Gallery</italic> of Neemiya Arbit Blatas as a unique exhibition space in inter-war Lithuania, which mainly exhibited the works of Jewish artists. The paper focuses not on the artistic legacy or its value, but rather on the processes of cultural life of Jewish artists in interwar Lithuania.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Architectural Criticism in Lithuanian Interwar Press: Preconditions of the Phenomenon<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The main goal of the article is to find out whether a specific genre of architectural criticism was formed in the public discourse of interwar Lithuania (1918–1940), and if so, to define the main tendencies of this phenomenon. After defining the critique of architecture as a public discourse in which, based on theoretical knowledge, reflections on the essence of architecture or evaluations of ongoing urban development and buildings are popularly presented, the article discusses such texts in interwar Lithuania. The publication will acquaint readers with the most creative reviewers of architecture and the thematic variety of publications attributed to architectural critics. The article will also reveal personalised, unexpected assessments of buildings that have already become objects of heritage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Arctic Drama to Sámi Theatre – Cultural Clashes Towards Decolonisation: In Shared Dialogic Spaces<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This article deals with the concept of Arctic Drama, which is about how there is a relationship between drama and cultural clashes in the perspective of shared cultures in the northern Scandinavian area, which is defined as arctic in the geographical sense. In this vast area the Sámi people historically and to the present day have been living from reindeer herding in a nomadic lifestyle, giving them a close relationship to nature.</p> <p>Norwegians and Swedes colonised this area historically, especially the coast for fishing.There have been strong cultural clashes since the Viking ages, but colonisation mainly started later by introducing Christianity by force in the 16<sup>th</sup> century. Since the Romantic age, these ethno-cultural clashes have been reflected in drama and theatre, and some plays by Henrik Ibsen and Knut Hamsun echo these tensions. An independent theatre of the Sámi people as well as of other indigenous people in Greenland and Canada, like the Inuits, would also develop some theatrical strategies based in a dramaturgy that could be described as a “spiral dramaturgy”. Cultural independence has contributed to a decolonisation process, contributing to even out the cultural clashes in theatre and drama, which could be defined as postcolonial towards decolonisation. This article focuses on the area of arctic Scandinavia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Reflections of Theatrical Activities in Lithuanian Local Periodical Press Under German Occupation 1941–1944<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The article explores the reflection of Lithuanian theatrical activities in the local press during the World War II. As the number of articles shows, theatre was an important part of the dailies’ content. The articles reveal that theatre activities were very important for the expansion of the Nazi culture. One can distinguish three general themes that the articles cover: promotion of Western theatre, especially German, promotion of Lithuanian repertoire and presentation of entertainment theatre. The latter can still be divided into entertainment for German soldiers and administration, and entertainment for Lithuanian audiences. The content of the articles reveals that journalists writing about theatre avoided Nazi propaganda clichés, such as hatred for Bolsheviks and Jews, but these clichés were nevertheless used by the representatives of theatre administrators.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Uniate Sacral Architecture in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: A Synthesis of Confessional Architecture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The architectural legacy of the Unitarians in the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania has received little attention from researchers to this day. This article presents an architectural synthesis of the Uniate and Order of Basilians that reflected the old succession of Orthodox architectural heritage, but at the same time was increasingly influenced by the architectural traditions formed in Catholic churches. This article presents the tendencies of the development of Uniate architecture, paying attention to the brick and wooden sacral buildings belonging to the Uniate and Order of Basilians in the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The early Uniate sacral examples reflected the still striking features of the synthesis, which were particularly marked in the formation of the Greek cross plan and apses in the different axes of the building. All this marked the architectural influences of Ukraine, Moldova and other areas of Central and South-Eastern Europe, which were also clearly visible in Orthodox architecture. Wooden Uniate architecture, as in the case of masonry buildings, had distinctly inherited features of Orthodox architecture, and in the late period, as early as the 18<sup>th</sup> century, there was a tendency to adopt the principles of Catholic church architecture, which resulted in complete convergence of most Uniate buildings with examples of Catholic church buildings. Vilnius Baroque School, formed in the late Baroque era, formed general tendencies in the construction of Uniate and Catholic sacral buildings, among which the clearer divisions of the larger structural and artistic principles are no longer noticeable in the second half of 18<sup>th</sup> century. The article also presents the image of baroque St. Nicholas Church, the only Uniate parish church in Vilnius city, which was lost after the reconstruction in the second half of the 19<sup>th</sup> century.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Celebration of the Hyperreal Nostalgia: Categorization and Analysis of Visual Vaporwave Artefacts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Vaporwave grabs the attention of internet voyager with harsh collages glued together in a technically primitive manner. It’s a cultural phenomenon which both originated and is active solely on the internet. In the context of general internet culture Vaporwave is exclusive in its aesthetics due to the domination of violet and pink colors, technically primitive quality of texts, fetishization of 8th and 9th decade mainstream commodities and acute nostalgic undertones. Vaporwave has been mostly explored as a music genre or sociological phenomenon, while its visual aspect has mostly remained unattended. This article seeks to analyze the conceptual aspects embodied within Vaporwave visuals, to briefly compare them with music, and to unpack the mechanism of nostalgia as an affective entry point to the movement. The interpretation is mainly lead by Jean Baudrillard’s theory of hyperreality, and interpretational principles of hermeneutics. Five Tumblr blogs were analyzed. Hermeneutic inquiry into the texts yielded seven distinct symbol categories differentiated by the affect they generate: nostalgic commodities, idyllic classics, melancholic landscapes, harsh distortions, gentle geometry, depressive texts, and ecstatic brands. Each of these categories here are elaborated in detail finally summarizing the multilayered symbolism of the movement. It can be described as nostalgically challenging visual conventions through harsh technical quality and opposing codes of behavior through open expressions of depression and melancholy, thus exposing the doubts of individual imprisoned in postmodern society. ’80s and ’90s here become hyperreal fantasy lands of the past where a nostalgic individual can find refuge. In comparison to music, the visual aspect of Vaporwave highlights the technology as central artefacts of nostalgia, introduces new ways to analyze late capitalist consumer culture, and brings an intimate dialogue with hyperreality to the front. The article suggests that Vaporwave is a post-ironic art movement which both celebrates and criticizes capitalism, finally remaining vague whether there are ways to escape the system, and whether these ways should even be looked for.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Performance Art Using Biometric Data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This research analyzes performance art that uses biometric data, based on two concept perspectives – inhuman interconnections and transcorporeality – applied to examples of European performance art from Lithuania, Finland, Poland, and Denmark. The term performance art theoretically refers to all art that involves the human body, human biometric data, inhuman interconnections, transcorporeality, and liminal space. This study examines the differences between wide-scope interactive art and design and performance art involving biometric data created through the application of recent developments in consumer technology for live events. This research examined three case projects through the method of autoethnography. The data presented in the article was either collected during the author’s performance art events or at performances the author was attending as a visitor. The cases are analyzed by means of qualitative data analysis, utilizing terms representing human biometric data and interactivity adopted from research within the fields of interactive art and interactive design. The study examines the combination of biometric data and art to explain the phenomenon of humans meeting technology, revealed through data collected from a body and transmitted to an audience during a performance art event. The conclusion revisits the key terms – performance art, biometric data, inhuman interconnections and transcorporeality – as applied to artistic practices, where performance art and biometric data meet.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Art Studies in the Context of Power Relations in Lithuania, 1940–1953: The Case of the Activities and Closure of Kaunas Applied and Decorative Art Institute<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The main purpose of this report is to discuss the influence of political power on art studies in Lithuania and the creative work of artists from 1940 to 1953. It will be based on the destruction of the Kaunas Institute of Applied and Decorative Arts, which is little known to art historians. After the Second World War, this institute actually followed the traditions of Kaunas Art School (1922–1940): that was the reason for its closure in 1951. The closure was officially called the reorganisation and continuation of art studies in Vilnius.</p> <p>The post-war ideological content and power of the government acted in the study process. However, in essence, educators were guided by their modernist attitudes and did not accept Soviet directives. The report will try to show how political power has corrected art studies and changed the work of mature artists.</p> <p>This article raises a question about the cost of adaptation and resistance in life and creation. The idea is that the destruction of an art institution is possible, but it is impossible to completely destroy the art school tradition. These and other similar issues will be addressed in the article, based on archival documents and examples of works by several different generations of artists – Vytautas Kairiūkštis (1891–1961), Liudas Truikys (1904–1987), Zenonas Varnauskas (1923–2010).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00In Search of Missing Collection: The Case of Artist Albert Rappaport<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The artist Albert Rappaport was born in Anykščiai in 1898. In 1911, the family emigrated to New York. Rappaport became an American citizen in 1925 and began to travel widely. He studied fine art in New York, Paris, Dresden and Munich. He visited South America, Africa and traveled extensively through Europe (1925–1927, 1933, 1937–1939), returning to the United States now and again. The artist participated in several dozen exhibitions. He showed his work in Paris, Rome, Florence, Barcelona, Palma de Mallorca, Copenhagen, Mexico City, Havana, New York, Calgary and Montreal, in addition to his solo exhibitions in 1937 in Warsaw and Vilnius, and in Kaunas, Riga and Tallinn in 1938. After Rappaport’s death, in March 17, 1969 in Montreal, his collection of artworks disappeared and has thus far not been found. To date, two of his painted portraits are known to exist – one belongs to the private collection of Jonathan C. Rappaport, another is on display at the Jewish Public Library in Montreal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Art, Aura, and Admiration in the Age of Digital Reproduction<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Walter Benjamin famously argued that the mass public of the twentieth century would necessarily correlate with a newly politicized art. But the world has changed considerably since Benjamin’s article was written, as Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer already were assessing less than a decade later. It is the purpose of this article to examine how the aesthetics of the Frankfurt school, though frequently still invoked, have lost some of their immediate relevance. The anti-establishment phase of the 60s, compounded by a pronounced taste for irony, rendered aura and exhibition outmoded values, while on the other hand, more recently, price escalation in the art market and digitization have made certain of the Frankfurt school arguments more pertinent than ever. Taking as examples Goldsworthy and Kentridge, this essay argues that a deliberate loosening of the artist’s control over both medium and reception displaces the warmed-over religious responses endorsed by Benjamin, positing instead increased intellectual agency on the part of viewers, whose identity as a mass public has become newly complicated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Spreading one’s Wings, Milestones, Deus ex Machina: Self-creation as a Process of Changing Your Life with the Examples of Narrations Provided by Women<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents narrative-biographic research conducted with participation of women who declare that they have introduced important changes into their lives. The qualitative data was collected using narrative interviews as well as a tool to examine changes in the biographic perspective; namely, <italic>Line of life</italic>. In the presented paper, the authors reconstructed biographical self-creation, meaning the ways of life in which important changes are a central category of a story about life. The authors reconstruct three different ways of narrators’ lives – “spreading one’s wings,” “milestones,” “deus ex machina,” and a case study that describes the process of self-creation and introduction of important changes into a life in more detail.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Visual Art Gifted Child in Pre-School and Early School Years<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Visual arts media in pre-school and early school years and development of children’s drawing are well researched. However, when one considers that children are endowed with a talent for visual arts, the research is not as comprehensive and clear-cut. The signs of freedom of expression and imagination, intuitiveness and originality, an inclination to individual work, high sensitivity, and other indicators begin to show soon after visual art gifted (VAG) children enter the representative stages of visual arts. This article was based on a longitudinal case study that was carried out to show some aspects of the functioning of a VAG child in pre-school and early school years and to make some suggestions on how to consider the needs of VAG children.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00How Groups Generate Creative Ideas? Interview with Roni Reiter-Palmon<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the interview with Roni Reiter-Palmon, one of most prolific creativity researchers, we discuss her career, main areas of research interest, chosen research methods and share her thoughts about the future of research on creativity and effectiveness in scientific work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Creative Personal Identity and Creative Mindsets, and Their Implications for Creative Potential and Metacognition: A Latent Variable and a Latent Class Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The amount of attention given to creative beliefs has increased in recent years. This article suggests that the selection of one´s best ideas from a set of self-generated alternatives should be included as an indicator of metacognition; something known as creative metacognition accuracy. The present investigation examined the role of creative mindsets and creative personal identity on the selection of one´s best idea, creative self-efficacy, and potential, under two conceptualizations of these beliefs: latent variables and latent classes. College business students completed a battery of questionnaires assessing creative mindsets, creative personal identity, and creative self-efficacy. In addition, participants completed a divergent thinking task involving improvement of smartphones an-d were asked to choose their best idea. Two independent judges also selected the best idea from participants’ set of self-generated ideas. Under the latent class conceptualization, a class with high levels of growth mindset and creative personal identity, and low levels of a fixed mindset showed higher levels of accurate idea selection and creative self-efficacy than the rest of the classes. Similarly, under the latent variable conceptualization, creative personal identity had a positive influence on accurate idea selection and creative self-efficacy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Collaborative Musical Creativity between Students and Adults: The Sonorous Paella<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>While creativity is a key element of contemporary curriculum frameworks around the world, it is still insufficiently fostered in formal education settings. This study analyzes a project for collaborative musical creativity, entitled <italic>The Sonorous Paella</italic>. Participants (N = 12) were eight Year 4 secondary students, two professional musicians, an artist-in-residence, and a music teacher. Drawing on a graphic musical score, the participants worked together for 1.5 months to produce a group composition and performance. They were provided with various sound producers (instruments, everyday objects, technological devices) and were encouraged to flexibly utilize the physical space to maximize collaborative participation. Field notes and pictures taken during working sessions and rehearsals, audio recordings from the final concert, and individual interviews with all participants were qualitatively analyzed. In response to the three study objectives, we conclude that: (1) the design of this collaborative project was consistent with current research-based creativity discourses; (2) drawing on the quality and originality of the final concert, the project fostered the musical creativity of the group; and (3) participants’ perceptions of and opinions about their creativity learning processes were unanimously positive. Our final aim is to inspire music teachers in designing curriculum units that foster collaborative musical creativity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00“The Story is My Life”: Bridging Symbol to Self in a Novel Creative and Reflective Writing Task<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article describes the development and testing of a novel creative and reflective writing task. Following the rationale of sand-tray and play therapies, participants were asked to meaningfully incorporate four objects from a randomly generated matrix of options into a creative short story. They then composed a second story that incorporated four possessions from home associated with important memories. Afterwards, participants produced interpretive statements or reflections on what the stories meant to them. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted based on narrative data from 15 young adult participants in Canada. Our goals were to: (a) explore the extent to which object familiarity was associated with qualitative differences in stories and interpretations, and (b) investigate for connections between features of participants’ stories and depth of interpretation. Analysis of creative stories resulted in a scheme of four response categories with ten subcategories. Participants’ interpretations of their own stories were coded based on self-described sources of inspiration, such as critical life episodes or popular media. Results are accompanied with excerpts of participants’ stories and reflections, and percentage comparisons are reported. Findings are presented in dialogue with established interpretive frameworks originating in depth psychology. Manipulation of object familiarity resulted in demonstrable differences at the levels of word length, point of view, narrative forms and features, self-disclosure, and reflection. Use of familiar objects in such a task appears to be a largely untapped resource that shows promise as a route to insight.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessing Creativity from the Viewpoint of Law<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Originality is the main criterion for creating an author’s work. However, authors are often influenced by previous works of other authors that they have seen, heard or experienced. The aim of this study is to identify criteria for determining creativity in authors’ works, trying to find and define the difference between accidental influence and deliberate misappropriation or plagiarism. This article does not claim an in-depth analysis of creativity and originality from a social science perspective. It is more a scientific essay on creativity from a law science point of view, so that further research can be carried out in the field of authorship and its determination. In order to find an answer to the research question (Where does influence end and plagiarism begin?), theoretical framework and knowledge about creativity were observed, international and national laws were studied, case law from different countries was researched, materials of international conferences were examined, as well as information accessible on the Internet on copyright issues was observed. The research used a descriptive method to investigate the works of various researchers on the types of mutual influence, regulatory framework and court practice in this field, as well as a grammatical, systemic, teleological, and historical interpretation of legal norms to assess the inadequacy of existing legal norms and propose the necessary amendments in legislative enactments. The main result of this study is understanding that the factor of consciousness or subconscious forms the main criteria. If the influence is unintentional, the copyright of the original work is not infringed, but if repetition is intentional, when it goes beyond originality, the new work is considered to be an appropriation of authorship or plagiarism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00The History of European Photography, Volume III. 1970–2000 of Cruising: Interactions with the Unknown and Realisation of Cruising for Sex in A. K. Campbell’S<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p><italic>Cruising</italic> can be defined as an activity where subjects look for sex in public spaces and is usually called cruising for sex. Authors like Humphrey and Delph emphasize that non-verbal communication, such as eye contact, body language, way of walking, etc., is used to make first contacts that eventually lead to sex. Despite the sexuality of cruising, authors like T. Dean or Turner note that besides public sex, cruising also defines a way of life or indicates a pastime. When discussing cruising, T. Dean emphasizes that contacts, superficial conversations and a playful relaxing atmosphere are characteristic to cruising. The context of cruising not only involves pleasing sexual impulses but also focuses on hospitality and friendliness towards strangers. It notes that this practise is used to establish contacts, engage in a meaningless conversation and start relations for the goal of pleasure, however the identity ego remains free. Furthermore, cruising for sex is often considered to be a negative activity for immoral behaviour in public and the risk to contract sexually transmitted diseases. Men who cruise often stigmatize themselves and assign deviational meanings to cruising. Contacts established while cruising as an open and an unregulated activity are managed entirely by pleasure produced by playfulness of randomness.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Thomas Shadwell’s as an Assemblage Laboratory. A View from Installation Art<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The contemporary landscape of performing arts becomes more and more populated by hybrid genres or “artistic installations” (Rebentisch) which fuse traditional artistic, theatrical and performance practices with scientific procedures, political activism and designing new technologies (e.g. bioart, technoart, digital art and site-specific performance). In this context, theatre texts can no longer be perceived as autopoietic means of solely artistic expression but become part of an assemblage of different discourses and practices. As contemporary assemblage theory contends (DeLanda), assemblages are relational entities which change dramatically depending on relations between its different human and nonhuman elements and various contexts in which they function.</p><p>Taking the contemporary installation art as a vantage point, this paper aims to analyse a Restoration comedy <italic>The Virtuoso</italic> (1676) by Thomas Shadwell in an assemblage of theatrical, scientific and political discourses and practices of Early Modern England. Staged in Dorset Gardens theatre in London, the play mobilised a plethora of discourses of science (the status of experimental philosophy institutionalized in 1660 as the Royal Society), politics (Restoration of the monarchy under Charles II) and gender (the infamous <italic>heac vir</italic> or effeminate man). Drawing on contemporary new materialism, the paper focuses predominantly on Shadwell’s use of the laboratory as a site of emerging assemblages rather than objective matters of fact. In this context, the play itself becomes an assemblage laboratory where new ways of thinking and being are being forged and constantly negotiated.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1