rss_2.0Chemistry FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Chemistry Feed of Haemoglobin Glycosylation, Glucose Uptake and Antidiabetic Activities of Solvent Fractions from Seed<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder which result from either absolute or relative insulin deficiency and may lead to dysfunction in some organ systems. Pancreatic α- glucosidase and α- amylase inhibition are an effective strategy to decrease levels of postprandial hyperglycemia through starch control breakdown. The aim of the study is to assess the <italic>in vitro</italic> antidiabetic activities of fractions from <italic>Daucus carota</italic> seed extract, a plant used traditionally for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extract (AQE) of <italic>Daucus carota</italic> seed was partitioned in ethyl acetate (EAE), n – hexane (HEX) and diethyl ether (DEE) to obtain the various fractions. The AQE and EAE expressed significant α – amylase inhibitory activity with IC<sub>50</sub> values of 637.0±18.6 μg/mL and 603.0±25.8 μg/mL respectively. AQE, EAE, HEX and DEE expressed α – glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC<sub>50</sub> value of 135.85±1.21, 147.59±0.57, 132.64±1.17, and 143.56±0.49 μg/mL respective compared with acarbose (ACA) with 5.42±0.20 μg/mL. Furthermore, DEE fraction expressed inhibitory effects on % glucose uptake in yeast cell comparable with metronidazole. All <italic>Daucus carota</italic> fractions expressed various inhibitory effects on haemoglobin glycosylation at a concentration of 200 – 1000 μg/mL. The results show that fractions from the aqueous seed extract of <italic>Daucus carota</italic> possess <italic>in vitro</italic> antidiabetic potentials with EAE and HEX fractions having most promising inhibitory activities against α-amylase and α-glucosidase respectively.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Petroleum in coastal seawater of Gdańsk Bay<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents petroleum concentration in coastal waters of Gdańsk Bay, which was measured in 2006 - 2012. The oil concentration ranges from below the detection limit, i.e. 1 μg kg<sup>-1</sup> to almost 120 μg kg<sup>-1</sup>. The concentration does not usually exceed 60 μg kg<sup>-1</sup> and its average value is 11.7 μg kg<sup>-1</sup>. The presence of petroleum in coastal water is characterized by seasonality, with the lowest values in summer and the highest in winter. The conducted research showed that the coastal zone is not the source of petroleum contamination of the sea. The main reason for the presence of petroleum in the coastal water is the migration of polluted water within the bay. The inflow of pollutants from the mainland is yet another source of the contamination in the sea.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of restoration methods on the longevity of changes in the thermal and oxygen dynamics of a degraded lake<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study was conducted on Lake Długie, located in the city of Olsztyn, which for 20 years received raw domestic sewage (400 m3 per day). After preliminary conservation operations, the lake was restored by artificial circulation and phosphorus inactivation methods. During artificial circulation, water temperature in the whole lake volume was equalized. The disconnection of the compressor stimulated the return to typical thermal parameters in the lake. Phosphorus inactivation did not affect the thermal regime in the lake. Artificial circulation caused an increase in the oxygen content in the whole lake, lowered the oxygen-depletion rate during stagnation, and shortened the duration of anaerobic conditions in the near-bottom waters. Phosphorus inactivation did not directly affect the content of oxygen. However, after the coagulant was added to the lake, the oxygenation of the water was further improved owing to the depressed photosynthesis caused by drastically reduced availability of phosphate for primary producers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Anthropogenic impact on river basins: temporal evolution of sediment classes and accumulation rates in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, sedimentological and geochronological data from sections of a core (GRT50) collected in the Northern Latium coastal area were compared to data on pluviometric (rainfall) trends, river flows and the temporal evolution of human interventions in the three most important hydrographic basins (Mignone, Marta and Fiora) of this coastal area. The statistical analysis of pluviometric trends identified variations due to a decreasing trend in the Fiora river basin, whereas in the two other locations the decrease was not so significant. Data from the sedimentological analysis of the core confirmed a progressive decrease in the sandy component, which declined from about 30% to the current level of 7% over the last 36 years. There was no significant variation in the sediment mass accumulation rates (MAR), which were characterized by an almost cyclic trend that was probably determined by the most intense floods in the study area. The results revealed that the variations caused by the fluvial processes have affected the water runoff of the Fiora River, and that the consequent decrease in the sand production has been responsible for the recession of beaches in the coastal area between Tarquinia and Montalto di Castro.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Cyanobacterial bloom intensity in the ecologically relevant state of lakes – an approach to Water Framework Directive implementation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study focused on the determination of the cyanobacteria development in terms of the probabilistic recognition of the bloom intensity level in the ecologically relevant state of lakes. Assuming the possibility of using once-a-year sampling frequency, the ecological status or potential was assessed based on the modified Polish phytoplankton-based method (PMPL<sub>MOD</sub>) in 23 Masurian lakes. The summer cyanobacteria biomass reached 52.3 mg l<sup>-1</sup>. The biomass did not exceed the WHO-defined low risk threshold of 2 mg l<sup>-1</sup>, and was usually observed in lakes with at least good ecological status/potential. This threshold may be sufficient to propose it as a good/moderate cyanobacterial bloom intensity threshold. The average values of 3.3, 9.9 and 22.4 mg l<sup>-1</sup> were recorded in the lakes with a moderate, poor and bad ecological status/ potential, respectively. The WHO-defined moderate risk threshold of 10 mg l<sup>-1</sup> was exceeded only in lakes with a poor or bad ecological status/potential. The structure of cyanobacteria assemblages changed along with the deterioration of the ecological status/ potential and a decrease in Chroococcales biomass and an increase in Oscillatoriales and Nostocales biomass. Nevertheless, Planktolyngbya limnetica, Pseudanabaena limnetica and Aphanizomenon gracile had a significant presence in the total cyanobacterial biomass in all surveyed lakes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Half a century of research on diatoms in athalassic habitats in central Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Part of the geology in the Łódź province was formed during the Upper Permian period when rich Zechstein salt was deposited. Groundwater drains the deposits and flows out in the village of Pełczyska, creating a unique hydrogeological site in Central Poland. An inland, athalassic ecosystem can be a reference site for halophile microflora. The outflow with surrounding marshes has been an algological research site since 1964.</p> <p>The research reveals changes recorded in diatom assemblages from athalassic habitats, characterized by a wide range of salinity levels, and verifies the tolerance of taxa to salinity. The comparative analysis was based on the diatom material sampled in 1964-1965, 1992-1994 and on recently collected samples.</p> <p>The analysis revealed the temporal change in assemblages caused by a change in the chloride concentration, and the spatial change from one to another habitat type, characterized by varying salinity levels. The halophilic species in the studied habitats included e.g. Halamphora dominici, H. tenerrima, Navicula digitoconvergens, N. meulemansii, Staurophora salina. The analysis of changes allowed the verification of the species’ requirements and tolerance range to the salinity factor. Therefore, in the case of Fragilaria famelica and Halamphora sydowii, we propose a change in the halobion system classification.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Diverse feeding ecology and habitat use in coral reef fishes in the Malaysian South China Sea, as revealed by liver fatty acid composition<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fatty acid analysis was used to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fishes in six families: Lutjanidae (Lutjanus lutjanus), Labridae (Thalassoma lunare), Nemipteridae (Scolopsis affinis, S. monogramma), Pomacentridae (Abudefduf bengalensis, A. sexfasciatus, A. viagiensis), Scaridae (Scarus quoyi, S. quoyi, S. rivulatus, S. ghobban) and Serrandae (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Cephalopholis cyanostigma, C. boenak) collected on the Bidong Island of the Malaysian South China Sea. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (ΣSAFA) ranged from 58.0% to 62.5%, with the highest values in fatty acids, the second highest percentage values were those of monounsaturated fatty acids (ΣMUFA) and they ranged from 25.7% to 38.9%, and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (ΣPUFA) had the lowest values, i.e. from 2.7% to 13.2%. ΣMUFA and ΣPUFA were significantly different between families, while ΣSAFA did not differ. These results indicate diverse feeding ecology and habitat use during the fish life history in relation to physiological condition, sexual development, and recent feeding events in the coral reef habitats in the Malaysian South China Sea. </p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Long-term changes in the dynamics and structure of cyanobacteria in Koronowo Reservoir<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Koronowo Reservoir (16.6 km<sup>2</sup>) is located in the lower reaches of the Brda River, in the Kujawy-Pomerania Province, 20 km from Bydgoszcz near the town of Koronowo, hence the name of the reservoir. The reservoir was built in the 1960s and started from damming the waters of the Brda River by a ca. 20 m high earth dam in the village of Pieczyska. This reservoir is used mainly for water retention and production of electric energy in the hydroelectric power station; in addition, it plays a significant recreational function. In terms of the latter function, the spread of cyanobacteria is a serious problem. The aim of the study was to assess longterm changes in the structure of cyanobacteria in waters of the Koronowo Reservoir. The results from 1996, 2008, 2011 and 2013 were compared. As evidenced by the analysis of the phytoplankton composition in the Koronowo Reservoir in terms of functional groups, especially the occurrence of dominant and subdominant species from the groups P, H<sub>1</sub>, S<sub>1</sub>, L<sub>M</sub>, J, G and W<sub>2</sub>, the waters of the reservoir can be classified as eutrophic, potentially evolving towards the hypertrophic conditions. The HPLC analysis of cyanobacterial toxins revealed the presence of microcystins at two sites of the water body. The species structure, the distribution and the dominance of specific species of cyanobacteria is recurrent over the 17 years; the following species form algal blooms: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (L.) Ralfs et Bornet et Flahault and Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz.) Kützing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Distribution, diversity and some ecological characteristics of benthic amphipods in the Kapidağ Peninsula (Marmara Sea, Turkey)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the environmental factors affecting the fauna and the distribution of benthic amphipod species occurring on the Kapıdağ Peninsula, which is located in the south of the Marmara Sea. A total of 31 amphipod species were identified during the course of this study. In both seasons, Jassa marmorata (Holmes, 1905) and Protohyale schmidtii (Heller, 1866) were the most abundant species. During the study, temperature varied between 11.0 and 17.8°C, while salinity varied between 12.5 and 18.7 PSU; values of dissolved oxygen and pH ranged from 7.2 to 11.4 mg l-1 and 7.2 to 8.5 respectively at the coastal sites where hard bottom sampling was conducted. However, with regard to other sites where soft bottom sampling was carried out, the temperature varied between 8.0 and 18.0°C, salinity between 17.7 and 29.2 PSU, while values for dissolved oxygen and pH ranged from 5.1 to 11.4 mg l-1 and 7.8 to 8.7, respectively. In addition, the study of the amphipod species distribution revealed that the number of species was higher in spring compared to autumn while the number of individuals was higher in autumn compared to spring.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Contracaecum spp. from endemic Baikal fishes: the Baikal yellowfin Cottocomephorus grewingkii (Dybowski, 1874) and the longfin Baikal sculpin Cottocomephorus inermis (Yakovlev, 1890)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>All the nematodes found in body cavities of the examined endemic Baikal fishes: 88 Baikal yellowfin Cottocomephorus grewingkii (Dybowski, 1874) and 35 longfin Baikal sculpin Cottocomephorus inermis (Yakovlev, 1890) were identified as Contracaecum osculatum baicalensis (Mozgovoi and Ryjikov, 1950) L3 larvae. The prevalence, mean intensity, intensity range and abundance of the nematodes in C. grewingkii were 37.5%, 2.55, 1-31, and 0.96, respectively, the corresponding values in C. inermis were 60.0%, 2.43, 1-10, and 1.46. The infestation level in C. grewingkii was significantly higher than in C. inermis (Mann-Whitney U-test, p&lt;0.02). The number of parasites was found to increase with the fish length. Although in both and C. inermis, the anisakids were more frequent in males (prevalence of 52.17 and 67.76%, respectively) than in females (prevalence of 35.39 and 42.86%, respectively), differences between the sexes in the infestation level in the two species were not significant (Mann-Whitney U-test, P= 0.09 and P=0.23, respectively). The molecular method applied (PCF-RFLP) allows to identify all the nematodes in both examined fish species as C. osculatum baicalensis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Macrophyte biometric features as an indicator of the trophic status of small water bodies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to determine whether biometric features of plants collected from single-species phytocoenoses developing in ponds can be used to describe habitat conditions of these water bodies. The biometric measurements were carried out in 148 field small water bodies at a total of 198 sites. The length of plants, their dry biomass, and volume of plant shoots were analyzed, converted to 1000 dm3 of water. The biometric measurements showed very large differences in individual parameters of different macrophyte species. The biggest differences were found in the length of elodeids and helophytes (from 1 cm to &gt; 900 cm), regardless of trophic conditions. Although the Polish flora is dominated by plants having a wide ecological range, there are species whose parameters correspond to specific habitat fertility. The highest biometric parameters were found for Ceratophyllum submersum, Sparganium erectum, Typha latifolia and Schoenoplectus lacustris in ponds characterized by increased trophic conditions. In contrast, Myriophyllum spp. alone showed a negative correlation with trophic state indices. The trophic effect on the studied parameters becomes more apparent for species with optima in fertile water bodies. The parameters of Ceratophyllum submersum can be considered as the trophic state index (TSI).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Seasonal changes in phytoplankton and bioindices in the southern part of Lake Jeziorak (NE Poland)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The structure of phytoplankton communities of Lake Jeziorak was presented for the first time. The objective of our research was qualitative and quantitative analysis and bioindices of phytoplankton during and outside the tourist season. Analysis of phytoplankton assemblages were performed in 2011-2012. A total of 96 taxa were identified in Lake Jeziorak, mainly: Cyanobacteria - 20, Bacillariophyceae - 49, and Chlorophyta − 19. Biomass of the phytoplankton varied from 10 mg l−1 in October to 29 mg l−1 in May. In the whole research period, Cyanobacteria dominated and represented up to 68% of the total biomass. The cyanobacterial blooms were constantly observed. Biomass in the summer period was composed of filamentous Aphanizomenon gracile, Limnothrix redekei, Planktothrix agardhii and Pseudanabaena limnetica. Outside the holiday season, i.e. in autumn and spring, filamentous Cyanobacteria accompanied cryptomonads in phytoplankton. The species composition, the biomass of phytoplankton, and TSI indicate the hypertrophic conditions of the lake. Phytoplankton in Lake Jeziorak was in a state of equilibrium for almost the entire study period. S1 was a dominant group and its abundance and biomass did not change by more than 10%. There was no significant direct effect of the seasonal tourism impact on the development of phytoplankton in Lake Jeziorak.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Phytoplankton-based recovery requirement for urban lakes in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive’s ecological targets<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study focused on the determination of the phytoplankton-based recovery requirement, including bloom intensity thresholds in human-affected lakes, helpful in the restoration. The phytoplankton and physicochemical analyses were carried out on seven urban lakes in Kartuzy and Skępe. The Phytoplankton Metric for Polish Lakes was used to assess the ecological status and the Trophic Level Index was used to determine the trophic state. Only one lake had a good ecological status (meeting the WFD requirements for at least good status), whereas other lakes had poor or bad ecological status. All of them were eutrophic or hyper-eutrophic and the summer phytoplankton assemblages were dominated mainly by bloomforming cyanobacteria. The lowest phytoplankton bloom threshold of 2.6 mm<sup>3</sup> l<sup>-1</sup> (seasonal maximum) and the following thresholds of 5 mm<sup>3</sup> l<sup>-1</sup> for classes I/II; 8 mm<sup>3</sup> l<sup>-1</sup> for classes II/III; 21 mm<sup>3</sup> l<sup>-1</sup> for classes III/IV; 100 mm<sup>3</sup> l<sup>-1</sup> for classes IV/V were proposed for urban lakes. This could directly refer to the bloom intensity for high, good, moderate, poor and bad ecological status. This all indicates a huge recovery requirement in the majority of urban lakes, and the proposed bloom intensity classification may be helpful in fulfilling the WFD targets for the ecologicallyrelevant lake status.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) infection with Schistocephalus solidus in Hel marina (Puck Bay, Baltic Sea, Poland)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Parasitic relations between animals are very common in wild nature. In this paper, we studied levels of infection in three-spined stickleback with plerocercoids of Schistocephalus solidus from Puck Bay (Baltic Sea, Poland). The total prevalence of infection was 54.2%, while proportion of infected individuals was significantly higher for females than for males. The body width was found to be significantly positively correlated with the number and the weight of parasites. In spite of the increasing deterioration of the Baltic Sea ecosystem by excessive eutrophication and hypoxia, lower prevalence of infection compared to previous published data indicates that there are likely other factors than pollution affecting the life cycle of parasites and the level of parasitism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Aquatic fungi and straminipilous organisms in lakes of the Augustowska Primeval Forest, Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We analyzed species composition of aquatic fungi and straminipilous organisms in six lakes located within the Augustowska Primeval Forest, Poland. Mycological observations conducted in the spring and autumn seasons together with hydrochemical analysis in the 2010–2012 revealed the presence of 44 species (10 aquatic fungi and 34 straminipilous organisms). Among the taxa detected, there were some potential pathogens of economically valuable fish species and spawn, including Achlya americana, Ac. polyandra, Saprolegnia ferax and S. parasitica. Some of the species were crustacean pathogens, such as Lagenidium giganteum, Myzocytium microsporum and M. zoophthorum. There were also some common human pathogens Aspergillus niger and Candida tropicalis. Some species, such as Achlya klebsiana, Ac. prolifera, Nowakowskiella elegans, N. macrospora, Pythium debaryanum, Py. inflatum, Rhizophlyctis rosea and Saprolegnia litoralis were common phytosaprobionts.</p> <p>The largest number of species of fungi and straminipilous organisms was identified in Lake Sajenek (22), the fewest in Lake Białe (12).</p> <p>The quantitative composition and qualitative differentiation of mycobiota were influenced by the content of biogenic compounds and the amount of organic substance. The elevated levels of these parameters (Lake Sajenek) stimulated the growth of fungi and straminipilous organisms, whereas very low concentrations of biogenic compounds and a small amount of organic matter (Lake Białe) had an inhibitory effect.</p> <p>Statistical analysis of the results was conducted to determine the correlations between the number of fungal and straminipilous species and the hydrochemical parameters, i.e. water temperature, the level of nitrogen compounds (nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen), calcium carbohydrate, magnesium carbohydrate, water oxidizability and the content of dry residue, dissolved substances and suspension.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2014-01-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in Polish freshwater bodies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this work, the authors examined the presence of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in 21 samples collected from fresh water bodies located in 5 provinces in Poland: Lublin (2), Podlasie (1), Pomerania (6), Warmia-Masuria (1) and Wielkopolska (11). In addition, to determine the general pattern of geographical distribution, frequency of cyanobacteria occurrence, and cyanotoxins production, the published data from 238 fresh water bodies in Poland were reviewed. On the basis of these collected results, we concluded that Planktothrix, Aphanizomenon, Microcystis and Dolichospermum were dominant. The general pattern in geographical distribution of the identified cyanobacterial genera was typical of other eutrophic waters in Europe. The production of cyanotoxins was revealed in 18 (86%) of the 21 samples analyzed in the present work and in 74 (75%) of the 98 total water bodies for which the presence of toxins had been examined. Among the 24 detected microcystin variants, [Asp3]MC-RR was most common. These results can be verified when more data from the less explored water bodies in the southern and eastern parts of Poland are available.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2014-01-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of changes in cyanobacterial and algal flora of selected water reservoirs in Wrocław between 1878 and 2010 (south-west Poland)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper includes the results of research carried out between 2006-2010 in the city of Wrocław (Poland). The water reservoirs selected for the analysis had previously described phycoflora and these studies were excellent comparative material for the today’s condition of their algoflora. The aim of this research was to conduct detailed studies of the current taxonomic composition of phycoflora in the chosen water reservoirs and to trace the changes which have taken place over time. The research determined the degree of similarity between the different communities in terms of the occurrence of common species and also the changes in their quantity. The study revealed 535 species of cyanobacteria and algae belonging to five phylas. The comparison of the composition of phycoflora from the studied ecosystems from previous years with the current results provided a model study showing the direction and pace of changes in the composition of the flora of cyanobacteria and algae in a given time. The species composition of cyanobacteria and algae in each year is adequate to the trophy of the studied water bodies. The processes in transforming communities of cyanobacteria and algae have led to the stabilization of the current status of the reservoirs as eutrophic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2014-01-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Warm currents affecting the spring and winter distributions of living coccolithophores in the Yellow Sea, China<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Spring and winter distributions of living coccolithophores in the Yellow Sea were studied using a polarizing microscope based on two surveys in April 2010 and January 2011. Nine species were recorded, including Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica as the predominant forms. The cell abundance of all coccolithophores in the spring was significantly higher than in the winter (p&lt;0.01), with means of 15 387 and 2470 cells l-1, respectively. Notably, we observed a habitat selection of coccolithophores in the southeastern Yellow Sea (32–35°N, 123–125°E). This habitat was characterized by sharp temperature gradients during both seasons caused by water exchange between the shelf waters and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. Moreover, the cell abundance, standing crop and estimated fluxes of coccolithophores were abnormally high compared to other regions. The habitat preference of coccolithophores in the Yellow Sea was directly related to the hydrodynamic conditions. The unfavorable light conditions caused by the intense convective mixing were responsible for the low biomass of coccolithophores during the winter. However, the increasing temperature influenced by the warm current, in combination with water column stability, triggered the spring bloom of coccolithophores in the southern Yellow Sea.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2014-01-23T00:00:00.000+00:00New records of Compsopogon aeruginosus (Rhodophyta) in rivers of central Europe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The representatives of the genus Compsopogon Montagne in Bory et Durieaux (Rhodophyta) are basically tropical or subtropical algae. In central Europe they are only found in aquaria and in water bodies affected by thermal effluents, like the species C. aeruginosus (J. Agardh) Kützing in the Pulkau River (Austria), a tributary of the Dyje /Thaya River (Austria, Czech Republic). The first observation of this species was made in 2007 in the Pulkau River. In autumn 2010 the species was also observed at lower densities in an approximately 20 km section of the Dyje/Thaya River between the mouth of the Pulkau River (A) and the Nové Mlýny Reservoir (CR). Recently, the species was found also in Skryjský Brook, a tributary of the Jihlava River, below the cooling water effluent from the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant, South Moravia, Czech Republic. This is the second finding of representatives of the genus Compsopogon in rivers in central Europe.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2014-01-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Fast and easy method for total DNA extraction and gene amplification from larvae, spat and adult mussels Mytilus trossulus from the Baltic Sea<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Three nuclear DNA markers that diagnostically differentiate mussels within the Mytilus edulis complex (M. edulis, M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis) are commonly used in taxonomic investigations: Glu5’, ITS and EFbis. As a rule, DNA extraction is performed before amplification. It is a time consuming process in the case of traditional methods based on chloroform and phenol extraction or relatively expensive using kits with ready spin columns. Moreover, DNA isolation from larvae is problematic, because of the small amount of tissue available. In this report we describe a simple, fast and inexpensive method of DNA extraction and gene amplification from larvae, spat and adults of the Baltic mussel Mytilus trossulus. The extraction method is adapted from that of Wang et al. (2006) and is based on digestion of tissue or whole animals in STE solution and direct gene amplification. On the basis of the results of routine analyses of mussels carried out in our laboratory we have concluded that the method we propose gives results that are consistent with standard methods, without requiring expensive reagents/equipment and is time saving.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2014-01-23T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1